10x Your Memory Power

5 Minute Learning Machine

Jack Singer the author of The advancement of learning guide, has also been involved in writing other books about certain tricks to learn in life. The product is a comprehensive, self-paced, user-friendly, enhanced-reading and advanced learning techniques program. The product is a program that gives you a chance to liberate the undiscovered brilliance unlocked inside of you. Get to experience a real phenomenal memory. This product does not entail techniques or a mechanistic experiment that reveals the study of and development of systems for improving and assisting the memory. The list goes on about what pending problems you can solve with this program. These problems include; Math problems- you can thus be able to solve a whole world of math-mystery. It entails the simple secret of how to avoid 20 percent of all math errors worth your time! business-mystery, and financial mysteries. All opened up from one simple change in your work habits. Minimal concentration do you wish to develop total concentration?. The guide issues you with a simple routine to help you get down to work instantly. You can then absorb huge amounts of information easily even in a room filled with howling children. The package comes in form of an e-book, acquired online. It is intended for men and women of ages. Read more...

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Autobiographical Memory in Brief

Although the recognition of autobiographical memory (in one form or another) has a long scholarly history in psychology and philosophy (see an excellent history in Brewer, 1986), the formal study of it is relatively recent, growing out of Tulving's (1972) introduction of the episodic semantic memory distinction, and Neisser's (1978) plea to memory researchers to take up the study of ecologically valid forms of memory (or real-world memory phenomena). Although the terms episodic memory and autobiographical memory are often used synonymously, autobiographical memory takes in a wider range of personal knowledge forms than was originally conceived in the early views of episodic memory. For example, autobiographical memories encompass discrete forms of abstract knowledge about the self (e.g., knowing that I lived in Philadelphia growing up), general or summary (i.e., repeated events) forms of personal knowledge (e.g., my trip to London in 2005, Sunday walks in Central Park), and, of...

Explicit and Implicit Memory Network

Declarative or explicit memory refers to what can be recalled consciously and reported. This form of memory includes episodic memories, which are personal experiences, images and everyday events with their rich contexts and recreation over time, and semantic memories, which refer to the recall of factual knowledge about the world and general information about our surrounds. Declarative memory stands in contrast to implicit or procedural memory, which cannot be overtly reported, such as how one types on a keyboard after training. With nondeclarative memory, past experience influences current behavior, even though we do not consciously recollect the details of what was learned. Procedural memory for skills, as discussed earlier, as well as habits and biases, depends especially upon the cerebellum and neostriatum. Knowledge about the qualities of items that place them in the same category can also be acquired implicitly, so that even an amnesic patient can learn the pattern that...

Working Memory and Executive Function Network

A critical cognitive process during rehabilitation requires patients to bring information to mind, hold it, and process these mental representations. The prefrontal cortex includes the machinery for online information processing for thought, for comprehension, and for carrying out intentions. Remembering often requires planning and a strategy. Tests of strategic memory, such as the free recall of words, the temporal order of a list of items, and judgments about how often an item has been seen, rely on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) for processing and on the right frontal pole for monitoring the results of retrieval.347 Ordinary memory performance is guided by a variety of subjective organizing strategies. The working memory cognitive system in the DLPFC supports these strategies with temporary storage, online manipulations, and transformations of the information needed for an ongoing cognitive task. Short-term memory is a component of working memory and can be thought of...

Ms memories acquired in childhood are intact and his immediate memory capacity is normal

H.M. can remember material learned remotely prior to his operation. His memory for the English language seems fully intact. He also retains many childhood memories. By contrast, all memory for events for some period preceding the operation was lost. In addition, H.M.'s immediate or short-term memory is intact. He can immediately reproduce a list of numbers as long as that of control subjects thus the span of his short-term memory is normal. However, the memory deficit becomes evident as soon as his immediate memory span is exceeded or after a delay with some distraction. These aspects of H.M.'s spared memory abilities are discussed further in later chapters.

Characterizing the properties of declarative and procedural memory

There have been numerous attempts to identify the common properties among the types of learning and memory spared in amnesia, and to distinguish them from the common aspects of learning and memory on which amnesics fail. These comparisons have provided insights into the nature and cognitive mechanisms that underlie declarative memory, as well as properties of the domains of procedural memory.

Laboratory Techniques Used to Study Autobiographical Memory Organization

The primary technique for examining the organization of autobiographical memory is the event-cueing procedure. Based on the Galton Crovitz word-cue procedure (Crovitz & Shiffman, 1974), one autobiographical memory is used to cue another autobiographical memory. The generated event (cued-memory) is assumed to share key characteristics with the cueing memory provided. The candidate characteristics include those based on memory content (e.g., activity, participants, or location) and remembering process (e.g., vividness or emotional response). The prevalence of each relationship type is thought to be indicative of the organizing principles of autobiographical memory retrieval. Autobiographical memory clusters are defined as groups of memories that are causally related, hierarchically related, or are part of the same larger story (Brown & Schopflocher, 1998a). In addition to shared theme, participants, and setting, Brown and Schopflocher's (1998a) participants also generated memory...

Involuntary Memory Chains Naturally Occurring Indicators of Autobiographical Memory Organization

Whether they have been observed to occur on laboratory tasks of autobiographical memory or in everyday involuntary remembering, memories in these chains uniformly exhibit a relationship to one another (see Mace, 2007). Similar to event-cueing procedures, these relationships are either temporally related event clusters or they are conceptually (but nontemporally) related clusters. However, the distribution of these associations appears in stark contrast to the distributions produced by event-cueing procedures, with conceptually related clusters dramatically outstripping temporally related clusters (typically, 80 percent versus 20 percent see Mace, 2006, and Mace, 2007, for a review of distributions found in various studies). This dissociation between voluntary memory laboratory procedures and involuntary memory chains brings us to the obvious question What is the cause of this difference Although we have no definitive answers, as stated at the outset, we believe that the possible...

How are Memories Organized in the Autobiographical Memory System

As is evident from this review, studies using event-cueing methods have suggested that event clusters are the dominant form of organization in autobiographical memory (e.g., Brown, 2005). The involuntary memory chaining data, however, suggest just the opposite (e.g., Mace, 2007). We have suggested that the two sets of data may indicate that organizational dominance depends on the way that memories are retrieved (or organization conforms to retrieval function). And we have also reviewed a way in which event age may interact with organization. While we would like to argue that these points reconcile the two sets of data such that one might reasonably conclude that conceptual and temporal connections are equal (or nearly equal) in autobiographical memory, there appear to be too many open questions and conflicting possibilities to allow for such a conclusion at this time.

Working Memory Deficits

Working memory is the process of retaining recent information in order to perform a behavioral response after the informational cue is removed. Patients with schizophrenia have medication-resistant deficits in working memory that are thought to arise from dysfunction in the DLPFC or from disregulation of this region by other cortical or subcortical structures (Levy and Goldman-Rakic, 2000). During the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, a neuropsychological measure of cognitive function, normal controls exhibit an increase in regional cerebral blood flow in the prefrontal cortex, while schizophrenia patients fail to do so. Patients with schizophrenia also show numerous deficits in executive function, including poor processing of cognitive information, decreased problem-solving skills as measured by the Tower of London test, and increases in perseverative errors.

Automatic Recollection and Two Process Models of Explicit and Implicit Memory

However, as discussed in Section 3.1 in relation to online measures of conscious recollection during incidental tests (Richardson-Klavehn & Gardiner, 1995, 1996), directly (experimentally) demonstrating involuntary conscious memory or automatic recollection during incidental test performance is difficult. Such attempts may always founder on the objection that the participant would not have experienced conscious recollection of the episode or episodes in question if the experimenter had not asked them to think about it, either before or after the memory test. Phenomena that are difficult to observe are nonetheless not necessarily inaccessible to scientific inquiry, as demonstrated, for example, by the success of research in physics that postulates particles that cannot be directly observed, but whose existence is inferred from phenomena that are amenable to observation. In the current case, another approach is to formalize the simple distinction between explicit and implicit memory...

Embedded Processes Working Memory Model

Although Baddeley's multi-component working-memory model has dominated the field for much of the past thirty years, there are alternative conceptions of working memory. Cowan (1988, 1995 ) has proposed a model that tightly integrates short- and long-term memory systems with attention. In his Embedded-Processes working-memory model (Figure 19.4 ), Cowan defines working memory as the set of cognitive processes that keep mental representations in an easily accessible state. Within this system, information can either be within the focus of attention, which Cowan believes is capacity limited, or in active memory, which Cowan suggests is time limited. The focus of attention is similar to James's (1890) concept of primary memory and is equated to the information that is currently in conscious awareness. In contrast, active memory, a concept similar to Hebb's (1949) cell assemblies or Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) long-term working memory, refers to information that has higher activation...

Reasoning and Working Memory Using the Task Interference Paradigm

Memory slave systems, relatively little has been done using this technique to study high-level cognition or the central executive. Central to high-level cognitive processes is the ability to form and manipulate mental representations. Review of the functions of the central executive in either Baddeley or Cowan's models suggests that the central executive should be critical for thinking and reasoning - a hypothesis that has been confirmed in several studies. In their seminal work on working memory Baddeley and Hitch (1974) asked participants to perform a reasoning task in which they read a simple sentence containing information about the order of two abstract terms (i.e., A and B). Their task was to judge whether a letter sequence presented after the sentence reflected the order of the terms in the statement. For instance, a TRUE statement would be A not preceded by B followed by AB (Ref. 7, p. 50). Baddeley and Hitch varied the statements with respect to statement voicing (i.e.,...

Individual Differences in Working Memory

An alternative to Baddeley's dual-task methodology uses individual differences to study working memory. Daneman and Carpenter (1980) first used this approach to investigate how working memory was involved in language comprehension. They developed a reading span task that required subjects to read several sentences and then later recall the last word of each sentence in the correct order. The participant's span is typically defined as the maximum-sized trial with perfect performance. This measure correlated relatively well with individuals' reading comprehension ability. Unlike a simple short-term memory-span task, the working-memory-span task required the subjects to do a more complex task while also remembering a list of items. In this way, the span task is believed to tap both the maintenance (slave system) and manipulation (central executive and episodic buffer) aspects of working memory. Other span tasks have been developed to vary the nature of the task that participants perform...

The Where What and How of Working Memory and Thought

So far, we have suggested that there are at least two important aspects of working memory for human thinking - a modality-specific maintenance function that is capable of preserving information over short periods of time and a manipulation or at-tentional control function that is capable Figure 19.6. Structural Equation Model of the relationship of working memory and short-term memory and their role in analytic problem solving and intelligence. From Engle, Kane, and Tuholski (l999). Figure 19.6. Structural Equation Model of the relationship of working memory and short-term memory and their role in analytic problem solving and intelligence. From Engle, Kane, and Tuholski (l999). of activating, operating, and updating this information during conscious thought. Recently, cognitive neuroscientists have devoted much effort to answering the question of where in the brain these working memory mechanisms operate. This topic is beyond the scope of this chapter see Goel, Chap. 20, for a more...

The Nature of Spreading Activation in Autobiographical Memory

Table 8.1 Major characteristics of autobiographical memory spreading activation Within-systems spreads Activations spread among memories within the autobiographical memory system. Across-systems spreads Activations spread from or to memories in other memory systems (e.g., semantic memory). spreading activation exists in some real form, rather than as a metaphor only, and that the basics of it involve patterns of activation among information and memories which causes spreads to other memories or information that are similar, related, associated, or connected in some way. Beyond this basic consideration, the view being put forth here argues that spreading activation in autobiographical memory has three major characteristics (1) concerns the types of memories involved in spreads, (2) concerns the relationship that activations have with consciousness, and (3) concerns the automatic nature of spreading activation.Table 8.1 lists all of the major points of these characteristics, and I...

Considering the Functional Nature of Spreading Activation in Autobiographical Memory

In addressing the functional role of spreading activation in cognition, Anderson (1983) wrote that it is the 'energy' that runs the 'cognitive machinery'. Activation spreads through the declarative network along paths from original sources to associated concepts. A piece of information will become active to the degree that it is related to current sources of information. Thus, spreading activation identifies and favors the processing of information most related to the immediate context (or sources of activation). Statements like Anderson's underscore much functional thinking about spreading activation, where theorists in many areas of research have come to see it having an important facilitory role in the processing and production of knowledge. One might apply this same sort of functional thinking to autobiographical remembering and imagine that spreading activation has the function of putting autobiographical memory into a ready-state so that it may process and produce relevant...

Working Memory and Creativity

The short-term memory (STM) store is able to retain information for limited intervals of time, ranging form a few seconds to several minutes. This system is now called working memory (WM) because it is responsible for both maintaining pieces of information and manipulating them, which is synonymous with human information processing. Metaphorically speaking, WM is a central processing unit of the human mind, or 'the blackboard of the mind.' Less metaphorically, it is an active part of memory consisting of a number of pieces of information that are either in the state of readiness for upcoming processing or in the state of just being processed. It is unlikely that the central processing unit of the human mind would not take part in the cognitive mechanics of creative processes. Some theoretical models assume such an engagement in an explicit way. There is, however, little empirical evidence about how and to what extent working memory processes affect creativity. Characteristically, WM...

Long Term Memory and Creativity

Contrary to working memory, long term memory is able to retain information for an unlimited period it is also assumed to possess unlimited capacity. This does not mean that the human mind is able to remember everything however, forgetting and other imperfections of memory do not result from the capacity of the LTM store but from other sources, such as interference, inefficient strategies of remembering, etc.

Overview of brain anatomy relevant to procedural memory

The anatomy of brain systems that mediate procedural memory is highly complex and only partly understood, so only a few parts of these pathways that support different aspects of procedural memory are sketched here. At the top level of these various circuits is the primary motor cortex, a cortical area that is critically involved in directing the force and flow of muscle contractions generated by neural controls at the level of the spinal cord. An additional neighboring critical structure is the premotor cortex, which plays a central role in the preparation for movement and in the coordination of movements on the two sides of the body, as well as the sequencing of motor coordination over time. These cortical motor areas work in close concert with two major subcortical structures, the striatum and the cerebellum (Fig. 10-1). Each of these subcortical structures forms the nodal point in a major circuit loop that begins with downward projections from the cortex and ends in a route from...

Cognitive Neuroscience Working Memory and Creativity

Findings from lesion, pharmacological, and preclinical studies indicate that the prefrontal cortex is a key brain structure in working memory. This is supported by neuroimaging studies showing a significant linear relationship between the increase in working memory load and the degree of activation observed in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Moreover, a few studies based on theories of working memory have been conducted to connect working memory and brain structure. For example, studies based on lesion location in patients and neuroimaging in normal subjects indicate that the basic components of working memory are localized in different brain regions. The phonological loop clearly involves the left temporoparietal region visuospatial working memory is primarily localized in the right inferior parietal cortex, right premotor cortex, and right inferior frontal cortex. The nature of working memory is a topic that is difficult to tackle using purely behavioral methods, but...

How information for working memory is encoded within the prefrontal cortex

In the early 1970s neurophysiologists began to study the activity of neurons in monkeys performing the delayed-response task. A large network of neurons was activated as animals performed each of the relevant task events. Some cells fired associated with presentation of the left or right cue in both the sample and choice periods, and subsequent work has shown that prefrontal neurons show considerable selectivity for visual and spatial properties of memory cues across a variety of working memory tasks. Moreover, many prefrontal neurons begin to fire upon presentation of the sample item or when it disappears, and many of these cells continued to fire throughout the ensuing delay period. These delay cells number half the recorded neurons in the prefrontal cortex and have received the most attention because they provided the first evidence of neuronal activity specifically involved in storing a short-term memory. locations were employed. The other version was a visual pattern...

The prefrontal cortex is activated in humans performing working memory tasks

The emergence of brain imaging techniques has allowed investigators to examine the areas of cortex activated during working memory performance in human subjects. Among the first of these studies, John Jonides, Edward Smith, and their colleagues characterized areas of the human brain activated during a variant of the spatial delayed response task. In this task subjects fixated a central point on a computer monitor and were presented with three dots as target sample stimuli. Following a 3-second delay period, a circle marked one location on the screen where one of the targets had appeared, or another location. Thus, subjects had to remember a set of target locations and later identify a choice item as one of the set. The control task was similar, except that the three dots were presented only during the end of the delay then during the choice period when one of them was circled, so that responses were guided by perception not memory. The brain areas prominently activated by positron...

Case Study 1 Deliriuma Common Disorder Of Attentional Function And Working Memory

Her confusional state cleared within a week, but for some time she continued to show significant disturbances in attentional function, in spatial relations, especially spatial synthesis, and in other forms of nonverbal or novel cognitive processing, along with quite poor and easily disrupted working memory. The atten-tional and working memory disturbance was significantly worse in the morning for uncertain reasons. She became depressed, though this was successfully treated with an antidepressant that possessed both serotonergic and noradrenergic properties. This type of antidepressant was chosen over a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) with the hope that it would better improve right-hemisphere arousal presumably disrupted in the context of the right pontine reticular formation cerebrovascular accident (CVA). their middle and late stages, the distinction between baseline dementia and confusional states gradually disappears, as patients...

Multicomponent Working Memory Model

Working Memory Model Baddeley 2000

While exploring the issues described in the previous section, Baddeley and Hitch (1974) proposed a model that expanded short-term memory into the modern concept of working memory - a term that has been used in several different contexts in psychology.1 Baddeley (1986) defined working memory as a system for the temporary holding and manipulation of information during the performance of a range of cognitive tasks such as comprehension, learning, and reasoning (Ref. 3, p. 34). In a recent description of his working-memory model, Baddeley (2000) proposed a four-component model (Figure 19.2), including the phonological loop, the visuospa-tial sketchpad, the central executive, and the model's most recent addition, the episodic Figure 19.2. Baddeley's (2000) four-component working memory model. Figure 19.2. Baddeley's (2000) four-component working memory model. buffer. This model has primarily been conceptualized based on results from behavioral dual-task paradigms and neuropsychol-ogy. For...

Recall recognition and implicit memory tasks

Mathews, Mogg, May, and Eysenck (1988) investigated explicit and implicit memory in groups of people with GAD, recovered anxious participants, and controls. The explicit memory task was a free recall paradigm and, in line with previous findings with GAD patients (e.g., Mogg, Mathews, & Weinman, 1987), there were no significant effects. The implicit memory paradigm was a word completion task. The participants were simply instructed to complete a word stem with the first word that came to mind. The extent to which the previous presentation of list words increased the tendency to produce those words as completions was the measure of implicit memory. The results showed that the currently anxious patients produced more word completions that corresponded to threat-related list words, but fewer corresponding to non-threatening list words, than did the normal control participants. The performance of the recovered anxious group was closer to that of the normal controls than that of the...

Working Memory

The anatomical area involved in working memory has been described in both macaque and human studies.350 BA 46 and 9 46 in mid-DLPFC and a strip just caudal to BA 9 within either BA 6 or 8, monitor information within working memory for spatial, nonspatial, and verbal material. The dorsolateral portion of DLPFC receives large projections from the dorsal posterior parietal region to support working memory for spatial tasks. The oculomotor system also connects here to assist the coding of visuospatial 'where' data. The ventrolateral aspect of the DLPFC receives a large projection from the inferotemporal cortex for tasks that encode 'what' data about objects. Other inputs arise from the superior temporal Working memory in circuits has parallels at the cellular level. Prefrontal neurons delay their firing in a selective fashion for specific objects and spatial locations, as well as for faces. The delay presumably maintains the internal representation of a cue for what is to be...

Memorizing a Speech

One advantage of having memorized a speech is that the speaker can deliver the words in a dramatic fashion, as an experienced actor does in a play. Another advantage is that because the words come from within, the speaker can maintain constant eye contact with the audience. Yet a third advantage is that because the speaker chooses the words beforehand, the speaker has control over the exact wording, as long as the speaker's memory does not fail. A major disadvantage of memorizing a speech is that for most of us, memorizing a speech takes too much time. In a presentation, the typical person says more than one hundred words per minute. For that reason, a fifteen-minute presentation then calls for memorizing more than fifteen hundred words. That is quite a task Screen actors in supporting roles have won academy awards for saying fewer words. Given the frequency with which scientists and engineers have to make presentations, most scientists and engineers simply do not have the time to...

Sensorimotor Networks

Motor control is tied, especially in the rehabilitation setting, to learning skills. Motor skills are gained primarily through the cerebral organization for procedural memory. The other large classification of memory, declarative knowledge, depends upon hippocampal activity. The first is about how to, the latter is the what of facts and events. Procedural knowledge, compared to learning facts, usually takes considerable practice over time. Skills learning is also associated with experience-specific organizational changes within the sensorimotor network for motor control. A model of motor control, then, needs to account for skills learning. To successfully manipulate the controllers of movement, the clinician needs a multilevel, 3-dimensional point of view. The vista includes a reductionist analysis, examining the properties of motor patterns generated by networks, neurons, synapses, and molecules. Our sight-line also includes a synthesis that takes a systems approach to the...

Overview of Motor Control

No single theory explains the details of the controls for normal motor behavior, let alone the abnormal patterns and synergies that emerge after a lesion at any level of the neu-raxis. Many models successfully predict aspects of motor performance. Some models offer both biologically plausible and behaviorally relevant handles on sensorimotor integration and motor learning. Among the difficulties faced by theorists and experimentalists is that no simple ordinary movement has only one motor control solution. Every step over ground and every reach for an item can be accomplished by many different combinations of muscle activations, joint angles, limb trajectories, velocities, accelerations, and forces. Thus, many kinematically redundant biological scripts are written into the networks for motor control. The nervous system computates within a tremendous number of degrees of freedom for any successful movement. In addition, every movement changes features of our physical relationship to...

Electrical Probes Of Mind And Brain

Chapter 3 provides a very useful summary of many findings that indicate different cognitive function (e.g., working memory and attention) often recruit the same brain area. The authors are surely correct that cognitive psychology textbook chapter titles are not an appropriate guide to brain localization. However, before we conclude that different operations activate the same brain area, we need to be more clear about what makes a difference in mental operations. For example, theories of working memory assume the involvement of attentional networks, so it would be surprising not to find attention areas active in working memory tasks, but it is rather easy to design an attention task that does not involve working memory. We also need to be more explicit about what the same brain area means (i.e., the extent of overlap needed to assume identity). Finally we need to know when in the task a particular area is active. Both perception and imagery tasks may activate prestriate visual areas,...

The Nature of Human Concepts

The three chapters in Part I address foundational issues related to the representation of human concepts. Chapter 2 by Goldstone and Son reviews work on the core concept of similarity - how people assess the degree to which objects or events are alike. Chapter 3 by Medin and Rips considers research on categories and how concepts are organized in semantic memory. Thinking depends not only on representations of individual concepts, such as dogs and cats, but also on representations of the relationships among concepts, such as the fact that dogs often chase cats. In Chapter 4, Doumas and Hummel evaluate different computational approaches to the representation of relations.

Word From the Author

Learning medicine not only involves memorizing a considerable volume of information, mastering sensory skills and communicating with patients and health professionals. It also requires excellent reasoning techniques, processing of information through sensory skills, judging the state of things, and decision-making. Classical textbooks of medicine or surgery examine mainly the former. This book covers the latter.

Special Features Of Motor Cortices

Rehabilitationists can begin to consider the contribution of the cortical nodes in the motor system to motor control, to anticipate how the activity of clusters of neurons may vary in relation to different tasks, to test for their dysfunction, and to adapt appropriate interventions. For example, patients with lesions that interrupt the corticocortical projections from somatosensory cortex to the primary motor cortex might have difficulty learning new motor skills, but they may be able to execute existing motor skills.67 The lateral premotor areas, especially BA 46 and 9, receive converging visual, auditory, and other sensory inputs that integrate planned motor acts. As discussed later in the section on working memory (see Working Memory and Executive Function Network, these regions have an important role in the temporal organization of behaviors, including motor sets and motor sequences.68 In the presence of a lesion that destroys or disconnects some motor areas, a portion of the...

Cognitive and Neural Constraints on Human Thought

High-level human thinking cannot be fully understood in isolation from fundamental cognitive processes and their neural substrates. In Chapter 19, Morrison reviews the wealth of evidence indicating that thinking and reasoning depend critically on what is known as working memory, that is, the system responsible for short-term maintenance

Examples of Chapter Assignments for a Variety of Courses

Nonhuman Primates Chapter 1 9 Thinking in Working Memory Chapter 31 Intelligence Chapter 32 Learning to Think The Challenges of Teaching Thinking Chapter 31 Intelligence Chapter 15 Creativity Chapter 1 9 Thinking in Working Memory Chapter 21 Cognitive and Neuroscience Aspects of Thought Disorder Chapter 22 Development of Thinking Chapter 25 Reasoning and Thinking in

The Act of Remembering the Past

One could argue that the quest to understand remembering (autobiographical memory retrieval) is central to the quest to understand autobiographical memory. One could also argue that understanding the processes of autobiographical recall might also be important to an understanding of more general cognition. For example, it is fairly easy to see how constructing a thought or solving a problem may involve many of the same mental (and perhaps neural) operations as reconstructing a past experience. While the importance of retrieval to memory and cognition has been noted by numerous other writers (too numerous to list), autobiographical memory retrieval may have a greater place in this larger aspect of the quest, given the complexity of information that has to be assembled in order to experience a memory of the past, including the knowledge, awareness, or feeling that one is re-experiencing a past event (Tulving, 1985). The chapters contained in this book advance the quest to understand...

Transformational Models

In an early incarnation of a transformational approach to cognition broadly construed, Garner (1974) stressed the notion of stimuli that are transformationally equivalent and are consequently possible alternatives for each other. In artificial intelligence, Shimon Ullman (1996) argued that objects are recognized by being aligned with memorized pictorial descriptions. Once an unknown object has been aligned with all candidate models, the best match to the viewed object is selected. The alignment operations rotate, scale, translate, and topographically warp object descriptions. For rigid transformations, full alignment can be obtained by aligning three points on the object with three points on the model description. Unlike recognition strategies that require structural descriptions (e.g., Biederman, 1987 Hummel, 2000, 2001), Ullman's alignment does not require an image to be decomposed into parts.

Theoretical Considerations

Recently, the classic ideas of the association theorists regarding the link between individual differences in response gradients and creativity have been fruitfully reconceptualized as involving variations in attentional processes. According to a number of theorists, attention may be seen as a process of selection that occurs on both the perceptual and conceptual levels. On the perceptual level, individuals may focus attention broadly, to select a wider array of external stimuli for processing, or narrowly, to restrict selection to a limited subset of these stimuli. For instance, when viewing a desktop computer, attention may be directed broadly, to encompass the CPU, monitor, and keyboard, or narrowly, to encompass only one or two of these external stimuli, the reflections of which are impinging on the visual system. However, individuals not only need to select percepts for processing on the external level, but also to select which concepts in memory they will activate, that is,...

Individual Differences

To recapitulate, the scope of conceptual attention may be understood as the quantity of information that is rendered accessible to consciousness at a given point in time. Broader conceptual scope signifies that a greater number of concepts in long-term memory, including those remotely associated with the stimuli that currently occupy focal awareness, are poised to enter into conscious thought. Given this view, it may be argued that an important phenomenon associated with conceptual attention is the extent to which information that is irrelevant to ongoing goals retains accessibility to consciousness. For instance, if an individual is locked out of his or her car, concepts such as 'keys' and 'lock' may be highly accessible to awareness because they are relevant to the goal of regaining entry. However, perceptual stimuli, such as the sound of passing cars, and conceptual information, such as the makes and models of these cars, should be screened from awareness inasmuch as they are both...

Functions of Concepts

So far, we have introduced two roles for concepts categorization (broadly construed) and communication. These functions and associated subfunctions are important to bear in mind because studying any one in isolation can lead to misleading conclusions about conceptual structure (see Solomon, Medin, & Lynch, 1999, for a review bearing on this point). At this juncture, however, we need to introduce one more plot element into the story we are telling. Presumably everything we have been talking about has implications for human memory and memory organization. After all, concepts are mental representations, and people must store these representations somewhere in memory. However, the relation between concepts and memory may be more intimate. A key part of our story is what we call the semantic memory marriage, the idea that memory organization corresponds to meaningful relations between concepts. Mental pathways that lead from one concept to another - for example, from ELBOW to ARM -...

Instrumental learning

The bottom line in this work is that a wide range of drugs given after the learning experience can facilitate or impair subsequent memory performance in all these tasks, depending on the type of drug and the dose used. Earlier, it was thought that both ECS impairment and drug facilitation or impairment of memory acted on a specific brain process of consolidation, for example, circulating electrical activity in the brain that gradually stamped in memories. If this is so, then there ought to be a gradient of consolidation, a relatively fixed time period. However, there is no gradient, or rather there are many gradients, depending very much on the details of the procedure used in a particular experiment. This and other problems with the simple consolidation notion have led scientists to stress modulation rather than consolidation. Most workers in the field believe that ECS or drug administration modulates how well recent memories are stored in long-term memory.

Fragmentation of Semantics and Memory

Prior to about 1980, most researchers in this field saw themselves as investigating semantic memory - the way that long-term memory organizes meaningful information. Around 1980, the term itself became passe, at least for this same group of researchers, and the field regrouped under the banner of Categories and Concepts (the title of Smith & Medin's, 1981, synthesis of research in this area). At the time, these researchers may well have seen this change as a purely nominal one, but we suspect it reflected a retreat from the claim that semantic memory research had much to say about either semantics or memory. How did this change come about Related questions apply to other psychological theories of meaning in the semantic memory tradition. To handle the typicality results mentioned earlier, some investigators proposed that the mental representation of a category such as daisies consists of a prototype for that category - for example, a description of a good example of a daisy (e.g.,...

Category Learning and Inference

The upsurge of cognitive neuroscience has reinforced the interest in multiple memory systems. One intriguing line of research by Knowlton, Squire, and associates (Knowl-ton, Mangels, & Squire, 1996 Knowlton & Squire, 1993 Squire & Knowlton, 1995) favoring multiple categorization systems involves a dissociation between categorization and recognition. Knowlton and Squire (1993)usedthe Posner and Keele dot pattern stimuli to test amnesic and matched control patients on either categorization learning and transfer or a new-old recognition task (involving five previously studied patterns versus five new patterns). The amnesiacs performed very poorly on the recognition task but were not reliably different from control participants on the categorization task. Knowlton and Squire took this as evidence for a two-system model, one based on explicit memory for examples and one based on an implicit system (possibly prototype abstraction). On this view, amnesiacs have lost access to the...

Introduction About Alzheimers Disease

The second principle is that the mind erases memories on the basis of last in, first out. The most recent memories (short-term memory) go first, followed by long-term memory, and finally even the most basic bodily functions seem to be forgotten, as though retracing the knowledge, abilities, and skills of one's entire life, from present to infancy. This concept will help you understand many of the principles suggested in this book.

Broader theoretical considerations of autobiographical remembering

Mace (chapter 8) examines autobiographical remembering from a spreading activation perspective. Building on a handful of different studies, he argues that the autobiographical memory system appears to be subject to different types of within and between memory systems forms of spreading activation. And, while some spreading activation processes may occur unconsciously, he also argues that some can be observed to occur in the space of consciousness (e.g., the involuntary memory chaining mentioned above). He also argues that spreading activation may account for much of everyday involuntary remembering, including involuntary remembering during voluntary remembering. And, like in semantic memory, spreading activation in the autobiographical memory system appears to subject autobiographical remembering to priming effects. He further argues that all of these processes are likely to be functional to the process of autobiographical remembering. Pastotter and Bauml (chapter 9) examine retrieval...

The Origins of Oncological Darwinism

The discovery of a spontaneously occurring heterogeneity in somatic physiological systems with some kind of ability to change adaptively has also been the first step that led to the idea that some selective mechanisms could operate also to produce adaptive physiological responses to unexpected stimuli. The histories of immunology and neurobiology are the best examples of the successful heuristic role played by Darwinian thinking to explain the physiological dynamics that results in adaptive changes to memorize and learn through experience (Corbellini 2007).

Hippocampus animal studies

Associates showed that rats can learn a very large number of odor discriminations in sequence, a possible example of semantic memory Although hippocampal lesions do not prevent the rats from learning odor discrimination, their ability to learn a long sequence is impaired, as is their ability to reverse discriminations (i.e., learn to respond to odors they first learned not to respond to).

Theories Modules and Psychometaphysics

Whereas lay theories of teapots and other artifacts touch instead on intended and actual functions. However, how deep do these divisions go On the one hand, beliefs about these domains could be modular (relatively clustered, relatively isolated), innate, universal, and local to specific brain regions. On the other hand, they may be free floating, learned, culturally specific, and distributed across cortical space. This issue is important to us because it ultimately affects whether we can patch up the semantic memory marriage.

Comparing Different Cognitive Functions Across Studies

From the data set of a previous large-scale metaanalysis (Cabeza and Nyberg, 2000), we selected 136 studies in five cognitive domains (1) attention, (2) perception, (3) working memory, (4) semantic memory retrieval and episodic memory encoding, and (5) episodic memory retrieval. The rationale for considering semantic memory retrieval and episodic memory encoding within the same category is that these two processes tend to

From Diaries to Brain Scans

Methodological Developments in the Investigation of Autobiographical Memory findings (Gruneberg, Morris, & Sykes, 1978). The everyday memory approach is now a strong and popular field of research that incorporates the study of many real-world memory topics, such as autobiographical memory, eyewitness memory, prospective memory, and memory training. Everyday memory researchers are faced with a difficult methodological balancing act. They want to investigate ecologically valid memory phenomena without completely sacrificing the experimental rigor provided by laboratory-based methodologies. The innovative and creative attempts by memory researchers to solve this balancing act over the past three decades are the basis of the current chapter, with a specific focus on the methodologies that have been developed to examine the retrieval of autobiographical memories. Autobiographical memories are personal memories of past experiences that have self-relevance and that combine to form our...

Cognitive Psychology Approach

The first attempts to systematically examine autobiographical memory empirically were conducted by cognitive psychologists in the 1970s. These experimental psychologists follow a general methodological approach of testing specific research hypotheses by constructing experiments where independent variables are manipulated by the experimenter and dependent variables are recorded to test these hypotheses. The participants in their studies are usually college student volunteers who normally retrieve a small sample of autobiographical memories, and then provide self-report ratings of phenomenological characteristics associated with these memories and their retrieval. For example, when examining the influence of mood on autobiographical memory retrieval, researchers manipulate mood states (e.g., playing sad or happy music) and examine memory retrieval performance. Retrieval performance can be measured by the speed of memory retrieval and by the ratings provided by the participant of the...

All ofthe Above in Combination

Concepts and categories are shared by all the cognitive sciences, and so there is very little room for researchers to stake out a single paradigm or subtopic and work in blissful isolation. Although the idea of a semantic memory uniting memory structure, lexical organization, and categorization may have been illusory, this does not mean that progress is possible by ignoring the insights on concepts that these perspectives (and others) provide. We may see further fragmentation in the concepts of concepts, but it will still be necessary to explore the relations among them. Our only firm prediction is that the work we will find most exciting will be research that draws on multiple points of view.

Instinctual Energies and Affective States

So far, the question of how affect is actually generated by neural activities has only been addressed in theoretical terms. As noted at the outset of this chapter, there is a prevailing notion that it is produced, in some manner, by higher cerebral activities that mediate cognitive consciousness, for instance, by brain areas that mediate working memory (e.g., LeDoux, 1996) or in those that allow us to resymbolize events in terms of language (Rolls, 1999). Damasio (1996), with his somatic marker hypothesis, has entertained the classic James-Lange view that emotional experience arises from inputs to the somatosensory processing areas of the cortex.

Conjunctive Connectionist Representations

Tensors provide a basis for representing the semantic content of relations (in the case of tensors that are isomorphic with SAA) or relational roles (in the case of tensors based on role-filler bindings) and to represent role-filler bindings explicitly. Accordingly, numerous researchers have argued that tensor products and their relatives provide an appropriate model of human symbolic representations. Halford and his colleagues also showed that tensor products based on SAA representations provide a natural account of the capacity limits of human working memory and applied these ideas to account for numerous phenomena in relational reasoning and cognitive development (see Halford, Chap. 22). Tensors are thus at least a useful approximation of human relational representations.

Role Filler Binding by Vector Addition

Binding by synchrony of firing is much reviled in some segments of the connec-tionist modeling community. For example, Edelman and Intrator (2003) dismissed it as an engineering convenience. Similarly, O'Reilly et al. (2003) dismissed it on the grounds that (1) it is necessarily transient i.e., it is not suitable as a basis for storing bindings in long-term memory (LTM) , (2) it is capacity limited (i.e., it is only possible to have a finite number of bound groups simultaneously active and mutually out of synchrony Hummel & Biederman, 1992 Hummel & Holyoak, 2003a Hummel & Stankiewicz, 1996), and (3) bindings represented by synchrony of firing must ultimately make contact with stored conjunctive codes in LTM. These limitations do indeed apply to binding by synchrony of firing (1) and (2) are also precisely the limitations of human working memory (WM) (see Cowan, 2000). Limitation (3) is meant to imply that synchrony is redundant If you already have to represent bindings...

Associated Neurological Findings

The neurologist should be alert to signs of dementia (e.g., inattention, memory dysfunction, apathy, disorientation) in patients presenting with olfactory dysfunction, since decreased ability to smell is among the first signs of Alzheimer's disease and is also seen in some patients with Huntington's chorea, multi-infarct dementia, and Pick's disease. Evidence of fainting spells or blackouts, disorientation, seizure activity, and mood change should be sought because both increases and decreases in olfactory function are found in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Olfactory loss, along with short-term memory problems and associated confabulation, may help to define vitamin B-, deficiency and the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Cognitive alterations (e.g., mental slowing, confusion, depression, and hallucinations) may also signal the presence of pernicious anemia.

Nosology Core Versus Extended Consciousness

Humans depart from other mammalian lines of evolution principally in terms of extended neocortical and prefrontal system development. These developments give humans vastly enhanced cognitive and conceptual abilities, including language, along with extended capacities for working memory (Baddeley, 1986), planning, and other

Arterial supply of the hand Commentary

This is a straightforward area of anatomy which in the modified Allen test has an obvious clinical application, albeit one whose value is disputed. If you impart the basic information too rapidly then you will find yourself discussing arterial pressure waveforms and damping. That may suit you, but if you would prefer to stay with the anatomy then it will be worth refreshing your memory of some of the relevant muscles and tendons. This in any event will make your knowledge of anatomy appear much more substantial.

Disorders of Consciousness A Basic Typology

Recent work on diseases of consciousness suggests a basic taxonomy with a gradient from coma, to persistent vegetative state (PVS), then to akinetic mutism (AKM), hyperkinetic mutism (HKM, a rare and little studied disorder), and finally to delirium (Schiff and Plum, 2000). Table 3.1 outlines progressive impairment of functions that comprise essential components of primary or core consciousness and includes two basic components of more extended cognitive consciousness (short-term and working memory). As one can see from the table, arousal to wakefulness, attention, emotion, and intention are progressively impaired as one moves toward more severe disorders of consciousness. Conversely, in disorders of consciousness that are less severe, such as delirium, the disturbances of attention and intention are often more partial, while emotion is often disinhibited and arousal to wakefulness is preserved (outside of stuporous deliriums). The graded nature of these disorders of consciousness,...

Comparing Different Cognitive Functions Within Subjects

Not compare apples and oranges, one may miss the fact that they are both round and sweet fruits. Second, some functions are inherently more difficult than others. For example, in the case of working memory and episodic memory, if the memory load is kept constant (e.g., one word), then retrieval from working memory is always easier than retrieval from long-term memory. In these situations, one is faced with the dilemma of matching experimental conditions at the expense of having differences in task difficulty or matching task difficulty at the expense of introducing differences in experimental conditions. Despite all these problems, successful direct cross-function studies can be designed, and they offer unique insights into the role of different brain regions across various functions. The next two sections review comparisons of different functions within-subjects (see Table 3). The first section reviews studies that used blocked fMRI and PET designs, and the second section reviews...

Cognitive Neuroscience Approach

There is no doubt that the single biggest methodological development in the past 20 years involving research on autobiographical memory (and human cognition in general) has been the development of the cognitive neuroscience approach. This research approach focuses on the brain anatomy and neural processing involved in human cognition. Originally, the neuropsychological study of autobiographical memory was restricted to detailed case studies of individuals who lost their ability to access autobiographical memories or form new memories because of brain damage. The famous case of HM is a classic example of this neuroscience approach. More recently, this approach has expanded to include new brain scanning technologies, such as EEG, PET, and fMRI. The cognitive neuroscience approach is heavily indebted to the cognitive psychology methods we have just described, because many of these tasks and measures have been incorporated into cognitive neuroscience experiments. However, many new methods...

Tests for brain damage patients

There is no doubt that much has been learnt over the years from the study of patients who have suffered some form of brain damage that has affected their ability to recall autobiographical memories or form new ones. HM is arguably the most famous case study in the history of this approach and his recent death brought to an end one of the longest, most-detailed, systematic studies of autobiographical memory ever undertaken. The cue-prompt procedure has been used in many patient studies (see Kopelman, 1994), but the lack of standardization associated with the choice of cues can make it difficult to compare the findings from one study to the next. Another method involves recording the free recall recollections of amnesia patients and then scoring their recollections (Bayley, Hopkins, & Squire, 2003). However, a lack of standardization involving the scoring of these transcripts also makes it difficult to generalize the findings from these studies. In addition, the number of details...

Changing Concepts of the Reticular Activating System Arousal Revisited

That forebrain arousal is not a unitary process. Noradrenergic systems (NE) appear crucial to sensory tuning, to signal to noise in sensory systems, and for attentional sharpening of posterior cortical processing. DA systems from VTA mediate a nonspecific seeking and motivational or affective arousal. ACh systems are central to thalamocortical and cognitive arousal, attention, and short-term memory. 5-HT, an indolamine, is relevant to behavioral inhibition, and may regulate channelizing of brain systems and some degree of inhibition of catecholamine systems. These differential roles are mirrored in their cortical projection targets (e.g., ACh tends to project to large pyramidal neurons critical to cortico-cortical communication, while 5-HT projections typically synapse onto inhibitory interneurons). As mentioned above, psychiatry has traditionally targeted the vast majority of its probes and therapies toward these systems. The basic topography of these aminergic regulatory systems for...

Thalamic Systems Intralaminar Nuclei ILN

The intralaminar nuclei are a group of midline systems that receive primarily gluta-matergic projections from the classical lateral reticular systems in the brainstem (see summary of RAS) and also from pontine cholinergic systems. ILN in turn sends primarily glutamatergic connections to specific layers of cortex (typically layers I and II), to the basal ganglia, and to the basal forebrain. The ILN has traditionally been conceptualized as an extension of the RAS and, along with the nRt, part of the nonspecific thalamus. The ILN includes both anterior and posterior groups of nuclei. Because of the complex connectivities of the ILN, these nuclei play a central role in cortical arousal, attention, intention, working memory, and sensorimotor integration, including gaze control, with gaze control being virtually paradigmatic for attentional control in visual animals. Schiff and Plum (2000) propose that anterior ILN groups perhaps have a greater role in working memory sensory integration,...

Goal of the Physical Examination

The vocabulary of medicine is difficult and broad. Memorizing a term is less useful than being able to determine the meaning by understanding its etymology, or roots. The spelling of terms will also be easier. Listed here are some general prefixes, roots, and suffixes that are important to understand. At the end of each chapter in Section 2 is a list of terminology for that area of the body. The following list should not be memorized at this time. It should be referred to in conjunction with the lists in subsequent chapters.

Nucleus Reticularis Thalami nRt

NRt is a thin sheath of neurons on the entire lateral surface of the thalamus. It is a GABAergic inhibitory system that receives collateral projections from all thalamocor-tical axons passing through it. nRt provides a basis for adaptive gating and selective inhibition and activation of the highly distributed cortical systems, acting as a central pacemaker for thalamic oscillations. It receives projections from the pontine choliner-gic nuclei and the midbrain portions of the reticular activating system, including the superior colliculus and cuneiform nucleus. Lesion correlates for nRt have not been well-established given that it is almost impossible for naturalistic lesions of the thalamus to be confined to nRt, but it presumably has a central role in attentional gating, and in underpinning mutual reciprocal inhibition of multiple cortical areas in the service of directed cognitive activity. Several theorists of thalamocortical function (Taylor, 1999 Scheibel, 1980 Baars and Newman,...

Paralimbic Cortex and Heteromodal Cortex

The respective roles of heteromodal neocortex versus paleocortex in generating core or primary consciousness is incompletely understood, but research suggests that some paleocortex and heteromodal cortex is likely essential for the creation of phenomenal content (the movie in the brain). The ability to have coherent sensory content in ANY specific modality may require (counterintuitively) heteromodal systems. Functional imaging studies (see Rees et al., 2002, for summary) comparing conscious and unconscious visual stimuli demonstrate that conscious stimuli show activation of various heteromodal regions in prefrontal and parietal cortex, plus visual cortices, while unconscious stimuli only activate visual pathways. Lesion correlates of hyperkinetic mutism (associated with bilateral destruction of posterior temporal-parietal association cortex) also suggest that posterior heteromodal fields are likely essential for core consciousness. Hyperkinetic mutism resembles an extremely severe...

Case Study 32 Bilateral ILN LesionA Progressive Walk Through of the Taxonomy of Disorders of Consciousness1

During the fourth week he showed the beginning of the ability to meaningfully engage in neuropsychological assessment but with obvious global cognitive deficits, including a marked constructional apraxia and an obvious amnestic syndrome. Working memory and higher cognitive aspects of executive functions were still quite poor. By the fifth week, he still showed mild language pathology, including frequent semantic paraphasias and obvious dysnomia, along with a continued but improving amnestic syndrome, but improved attentional and executive functions. By this point the confusional state had largely resolved, and he continued to show gradual cognitive improvement over a protracted period of time. At one year out from bilateral paramedian thalamic infarction, a Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) IQ score was calculated of 118 verbal and 94 performance IQ. By 15 months out, his verbal score had improved to 125 with little change in his performance IQ. There was still a selective...

Retrieval and Mapping

This gap between the difficulty of retrieving remote analogs and the relative ease of mapping them has been replicated many times, both with adults (Gentner, Rattermann, & Forbus, 1993 Holyoak & Koh, 1987 Spencer & Weisberg, 1986) and with young children (Chen, 1 996 Holyoak, Junn, & Billman, 1984 Tunteler & Resing, 2002). When analogs must be cued from long-term memory, cases from a domain similar to that of the cue are retrieved much more readily than cases from remote domains (Keane, 1987 Seifert, McKoon, Abelson, & Ratcliff, 1986). For example, Keane (1987) measured retrieval of a convergence analog to the tumor problem when the source analog was studied 1 to 3 days prior to presentation of the target radiation problem. Keane found that 88 of participants retrieved a source analog from the same domain (a story about Retrieval is thus sensitive to structure and direct similarity of concepts. Conversely, mapping is sensitive to direct similarity and structure...

Analogical Mapping by Constraint Satisfaction ACME

ACME has a companion model, ARCS (Analog Retrieval by Constraint Satisfaction Thagard, Holyoak, Nelson, & Gochfeld, 1 990) that models analog retrieval. Analogs in long-term memory are connected within a semantic network (see Medin & Rips, Chap. 3 ) this network of concepts provides the initial basis by which a target analog activates potential source analogs. Those analogs in memory that are identified as having semantic links to the target (i.e., those that share similar concepts) then participate in an ACME-like constraint satisfaction process to select the optimal source. The constraint network formed by ARCS is restricted to those concepts in each analog that have semantic links hence, ARCS shows less sensitivity to structure in retrieval than does ACME in mapping. Because constraint satisfaction algorithms are inherently competitive, ARCS can model the finding that analogical access is more sensitive to structure when similar source analogs in long-term memory compete to...

Taxonomic Differences between Involuntary and Voluntary Forms of Remembering

At the broadest categorical level, autobiographical memory researchers have distinguished involuntary remembering from involuntary remembering on the basis of retrieval intention and use of retrieval strategies (e.g., Berntsen, 2009 Conway, 2005 Mace, 2007b). However, involuntary remembering appears to have retrieval subcategories which do not exist in voluntary remembering. Elsewhere (Mace, 2007a, 2007b), I've argued that involuntary remembering can be separated into three categories direct involuntary remembering (after Conway & Pleydell-Pearce's 2000 term direct retrieval), chained involuntary remembering, and traumatic involuntary remembering. Concerning the question of underlying causes of the divisions, as mentioned, this is an open question. It is possible that these differences might reflect different underlying retrieval processes, or different categories of the same underlying process. For example, some traumatic involuntary memory theorists believe that different...

Learning and Inference with Schemas and Analogies LISA

Similar to ACME, the LISA model (Hummel & Holyoak, 1997, 2003) is based on the principles of the multicon-straint theory of analogy unlike ACME, LISA operates within psychologically and neurally realistic constraints on working memory (see Doumas & Hummel, Chap. 4 Morrison, Chap. 19). The models discussed previously include at most localist representations of the meaning of concepts (e.g., a semantic network in the case of ARCS), and most of their processing is performed on propositional representations unaccompanied by any more detailed level of conceptual representation (e.g., neither LISA represents propositions using a hierarchy of distributed and localist units (see Figure 4.1 in Doumas & Hummel, Chap. 4). LISA includes both a long-term memory for propositions and concept meanings and a limited-capacity working memory. LISA's working memory representation, which uses neural synchrony to encode role-filler bindings, provides a natural account of the capacity limits of...

Conclusions and Future Directions

When we think analogically, we do much more than just compare two analogs based on obvious similarities between their elements. Rather, analogical reasoning is a complex process of retrieving structured knowledge from long-term memory, representing and manipulating role-filler bindings in working memory, performing self-supervised learning to form new inferences, and finding structured intersections between analogs to form new abstract schemas. The entire process is governed by the core constraints provided by isomorphism, similarity of elements, and the goals of the reasoner (Holyoak & Thagard, 1989a). These constraints apply in all components of analogical reasoning retrieval, mapping, inference, and relational generalization. When analogs are retrieved from memory, the constraint of element similarity plays a large role, but relational structure is also important - especially when multiple source analogs similar to the target are competing to be selected. For mapping, structure...

Short Term Changes in Mental Function

Postoperative delirium is another common short-term mental status change seen postoperatively in the elderly. Delirium, by definition, is a transient disorder with a sudden onset of mental-status changes characterized by confusion, disorientation, hallucinations, delusions, and overactivity of psychomotor autonomic nervous system function. Patients with delirium have disorganized and incoherent thinking. Short-term memory is impaired. Patients are often disoriented to time, but not infrequently they are also disoriented to place and person. Attention disturbance is always present, with the patient easily distracted. The patient often has no idea where they are, why they are there, and at times do not even recognize family members. This is usually seen on the first or second postoperative day, and symptoms are worse at night. The literature reports between 10 percent and 60 percent of elderly patients may experience postoperative delirium depending on the magnitude of surgery and the...

Functional Comparisons of Involuntary and Voluntary Remembering

Functional accounts of autobiographical memory have postulated three separate purposes for this memory system directive (helping to guide future behavior), social (enhancing social cohesion among individuals), and self functions (helping to facilitate and maintain conceptualizations of the self) (see Baddeley, 1988 Conway, 1996,2005 Bluck & Alea, 2002). While there has been little work done in the area of function with involuntary memories, one study has suggested that they may have functions which in many ways overlap with these three functions (Mace & Atkinson, 2009). It makes sense that involuntary remembering and voluntary remembering would have the same or overlapping functions, as both should be serving the larger purposes of autobiographical memory (for a more in-depth treatment of the functions of autobiographical remembering, see Bluck, Alea, & Demiray, chapter 12, this volume). However, involuntary remembering may have unique functions that voluntary remembering...

Comparing the Memories Generated from Involuntary and Voluntary Remembering

In attempting to predict whether involuntary and voluntary retrieval processes would produce memories with similar or different characteristics, one comes up with two conflicting answers. On the one hand, there is good reason to believe that different types of memories might be produced by involuntary and voluntary retrieval processes, as the latter should include generative constructive processes (e.g., Conway, 2005) which might influence, bias, or add to the memory production process in some way. On the other hand, there is good reason to believe that the two retrieval processes may produce the same or similar memories as they are likely to be sampling the same autobiographical memory base. Although some differences have been reported, commonalities appear to be the trend (for a more extensive review of differences and similarities, see Berntsen, 2009).

Frederic Barlett and the schema

Involved examinations of amnesic patients, people who were suffering severe memory loss as a result of specific brain damage. While debilitating, it turns out that the memory capacity lost was selective to aspects of conscious recollection described by James and Bartlett, and had properties shared with Tolman's characterizations of the cognitive map. Other capacities that the behaviorists might recognize as intact stimulus-response learning were spared, even in severe cases of amnesia in humans. Parallel studies on animals with experimental brain damage in the same brain areas implicated in human amnesia provided additional insights into the anatomical psychological bases and fundamental psychological mechanisms of cognitive memory. In addition, related physiological observations provide an understanding of the coding elements that underlie the cognitive mechanisms in conscious memory. These findings are the focus of this section.

The amnesic patient HM

The operation reduced the frequency of seizures to a point that they are now largely prevented by medication, although minor attacks persist. However, one striking and totally unexpected consequence of the surgery was a major loss of memory capacity. Because of the combination of the unusual purity of the ensuing memory disorder, the static nature of his condition, his cooperative nature, and the skill of the researchers who have protected and worked with him, H.M., is probably the most examined and best known neurological patient ever studied.

Higher Order Processes

Selective attention have attempted to specify the functional level at which information is selected for or rejected from further processing (Johnston and Dark, 1986 Kahneman and Treisman, 1984). Early selection theories (e.g., Broadbent, 1958 Treisman and Geffen, 1967) have proposed that irrelevant information can be rejected before the semantic analysis of the stimulus, i.e., attention operates at the sensory or perceptual level. Late selection theories, in contrast, propose that selection occurs after both the physical and semantic analysis of all stimuli impinging on an organism (e.g., Deutsch and Deutsch, 1963). According to this view, stimuli automatically activate nodes in long-term memory attention in this case operates at the level of decision or response processes (Deutsch and Deutsch, 1963 Shiffrin and Schneider, 1984 Hoffman, 1978 Posner et al., 1980). Working Memory working memory associated with correct performance. The timing between these structures differed according...

Imagery as Internalized Perception

In the cases of mental rotation, mental movement, and mental size transformations, objects or object parts undergo imagined transformations. There is also evidence that objects can be mentally scanned in a continuous manner. In a popular task introduced by Kosslyn and his colleagues, participants memorize a map of an island with several landmarks such as a well and a cave. Participants are then asked to conjure an image of the map and to imagine looking first at the well and then mentally scanning from the well to the cave. The general finding is that mental scanning between two imagined landmarks increases linearly as the distance between them increases (Denis & Kosslyn, 1999 Kosslyn, Ball, & Rieser, 1978 Figure 10.2). The phenomenon holds for spatial arrays established by description rather than depiction - again, under instructions to form and use images (Denis, 1996). Mental scanning occurs for arrays in depth and for flat perspectives on 3 D arrays (Pinker, 1980). In the...

Memory Representations

An autobiographical memory is a mental construction or pattern of activation (and inhibition) across knowledge structures in long-term memory. One recent account proposes that such knowledge structures can be highly specific sensory-perceptual-affective-conceptual (SPAC) experience-near representations (Conway, 2009). Or they can be more abstract conceptual representations of personal knowledge of ourselves, our history, and history of the time in which we live. According to this scheme, there are three types of highly specific representations of experience episodic elements (EEs), simple episodic memories (SEMs), and complex episodic memories (CEMs). Episodic elements are the most event-specific, most experience-near representations in long-term memory. They are often in the form of visual images and most of all they represent moments of experience or summaries of moments of experience, particularly and perhaps exclusively moments of conscious experience (see Moscovitch, 1995). Thus,...

Endings See final sentence

Examinations Many otherwise intelligent professionals still approach writing as if they have to 'get it right' first time. This is probably because much of their writing has been dominated by the unnatural act of sitting examinations - taking a couple of hours to regurgitate previously memorized information. We all need to move on treat writing not as a measure of goodness or cleverness or niceness, but as a powerful tool of communication (see effective writing).

Distortions as Clues to Reasoning

What might a representation that captures all these distortions look like It would look like nothing that can be sketched on a sheet of paper, that is, is coherent in two dimensions. Landmark asymmetries alone disallow that. It does not seem likely that people make these judgments by retrieving a coherent prestored mental representation, a cognitive map, and reading the direction or distance from it. Rather, it seems that people construct representations on the fly, incorporating only the information needed for that judgment, the relevant region, the specific entities within it. Some of the information may be visuospatial from experience or from maps some may be linguistic. For these reasons, cognitive collage seems a more apt metaphor than cognitive map for whatever representations underlie spatial judgment and memory (Tversky, 1993). Such representations are schematic they leave out much information and simplify others. Schematization occurs for at least two reasons. More exact...

Uncontrolled Direct Retrieval A Case Study

CR is a 47-year-old mother of four who, at the age of 44, suffered a severe case of Herpes Simplex Viral Encephalitis, leaving her with significant damage to the right side of her brain, including a large portion of the medial temporal lobe extending to the fusiform gyrus, basal ganglia, the insula, and the inferior frontal lobe. CR has a profound amnesia for her 20s, 30s, and early 40s, to the extent that she is unable to recall anything about the birth or development of any of her children (Loveday & Conway, 2009). In addition she demonstrates a lesser but still significant level of amnesia for her childhood and adolescence. For example, she has relatively good personal knowledge about this time, but while she is able to recall some specific autobiographical memories, many of these appear to be well-learned stories. Those that do have the qualities of a more genuine autobiographical memory tend not to be generated spontaneously or in response to general cues, but rather they are...

From Spatial to Abstract Reasoning

Indeed, spatial reasoning is often studied in the context of graphics, maps, diagrams, graphs, and charts. External representations bear similarities to internal representations if only because they are creations of the human mind that is cognitive tools to increase the power of the human mind. They also bear formal similarities in that both internal and external representations are mappings between elements and relations. External representations are constrained by a medium and unconstrained by working memory for this reason, inconsistencies, ambiguities, and incompleteness may be reduced in external representations.

Studies of Cerebral Metabolism and Blood Flow in Schizophrenia

The frontal lobes have played a prominent role in hypotheses of schizophrenia since the conceptualization of the illness. Early functional neuroimaging studies, beginning with Ingvar and Franzen's (1974) seminal finding that patients with schizophrenia had relatively lower blood flow to frontal regions, provided evidence for the involvement of the frontal lobes. Changes in blood flow in response to cognitive activation were also first observed in these early studies. A large number of activation studies were published over the past 15 years that report frontal lobe impairment in schizophrenia. The overwhelming majority of these investigations have detected abnormal prefrontal response to a variety of cognitive activities designed to access and or control frontal neural circuitry, particularly working memory. The prefrontal site most commonly affected is the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and, until recently, the physiologic abnormality in this brain region was consistently...

Formal characterizations of nondedarative memory

Daniel Schacter made a similar distinction between explicit and implicit memory. Explicit memory involves conscious recollection generated by direct efforts to access memories. Explicit tests of memory involve direct inquiries that ask the subjects to refer to a specific event of learning or a specific fact in their knowledge. Examples of explicit tests of memory include, What were the words on the list you studied and Which of these two items did you see before The full range of explicit memory tests includes a large variety of direct measures of recall or recogni tion of word or picture lists, paired associates, story recall, and most of the common tests of memory that are performed so poorly by amnesic patients. Explicit memory expression also includes most everyday instances of memory, such as recalling what one had for breakfast this morning or what the capital of France is. Both examples involve conscious efforts to search for a specific event or fact. By contrast, implicit...

Experimental Case Study

Many of the concerns and pitfalls are listed in Table 3-3. An experiment may compare active, passive, and rest conditions or conditions at differing speeds and forces, usually in blocks of, e.g., active wrist extension for 30 seconds alternating with 30 seconds of rest. Cognitive tasks often work best using an event-related design. This approach can take into account the levels of difficulty of a language, working memory, or other cognitive task for a subject. For example, to study working memory, the N-back test can be performed with 0, 1, 2, or 3 previously shown numbers or letters to be held in mind.206,207 Task difficulty needs to be determined before the patients get into the scanner. The activation task then can include levels of difficulty that can be accomplished at, e.g., a level of 80 correct responses. In a scanner, the brain does not rest. Patients may be imagining, thinking, or talking to themselves. Thus, 2 or 3 conditions may need to be included along with rest. Because...

Explaining the Dissociation

We argue that there are two competing sets of explanations for the causes of the dissociation between the voluntary event clusters and involuntary memory chaining (1) methodological, and (2) theoretical. The methodological account works under the assumption that the differences are merely an artifact of measurement that is produced by laboratory procedures. That is, the dissociation in question is produced by two very different sets of data, one occurring spontaneously, the other deliberately, and thus inconstancy of conditions may be in some way responsible for the differences. One logical assumption may be that involuntary memory chains represent naturally occurring, automatic spreading activation in the autobiographical memory system (see Mace, 2007, chapter 8, this volume). And, as such, one might argue that they flow along more settled lines of organization within the system, similar to the idea that semantic priming follows the organization of semantic memory. Another...

Creativity and Neurobiology

Facilitate this form of reasoning and focus, less frontal brain activation occurs as is evidenced by increased theta wave rhythms, a rhythm state that is associated with deep reverie. Decreased frontal cortical brain activity facilitates disinhibition of the sub-cortical (deeper and lower regions) of the brain which then releases more emotional and sensory information during the creative process. Furthermore, during primary imagination the usual pragmatic daily activities that demand more language-centered left hemispheric dominance are reduced, thus both hemispheres interplay. When the left hemisphere is no longer dominating right hemispheric activations diverse and bountiful associational information is detailed and elaborated. Secondary imagination consists of convergent thinking, deductive reasoning, and focused attention. These cognitive activities are critical for detailed selection and engage more prefrontal and frontal cortical activation. With the activation of higher...

Dance and Neurobiology

Our body schema (a felt sense based on physical properties of our body) is ideally matched with our body image (learned attitudes about our body). In dance this is one of the most delicate convergences because many trained dancers acquire great skill at managing body schema activations however, their body image may become distorted by the ideal notion of what a dancer's body is to resemble. Body schemas operate almost entirely outside of our conscious awareness. For example (a) proprioception (meaning perception of one's own) provides a sense of body motion, (b) the vestibular system provides a spatial awareness while we are moving, (c) our senses of touch, sight, sound, and smell provide further information, and (d) muscle memory (procedural memory) facilitates an organized and coherent motor action. Multiple regions within our brain coordinate our body schemas and organize and mobilize conscious and unconscious intentional actions. What is most intriguing is that our perceptions of...

The somatic marker hypothesis Cognition meets emotion

The SMH (Damasio, 1994) makes four basic assumptions (1) reasoning and decision making operate at a number of levels of neurobiological functioning, some of which are conscious and others of which are not (2) cognitive operations rely on different cognitive modules of the working brain including at least attention, working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and language functioning irrespective of the content of images (3) reasoning and decision making depend upon the knowledge an individual has about his or her previous experience of situations, actions, options for actions, and outcomes that are factored into each newly encountered situation and (4) this knowledge is mediated by the higher-order cortex and various subcortical nuclei which bring a variety of possible sources of information (i.e., prior knowledge about the world, bioregulatory processes, and bodily states in the form of emotions, all of which are brought together into a multifaceted decisionmaking space) (Bechara,...

Monkeys with damage to the medial temporal lobe have a selective memory impairment

The introduction of a new benchmark assessment of amnesia monkeys using the delayed nonmatch to sample (DNMS) task opened up the opportunity to readdress whether this approach would indeed provide a valid model of the fundamental characteristics of human amnesia. Recall that these characteristics include spared nonmemory functions and short-term memory in the face of rapid forgetting, global scope of amnesia across learning materials, and graded retrograde amnesia.

Methodological accounts

The event-cueing paradigms described above randomize presentation of the cues within each trial. The consequence of this is that each cued memory is the result of a novel search process. The potential problem with this technique is that it may encourage more deliberative search based (i.e., top-down strategic recall) on content features than would more naturalistic retrieval of related memories in sequence which may be more open to the influence of unconscious retrieval processes and therefore better reveal the emergent structure of autobiographical memory. The traditional memory-cued memory tasks are more similar to paired-associate retrieval tasks than to the free-recall tasks in category generation used to assess the structure of semantic memory. Memory chaining involves the sequential generation of related memories. In an attempt to bridge the laboratory-based event-cueing paradigm with the naturalistic diary recording of involuntary memory chains, Talarico (2005) gave...

Mechanisms Of Action Regulation

If the Papez circuit functions as an integrated system, in which the other structures are critically dependent on information from the hippocampus, one would expect that a major mode of transmission of neural information to and from the hippocampus would be at the theta frequency. Indeed, this is the argument put forth by Miller (1991). A key finding is that bilateral lesions to the anterior nucleus of the thalamus or the cingulate gyrus reduce the duration of hippocampal theta induced by electrical stimulation. Similarly, stimulation to either the cingulate or the anterior thalamus induces theta activity in the ipsi-lateral hippocampus (Azzaroni and Parmeggiani, 1967). In humans, a possible parallel to the integrative role of theta in memory consolidation was suggested by the finding that coherence between different cortical regions was observed only at the theta frequency when subjects had to hold information in short-term memory (Sarnthein et al., 1998). In rats, hippocampal theta...

Traumatic Brain Injury

Activation paradigms after mild to moderate TBI may provide insights into the effects and management of a postconcussion syndrome, focal brain injuries, and diffuse axonal injury. Twelve subjects who had a mild TBI 1 month before testing were compared to controls in the auditory n-back task (see Experimental Case Study 3-1) for assessing working memory (see Chapter 1).137 The subjects described more cognitive symptoms, especially in concentration and recall of recent events, than did the controls. Activity in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal and superior parietal cortices was similar for the 0-back (simple vigilance) compared to 1-back (low demand) condition. A much more extensive activation was found in these regions on the right in patients with TBI for the 1-back to 2-back comparison, although performance did not differ. Both groups had a similar magnitude of task-related increase in activation when the 0-back and 2-back were compared. Functional imaging, then, revealed a...

Electrophysiological Signs Of Human Executive Control

Reflect functional mechanisms such as potentiation and depotentiation of synap-tic connections Perhaps the enhancement of P3a to distractors with increased attention to the foreground task (Katayama and Polich, 1998) could reflect dopaminergic control of the ACC that inhibits the switching, i.e., that avoids the distraction. In other words, dopaminergic activity preserves the current context at the expense of ignoring potentially important stimuli. Such an action could be consistent with the winner take all mechanisms of switching described for dopaminergic modulation of neostriatal circuits (Redgrave et al., 1999) if it is not selected, the distractor stimulus does not receive consolidation within working memory that can be provided by mechanisms of limbic theta (Buzsaki, 1996). Gevins, A., Smith, M. E., McEvoy, L., and Yu, D. (1997). High-resolution EEG mapping of cortical activation related to working memory Effects of task difficulty, type of processing, and practice. Cereb....

An alternative theory The hippocampus and remembering recent experiences

In 1979, David Olton and his colleagues proposed an alternative view of the role the hippocampus plays in learning and memory. He argued that the hippocampus is critical when the solution of a problem requires memory for a particular recent experience. He called this working memory, but note that we will not use this term because it has a different meaning in the current cognitive and neuroscience literatures. In current usage, working memory refers to the ability to temporarily hold information online while the subject is working on that information. As described in detail in Chapter 13, this memory capacity has been tied to the function of prefrontal cortex rather than hippocampus. The kind of memory Olton described involved the capacity to remember information that was obtained in a single experience, and to retain and then use it after any delay and over substantial interpolated material, exceeding the properties of working memory. Olton and his colleagues distinguished this kind...

Convergence on the relational account of hippocampal function in memory

Approach to investigating this kind of memory can be obtained through a deeper consideration of the fundamental features of declarative memory. First, consider the notion that declarative memory is a combination of event or episodic memory and fact or semantic memory. How do these two kinds of memory combine to compose declarative memory We acquire our declarative memories through everyday personal experiences, and in humans the ability to retain and recall these episodic memories is highly dependent on the hippocampus. But the full scope of hippocampal involvement also extends to semantic memory, the body of general knowledge about the world that is accrued from linking multiple experiences that share some of the same information. For example, a typical episodic memory might involve recalling the specific events and places surrounding the meeting of a long-lost cousin. Your general knowledge about the relationships of people that compose your family tree and other facts about the...

From psychological evidence to an explicit largescale model of cognition

The LIDA GWT model has unusual breadth, encompassing perception, working memory, declarative memory, attention, decision making, procedural learning, and more. The model suggests that superficially different aspects of human cognition are so highly integrated that they can't be fully understood in a fragmentary manner. A more global view may provide an overview with surprising points of simplification when analyzing the cognitive mechanisms of spontaneous memory retrieval.

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