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The Asylum Physicians Psychiatrys First Expert Witnesses

The interest in and importance of forensic practice in early clinical psychiatry were reflected in the content of the American Journal of Insanity, AMSAII's official publication. Amariah Brigham founded and published the journal in 1844, some months before the founding of AMSAII, but it immediately became the representative journal of the association. The journal was the first periodical in the English language devoted exclusively to issues regarding psychological medicine (Bunker 1944, p. 196). It quickly acquired a broad audience in both the United States and Britain and gained a reputation as the most authoritative American periodical dealing with insanity (Dain 1964 Grob 1994).

Elucidating the Mechanism Imagining the Cure

The British physiologist John McWilliam confirmed Vulpian's conclusions independently and suggested the great importance of ventricular fibrillation in human deaths. Between 1887 and 1889, McWilliam published a series of articles in the British Medical Journal, in which he distinguished between different types of sudden cardiac failure, and wrote the first classic, detailed description of fibrillation in the English language

The place of kuhns work in studies of science

Kuhn's notion of incommensurability provoked especially intense criticism from philosophers, who rejected his early account and largely ignored later attempts to dispel misunderstandings and refine or vindicate the notion through detailed studies ofconceptual change in science (Hoyningen-Huene 1993 Kuhn 2000). There were many reasons for this one of the most weighty was the conflict between mainstream English language philosophy and the theories of concepts developed by Kuhn and other cognitively inclined philosophers of science as the foundation for their work on scientific change. At the same time that Kuhn was refining his theory of concepts, empirical research in cognitive psychology and cognitive science began to undermine the classical theory of concepts, thus providing a new kind of support for Kuhn's philosophical account of science, and especially his account of scientific change. In this book we will use techniques from cognitive psychology and cognitive science to support...

Ms memories acquired in childhood are intact and his immediate memory capacity is normal

H.M. can remember material learned remotely prior to his operation. His memory for the English language seems fully intact. He also retains many childhood memories. By contrast, all memory for events for some period preceding the operation was lost. In addition, H.M.'s immediate or short-term memory is intact. He can immediately reproduce a list of numbers as long as that of control subjects thus the span of his short-term memory is normal. However, the memory deficit becomes evident as soon as his immediate memory span is exceeded or after a delay with some distraction. These aspects of H.M.'s spared memory abilities are discussed further in later chapters.

The Construction of Race and Ethnicity

Nonetheless, race and phenotype continue to be coupled. Historically, in the United States, the dominant white population identified skin color as the principal means for sorting people into varying locations on the social and economic hierarchy. At the outset, persons who resembled the dominant population were labeled as ''us'' while those who deviated from the ideal white image became the ''other.'' In the process, white skin was associated with what was good, and black skin with what was bad. Even today, the English language serves as a reminder of this distinction. White is associated with purity and goodness (the ''good guys'' wear white hats), and black is associated with impurity and evil (the ''bad guys'' wear black hats).

An Evidence Based Review of Psychotherapy Studies

The same review methodology used for biological chapter 4 was used for psychotherapy studies. Peer-reviewed, English-language studies were located and categorized using the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality U.S. Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHRQ AHCPR) criteria. These criteria, with psychosocial study examples, are outlined in Table 5.1.

Size of Knowledge Base

The most basic observation one can make about declarative knowledge is that humans have a lot of it. There are no precise estimates of the amount of knowledge a person possesses, but two attempts at an estimate seem well grounded. The first is an estimate of the size of the mental lexicon. The average college-educated adult knows between 40,000 and 60,000 words (Miller, 1996, pp. 136-138). The total number of words in the English language is larger than 100,000. Because concepts only constitute a subset of declarative knowledge, this represents a lower bound on the size of a person's declarative knowledge base. Second, Landauer (1986) estimated how much information, measured in bits, people can remember from a lifetime of learning. His estimate is 2 x 10 9 bits by age 70. It is not straightforward to convert bits to concepts or pieces of knowledge, but even very fast computers use only 32 or 64 bits to encode one basic instruction. If we make the conservative assumption that it...

Creativity and Diplomacy

Further evidences of Haydn's diplomatic skills are evident after Prince Nikolaus died in September 1790. Immediately on hearing of the Prince's death, the impresario J. P. Salomon met with Haydn and persuaded him to visit London, at that time Europe's cultural capital. Although initially reluctant because of his poor English language ability, Haydn agreed, and during his two visits there in 1791-1792 and 1794-1795 he composed 12 symphonies, an opera and a number of works for chamber ensembles. However, although Haydn was feted by the English aristocracy and music-loving populace alike, his presence was not without controversy.

Nomenclature of pesticides

Pesticides have chemical names and national common names (for example British Standards Institute BSI and American National Standards Institute ANSI ). Pesticides also have international common names bestowed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ISO names are allocated in a number of languages, including English and French, and it is important to note that the English language ISO name is not always the same as the BSI or ANSI common name. A number of pesticides are used in human or veterinary medicine. As such they have international non-proprietary names (INNs). In some cases these differ from the ISO pesticide names, examples being trichlo-rfon, an insecticide which has trichlorfon as the ISO pesticide name and which is the same as metrifonate (INN), used in tropical medicine. Another example is the fungicide imazalil (ISO), which has the INN enilconazole when used as a human pharmaceutical.

Double Outlet Ventricle

The earliest report of double outlet right ventricle was published in French in 1703.80 Ninety years elapsed before an English language publication appeared.2 Double outlet right ventricle was known to Peacock in 1866'65 and was called partial transposition by Vierordt in 189881 to signify that the aorta was transposed but the pulmonary trunk was normally aligned. In 1949' Taussig and Bing published a case of complete transposition of the aorta and levoposition of the pulmonary artery which originated chiefly from the right ventricle.77 Three years later a case was described in which the right ventricle gave rise to both great arteries'16 and in 1957 Witham formalized the term double outlet right ventricle83 which is now preferred to the synonymous term right ventricular origin of both great arteries.59-61

Children with Limited English Proficiency

In 1974, the Supreme Court decided a landmark case, Lau v. Nichols, concerning the education of children with limited English proficiency (LEP). This case was based on a class action suit filed by non-English-speaking Chinese students in the San Francisco Unified School District. At that time, more than half of the LEP Chinese pupils were taught solely in English, with no supplemental instruction in the English language. Furthermore, proficiency in English was a requirement for high school graduation. The plaintiffs in this case claimed that the school's practice was a denial of equal opportunity under the 14th Amendment.

Question 2 Was the search for eligible studies thorough

A comprehensive search of the literature is important to ensure that relevant studies, both published and unpublished, are not missed. A thorough search for published literature should include use of electronic medical databases such as MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and non-English language databases. Cross-references of original publications are also a good source of published articles.

Shaws Apprenticeship in London

Shaw arrived in England just 4 days after his sister Agnes died of consumption on the Isle of Wight. He stayed there with his mother and sister Lucy for a month before the three of them then moved to London. Shaw notes in his diary that he was unoccupied during his first months in London. He was shy and awkward at this time. Although he was not certain where his talents would take him, he claimed many years later in the preface to his first novel, Immaturity, that as the English language was my weapon, there was nothing for it but London. He began to ghost-write articles for The Hornet and he continued to study music, French, and Italian.

Synchronicity and Creativity

The Dictionary of Developmental and Educational Psychology published in 1986 defined creativity as man's capacity to produce new ideas, insights, inventions or artistic objects, which are accepted of being of social, spiritual, aesthetic, scientific, or technological value. The Random House Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged Edition published in 1988 noted that creativity was an ability, the ability to transcend traditional ideas, rules, patterns, relationships or the like, and to create meaningful new ideas, forms, methods, interpretations, etc.

Box 203a Directly observed therapy and tuberculosis a synthesis of qualitative evidence summary

Search methods A systematic search of the wider English-language literature was undertaken The following terms were used DOT DOTS Directly observed therapy Directly observed treatment supervised swallowing self-supervis* in combination with TB and tuberculosis. We experimented with using methodological filters by including terms such as 'qualitative', but found this approach unhelpful as the Medline MeSH heading 'Qualitative Research' was only introduced in 2003, and even after 2003 many papers were not identified appropriately as qualitative. We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, HMIC, Embase, British Nursing Index, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences, Sociological Abstracts, SIGLE, ASSIA, Psych Info, Econ lit, Ovid, Pubmed, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine database of TB studies (courtesy of Dr Simon Lewin), and Google Scholar. Reference lists contained within published papers were also scrutinized. A network of personal contacts was also used to identify...

Bleeding From The Lower Genital Tract

Major Blood Loss

In the first comprehensive English Language textbook on the subject, William Smellie, in his 1752 Treatise on the Theory and Practise of Midwifery1, correctly identifies the atonic uterus as a major cause of postpartum hemorrhage with his statement 'This dangerous efflux is occasioned by every thing that hinders the emptied uterus from contracting'. Although he refers to vaginal packing with Tow or linen rags (dipped in astringents such as oxycrate, red tart wine, alum or Sacchar-saturni), he does not specifically refer to bleeding from the lower genital tract. Because this omission was repeated in subsequent years by many standard textbooks and reviews of postpartum hemorrhage, it is not surprising that the present evidence base is poor, and a 2005 MESH search in PubMed of the National Library USA combining the terms 'Postpartum hemorrhage' AND 'Lacerations' OR 'Rupture' NOT 'Uterine rupture' came up with only 28 publications.

Continuous Spinal Anesthesia

Seven years after Bier's landmark work on the administration of cocaine via lumbar puncture, Henry Percy Dean, a British surgeon, introduced a modification of the technique called continuous spinal anesthesia.123 Unfortunately, many of his colleagues who attempted the procedure encountered difficulties such as needle trauma and breakage. Therefore, the technique fell into disfavor, as can be evidenced by the lack of citations referring to continuous spinal anesthesia in the English language medical literature from 1907 to 1939.123

Disease Illness and Health

Health, as defined in The Random House Dictionary of the English Language, is ''the general condition of the body or mind with reference to soundness and vigor.'' It is often defined more abstractly as the ''absence of disease.'' In some cultures, health is viewed as the freedom from evil. Other cultures regard health as day and illness as night. By extrapolation, health reflects light and clean, and illness reflects dark and dirty. These depictions form the basis of the beliefs of many cultures, which are discussed later in this chapter.

Historical Aspects

The earliest English language reference to cryopreserving parathyroid tissue that we have been able to establish is by Blumenthal and Walsh in 1950.1 Their study was designed to evaluate the histologic appearance of previously frozen thyroid autotransplants in guinea pigs. They compared auto-transplants with and without thyrotropin and preservation at -70 C with preservation at -190 C. They concluded that the lower temperature better preserved thyroid architecture. In a single preparation, however, a parathyroid gland previously maintained at -70 C appeared well preserved and similar to a parathyroid observed in a control autotransplant. The study did not include functional analysis of the frozen thyroid or parathyroid tissue.

Culture and Creativity

Other researchers since the 1970s and today, such as Baldwin, Bernal, Chen and Goon, Kitano, and Maker and Schriever, have continued to focus their research on identifying gifted and creative characteristics among specific cultural groups. Among Hispanic Americans, gifted characteristics included rapid acquisition of the English language, leadership abilities in both dynamic-expressive and quiet influential ways, street-smarts, and risk-taking behaviors. For Native Americans, gifted and creative behaviors included valuing

Self Confinement

Around the same time he also took up the revision of a few of his major works like his Essays on the Gita, the first two parts of The Synthesis of Yoga, and The Life Divine. His poetic writings include sonnets, short poems, and metrical experiments as well as his most important written work, the epic poem Savitri. With its almost 24 000 lines and 724 pages, Savitri is in a class of its own. Its richness of imagery, beauty of expression, and sheer number of memorable lines could remind one of Shakespeare, but in terms of depth and width of spiritual experience it simply has no equal in the English language. It would not be surprising if posterity would count Savitri amongst the most valuable texts ever composed.

Ebsteins Anomaly

In June 1864, a 19-year-old laborer was admitted to the All-Saints Hospital in Breslau (now Wroclaw) Poland, where he died 10 days later. Wilhelm Ebstein, assistant physician and prosector, subsequently wrote a scholarly account of the clinical and necropsy findings entitled On a Very Rare Case of Insufficiency of the Tricuspid Valve Caused by a Severe Congenital Malformation of the Same.41 The correlation of pathology with clinical notes and the hypotheses of pathophysiology resulted in a landmark publication. English translations are available and repay study.81'115'143 Quality not withstanding, Ebstein's original report was overlooked81 until 1937, when Yater and Shapiro published radiologic and electrocardiographic observations on Ebstein's anomaly.139 In 1949, Tourniaire, Deyrieux, and Tartulier diagnosed the anomaly in a living subject,129 and in 1950, Engle analyzed data from three patients who died with Ebstein's anomaly and asserted that clinical recognition was possible.43...

Bilingualism

Linguists have observed that babies learning English emphasize nouns and verbs first. This was once believed to be a universal processing constraint. But further study has shown that a baby's first word choice and order has more to do with the syntax and pragmatics of his language. Russian and Turkish children, for example, use more grammatical parts of speech with their nouns and verbs and show more variety in word order.

Case

Drew, a middle school special education teacher, teaches an English class for students with cognitive impairments who cannot keep pace in regular education English. After observing that several of Mrs. Drew's students had problems with handwriting, Hannah Cook offered to take Mrs. Drew and her students to the school's computer lab to show them how to use a simple word processing program for English writing assignments. When Hannah contacted the teacher responsible for scheduling the school's computer lab, she was told that in accordance with school policy, special education classes were not allowed to use the computer lab because the students were too likely to damage the expensive equipment.

Location bias

Research suggests that various factors related to the accessibility of study results are associated with effect sizes in trials. For example, in a series of trials in the field of complementary and alternative medicine, Pittler and colleagues examined the relationship between trial outcome, methodological quality and sample size with characteristics of the journals of publication of these trials (Pittler 2000). They found that trials published in low or non-impact factor journals were more likely to report significant results than those published in high-impact mainstream medical journals and that the quality of the trials was also associated with the journal of publication. Similarly, some studies suggest that trials published in English language journals are more likely to show strong significant effects than those published in non-English language journals (Egger 1997b), however this has not been shown consistently (Moher 2000, Jtini 2002, Pham 2005) see Section 10.2.2.4.

Language bias

Reviews have often been exclusively based on studies published in English. For example, among 36 meta-analyses reported in leading English-language general medicine journals from 1991 to 1993, 26 (72 ) had restricted their search to studies reported Investigators working in a non-English speaking country will publish some of their work in local journals (Dickersin 1994). It is conceivable that authors are more likely to report in an international, English-language journal if results are positive whereas negative findings are published in a local journal. This was demonstrated for the German-language literature (Egger 1997b). Bias could thus be introduced in reviews exclusively based on English-language reports (Gregoire 1995, Moher 1996). However, the research examining this issue is conflicting. In a study of 50 reviews that employed comprehensive literature searches and included both English and non-English-language trials, Juni et al. reported that non-English trials were more...

Anthony Perone

In this chapter, I describe my experiences using improv activities in formal learning environments with adult English language learners. For my purposes, improv is a form of unscripted performance that uses audience suggestions to initiate and or shape games, scenes, or plays created spontaneously and cooperatively according to agreed-upon rules or structures (Seham, 2001, p. xvii). In what follows, I first describe several rules of improv that are shared by the professional improv acting community. Then, the bulk of my chapter explores three conflicts that are versions of what Sawyer (this volume) calls the learning paradox - the unavoidable tension, found in all constructivist learning environments, between the necessity of providing a range of options for creativity and improvisation on the part of the learner, while guiding that learning with the appropriate level of supporting structure. The three conflicts are a priori scripts versus emergent scripts, experts novices and...

W Parker Frisbie

Ecology may be defined as the ''study of the interrelationships of organisms with their environment and each other'' (Encyclopedia Britannica 1988 959). One of the first statements was that of the Greek philosopher Theophrastus, who studied the ''interrelationships between organisms and between organisms and their nonliving environment'' (Encyclopedia Britannica 1988 959). Ernest Haeckel used the term ecology in his study of plants, which was published in 1868. The term made its way into the English language with the translation of Haeckel's book in 1876. The term human ecology was first used by Robert Park and Ernest Burgess in their Introduction to the Science of Sociology (1924). For the first several decades after the term was introduced to sociologists, there was little agreement about its meaning and focus (Alihan 1938 Gettys 1940 Firey 1945). Amos Hawley's book, Human Ecology A Theory of Community Structure (1950), which to this day is the definitive exposition of the field,...

Annette Sassi

It describes which cooperative structure to use for the lesson, and lays out the questions to ask throughout the lesson. Some questions are posed as directives for example, Ask What seems most important to understand and remember in the part I just read Other questions are posed as suggestions for example, Facilitate a discussion among the students using questions such as Do you agree or disagree with what name of student shared Why The Teachers' Guide defines vocabulary words that might be important to highlight, especially for students learning English as a second language.

Evidentiality

Papafragou, Li, Choi, and Han (in preparation) sought to put this proposal to test. They compared English, which mainly marks evidentiality lexically (I saw heard inferred that John left), with Korean, in which evidentiality is encoded through a set of dedicated morphemes. Given evidence that such morphemes are produced early by children learning Korean (Choi, 1995), they asked whether Korean children develop the relevant conceptual distinctions earlier and with greater reliability than learners of English, in which evidentiality is not grammatically encoded. In a series of experiments, they compared the acquisition of nonlinguistic distinctions between sources of evidence in three- and four-year-olds learning English or Korean No difference in nonlinguistic reasoning in these regards was found between the English and Korean group. For instance, children in both linguistic groups were equally good at reporting how they found out about the contents of a container (e.g., by looking...

Janice E Fournier

Students with authentic feedback on their work as well as the opportunity to improvise in the moment. If one persuasive strategy for the new playground is not working, the students will need to try another. If the new students at school have limited English language skills, the authors of the orientation materials will quickly learn if their maps and symbols are sufficient.

The History

Congenital Heart Disease Cxr

In 1933, Kartagener called attention to the association of sinusitis, bronchiectasis and situs inversus,72 a combination subsequently called Kartagener syndrome or triad.16'51'73'80'92'132 In the first English language publication of the syndrome (1937), as many as one fifth of patients with situs inversus had bronchiectasis, underscoring that the association was not fortuitous.5 In 1986, a blinded controlled study of cilia ultrastructure in Kartagener syndrome found a widespread inherited ciliary disorder40,95,98,133 that included the upper and lower respiratory tracts54,73,133 (bronchitis, bronchiectasis, sinusitis) and the testis4,6,7,49,103 (immobile sperm, male infertility). Situs inversus is common in infertile men, an observation that contributed to the identification of a generalized disorder of ciliary motil-ity6,49 Respiratory symptoms are a significant part of the history and may lead to the discovery of situs inversus. The connection between abnormal cilia and laterality...

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