Making and Keeping Friends

Making and Keeping Friends

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Collaboration and Friendship

Although there are numerous biographies of eminent persons that describe the importance of individual friendships and detail exchanges of letters and ideas, there has been little in the creativity literature that focuses specifically on this important aspect. Jock Abra and Gordon Abra noted that even collaboration among creative individuals has been rarely studied, which they considered strange, given that almost every creative act involves working with others. A book on the topic by Vera John-Steiner, published a year later, addressed the importance of collaboration in creative work and viewed creativity as a social phenomenon, rather than an individualistic one, wherein the collaborative relationship scaffolds the construction of new ideas and also strengthens the creator's sense However, collaboration is more a required or necessary relationship, such as that between a choreographer and a dancer, or among a group of scientists working on a problem, while a friendship has no formal...

Domain Basis for Friendships

Often, friendships of creative individuals come from the same or related domain of endeavor. People become friends because they are passionately and emotionally involved in the same pursuits. They have common ground and become friends because of their common interests, according to creativity scholar, Jane Piirto. Although adult creators often describe great loneliness in childhood, they may develop strong peer friendships in late adolescence, particularly if they are able to learn or work together in their domain, which may sustain them throughout life. Friendships among creative children are important for development of self-esteem and for intimacy, particularly as students become teenagers. To share passions with like minds is important for well-being, as well as for generation of ideas, testing novel ideas, and growing cognitively and creatively. However, such friendships may be fraught with problems. Creative young people have the need to be valued and to share their interests...

Look at One Domain Music and Friendship

Some fields, such as music, are more conducive to collaboration and possible friendships. Alfonso Montouri and Ronald Purser noted At the same time, as noted earlier, there may be a tremendous level of competition, especially among aspiring young musicians where only the best succeed. While the friendships incubated in the conservatory evolve from passion for their craft and field, there is both the need to beat out the competition and the simultaneous need to share the joy of music, according to Judith Kogan and Lauren Sosniack, scholars of music development. In a study of the friendship between two Brazilian composers, Heitor Villa-Lobos and Walter Burle Marx, LeoNora Cohen found that the relationship started badly, with perceptions of each other on the one hand as unschooled and wild and on the other as an upper crust snoot overly concerned with form. However, Marx, sent to Europe at age 18 to study piano, composition, and conducting with the musical masters there, grew to love the...

Benefits and Problems in Friendships of Creators

Friends benefit creators not only in sharing new ideas and stretching cognitive growth, but also in validating and sustaining them on a personal level, helping them to overcome self-doubt, a characteristic that creative personality researcher Frank Barron found characterizes creative individuals, expressed as concern about personal adequacy and motivation to prove oneself. Friendship can provide emotional strengthening and a sense of confidence, enhancing the creator's self-esteem. Difficulties also arise, including conflicts and power issues.

Power Differences Stars Followers and Friendship

This may be a pattern in friendships among highly creative individuals, the more eminent in the dyad being dominant, wherein the friend is more a support than a beloved person to the dominant creator. In the case of Villa-Lobos, almost all of his friends were musicians or critics who championed Villa-Lobos's career and aspirations. More rarely they were equals, such as the famous pianist, Arthur Rubenstein, who was inspired by Villa-Lobos's music and played it often.

Future Research on Friendship and Creativity

Systematic study of friendships in creative lives is needed. Studies of friendships within particular domains, such as those among mathematicians, or across domains, such as a scientist and a painter, would be valuable, perhaps using cross-case methodology through studies of biographies or among living creators. Friendships that fail but stimulate creative output through criticism, such as that between Van Gogh and Gauguin, as well as friendships that are consistently supportive should be pursued. Friendships that are more equal between the creator and another and those that are less so need to be analyzed. What are the benefits to the friend of the creator, is there satisfaction in supporting creative growth, and is engendering of others' potential a type of creativity are questions to consider. How a friendship can grow out of collaboration or vice-versa needs study. It is not just the work-related collaboration or the intimate connections with spouses or lovers, but the emotionally...

Preschool Friendships

In order to form friendships, the 3- to 6-year-old child needs opportunities to socialize with peers. If they don't attend preschool, children of this age make their first friends during other social contacts usually arranged and supervised by parents or other caregivers. These include prearranged playgroups, interaction in playground settings, or casual encounters with neighboring children. In choosing their friends, a preschooler's personal preferences are already at work. By and

How do I maintain my friendships when my friends have typical children and my child has an ASD

The nature of your friendships may change after your child is diagnosed. Part of this is a result of time constraints. Much of your time is devoted to your child, with little left over to nurture friendships. Additionally, you may feel that your friends who have typical children really can't relate to your situation and that you can't relate to theirs. pulled away. I kept isolated. I understood my feelings, even if no one else did, and so I rationalized that I could work out my feelings by myself. But my strategy didn't work out the way I planned. I sank into a depression. I became more anxious. It took me months to realize that this was not the best strategy, and it wasn't a realization that I came to on my own. I had friends who did not give up on me, who kept coming after me even after I rejected their efforts to help. And I had a really good therapist who encouraged me to maintain my friendships. Through my consulting work with families of newly diagnosed children, I've been able...

Want my child to make friends Ive heard that social skills are important to teach to kids with ASDs but I dont know how

The majority of children with ASDs have difficulty employing social intera-tion skills, as previously mentioned. Teaching appropriate peer interactions at a young age is an important part of a comprehensive behavioral treatment program (Taylor 2001).1 Setting the stage for social interactions when your child is two or three years old can help your child make friends and relate to peers when he is older. - Play sports with your child or sign your child up for a sports team. There are special needs sports teams as well, which you can find out about through your local chamber of commerce or local autism organization. Sports can teach coordination, cooperation, and turn taking. Sports can also greatly benefit your child socially at school. Being on a sports team provides your child with opportunities to make friendships. Many children talk about sports and play them during recess. - Teach empathy skills. Empathy is an important part of friendship. You can teach your child how to become...

Defining Friendship

Definitions of friendship vary, depending on whether we are talking about business relationships, childhood buddies, or best friends, each with a set of norms and demands. Early definitions from the ancient Greeks idealized friendship as a virtue and viewed it as only possible between good men. More current views recognize its complexity. Jan Barkas described friendship as a relationship that is voluntary and caring between two or more persons who have no kinship or legal bonds that reinforces self-esteem and a feeling of being needed or liked. Robert Wubbolding viewed friendship as based on the deepest human need for belonging, interconnectedness, and the satisfaction of power. According to James Grunebaum, friendship is based on caring, with willingness to assist or benefit the other. One treats one's friends well, helps and does not harm them. Friendship involves responsibility to receive personal confidences and thoughts, the promise to do one's duty and not defraud or wound. In...

Preface to the Second Edition

I would also like to thank the many students (hundreds in fact) on the undergraduate course in Research and Experimentation II who, for seven years, were able to interrogate the author of their set textbook. I appreciated their (generally) kind comments and I am glad that the book helped a number of them to realise that statistics were not so alien after all. I have many happy memories of teaching on that course with my colleagues Victoria West and Alfredo Gaitan, who I would also like to thank. Thanks also to Ian Robertson for our many discussions on teaching and learning, especially on how to make topics clear and comprehensible. Finally, I would especially like to thank Charlotte Brownlow, Isabella McMurray and Bob Cozens, the other members of the SPSS Explained team, without whose enthusiasm, support and friendship I might not have taken on the task of writing this new edition.

Conflict Between Different Motivational Systems

Although inner conflict has generally been understood in terms of an id-ego or drive defense model, the fact is diat other conflicts between different motivational systems play an important role in biological and psychological life. An obvious mundane example is the conflict between hunger and the desire to avoid obesity. Another example among animals as well as humans is the conflict between aggression and competition on the one hand and cooperation and friendship on the other.

Cross Sectional Design

Sometimes, researchers wish to map out the possible reasons for a behavior change by testing children of different ages. In this design, researchers compare groups of children of different ages against one another at the same point in time. For example, three groups of children (each age group is called a cohort ) ages 5, 7, and 11 years old might be given a test to measure their problem-solving skills in language and thought. Or the same age groups might be monitored for their preferences in friendships whether they prefer same sex or opposite sex friends.

Gender Age Spacing and Other Moderating Influences

Social categories such as age, gender, and socioeconomic status entail standards of behavior that can influence personality. In connection with the study summarized in Table 1, respondents assessed the personality of a close friend (N 1002). Significant birth-order differences emerged, but they did so in interaction with other variables. Upper-class respondents, as well as older respondents, saw their best friends as exhibiting the traits generally expected by birth order. In contrast, college students - especially those from lower-class backgrounds - did not perceive these same birthorder differences. For example, college students did not describe their firstborn friends as being particularly conscientious or conventional, whereas older respondents did.

The Tapestry of Work and Life

Family provided the basis for friendships, education, and financial and social support. As a result, each writer was geographically grounded as well, accounting for the strong use of place in their work. Pollard cites Charlotte from her letters of a bleak Haworth No other landscape than a monotonous street of woodlands, a grey church tower, rising from the center of a churchyard so filled with graves that the raxes weed and coarse grass scarce had room to shoot up between the monuments .

Photography and Alice

In 1855 Henry George Liddell became the Dean of Christ Church Oxford. He arrived with his wife, a son, Harry the eldest, and three daughters, Lorena, Alice, and Edith. Soon after the Liddells arrived, Charles met the children and was soon photographing them. He became a frequent visitor to the Liddell's home, apparently to see the children for there is little indication that he developed a friendship with either parent.

Degas a Mentor in

From 1879 to 1880, Cassatt and Degas worked together making prints for Le Jour et La Nuit, a journal that Degas had planned. Although the journal was never published, it strengthened their friendship and encouraged Cassatt to focus on printmaking as well as painting. While Degas was helpful, he had a very difficult personality that could be abrupt and irritating. Cassatt's father, whom she adored, also had a stubborn and difficult personality, which was possibly one of the reasons that she could tolerate Degas. Yet, unlike her father, who had discouraged her from pursuing a career, Degas strongly supported her work and became her mentor. He would stop by her studio to see her progress and in one painting, Little Girl in a Blue Armchair, 1878, he even found the model and painted on the background. Degas encouraged Cassatt to focus on drawing which became one of the greatest strengths in her work. Cassatt was also helpful to Degas. She tirelessly promoted his work by using her influence...

Degas and the Creative Imagination

In spite of their mutual passion for art, Cassatt and Degas did not always agree. During the Dreyfuss Affair, Degas was certain that Captain Alfred Dreyfuss was guilty of treason, while Cassatt believed in his innocence. History has proven her correct. Dreyfuss, who was wrongly accused and imprisoned because of anti-Semitism, was later exonerated and honored by France. Cassatt could also be difficult. A very outspoken and critical person, she had a long history of broken friendships throughout her life. It was inevitable that two such strong willed people would have rifts but when these occurred, mutual friends would bring them together again. At the very end of his life when Degas was blind, going deaf, and losing his cognitive faculties, Cassatt persuaded his niece to take care of him during his final two years. Expressing her sorrow when Degas died in 1917, Cassatt said, He was my oldest friend here and the last great artist of the nineteenth century. I see no one to replace him.

Il etait cense etre It Was Meant to Be

One of the most important people that she ever would meet was a man ten years her senior - Paul Cushing Child. Paul, a fellow OSS employee who worked in the map-making department, came from a well-respected Boston family. They met in 1943 through chance circumstances but their friendship quickly solidified as Julia was fascinated by Paul's worldliness - especially his artistic talents and passion for food. Paul was transferred to China, and Julia followed soon after. Paul introduced Julia to cooking while in China, where they compared their Ceylonese dining experiences with Chinese cuisine. Julia's experiences with foreign cuisine opened her palate to new possibilities, and what could have been a mere work friendship blossomed into something much more serious and transformative for her.

La cuisine frangaise The French Cuisine

The work of producing the cookbook turned into a laborious effort that included a pinch of luck and a dash of coincidence. Mr Sumner Putnam - head of the original publishing house, Ives Washburn - sent a letter to the authors, requesting their finished manuscript in a few months. Julia sent him a letter back explaining the innovative nature of their cookbook, and their logical approach to cooking complex French dishes. Julia received no response from anyone at Ives Washburn, but she had begun correspondence with Avis De Voto, a resident of Cambridge, Massachusetts. Julia had read a column in Harper's Magazine, written by Avis's husband Bernard, about the unsatisfactory quality of American-made cutlery. Julia and Avis subsequently struck up a trans-Atlantic friendship discussing cutlery, cuisine, and Julia's cookbook. Avis had connections to Houghton Mifflin publishing company, her husband's publishing house, and the cookbook trio finally left Ives Washburn and entered into a contract...

Theme One Personality Characteristics of Creative Women and Internal Barriers to Creativity

Reis explained that introspective analyses indicated that creative women had the ability to overcome challenges, the need for or absence of support, the opportunity to learn independently in the absence of formal education, and the willingness to live a different life from their peers or counterparts. Camille certainly overcame many challenges in seeking to become a sculptor in nineteenth century France. Women were neither allowed to enroll in art schools, nor allowed to use real nude models for their sculpting studies. Camille, a country girl, found a way to attend a private art school in Paris and employed a male model, in defiance of cultural norms. She certainly did not have the support of her mother or sister, but found support in her father. She learned independently by reading the classics in her father's library, modeling from nature and her family, and learning from the tutelage of Boucher and Rodin. She certainly lived a different life from most other girls in France at the...

Theme Five Internal and External Barriers to Creative Work in Women

Nor was she held back by the difference between her ambition and the facts of reality. She defied reality. She did not try to minimize the differences between herself and other women she did not seem to have a need to be accepted by other women. Her friendship with Jessie Lipscomb was established and maintained because of their similar interests and ambitions Camille did not change to be more popular with other young women.

Challenges of Collaboration

Another challenge is the establishment of trust among collaborators. Scientists as well as artists have more experience with competition in western societies than with working together. To overcome the practice of cautious self-interest requires sustained exploration of ideas, the discovery of complimentary skills and styles of working, and opportunities for relaxed interactions. Working partners who are evaluated for their productivity frequently worry about the ownership of their ideas or discoveries, a concern that can undermine the establishment of trust. Many collaborations emerge where intimacy or friendship is already in existence, or when partners find each other's contributions so stimulating that they work hard to overcome their socialization into competitive practices. In 1999, some studies by Palus found a lower performance in group members than by individuals working alone. These findings are based on situations where strangers spend very limited time with each other and...

Settings for informal contact with peers engaged in similar creative activities

Creatively autonomous people also sometimes seek creative support and stimulation by establishing friendships with other creatively active people or by joining informal groups to share ideas, work and constructive critiques in supportive environments. The Noble laureate, Toni Morrison, for example, reportedly received crucially important support at the outset of her writing career from a small group of writers who gathered monthly to share and discuss one another's most recent work.

Sibling Relationships

Although families are getting smaller, most American children are growing up with at least one sibling. Birth order is a subject of curiosity for psychologists and lay people alike. Parents assume that it's better to space their children closer together so that they'll grow up to be friends with interests in common. Another common belief is that same sex siblings will be emotionally closer. Well, it turns out that something else better predicts the quality of relationship that two brothers, two sisters, or a brother and a sister (of any ages) may have with each other the quality of the oldest sibling's friendships outside the family. One researcher concluded that while siblings are a given, a friendship is something a child needs to work for. If you have close friendships, apparently you are also more likely to enjoy your siblings.

The limbic system smell the fear

Along the lower edge at the tip of each of the temporal lobes is the amygdala (from the Greek word for almond ). This forms part of the limbic system, which is responsible for the brain's emotional responses. The term limbic comes from the Greek limbus, meaning margin, border or edge, which reflects the French surgeon Paul Broca's original observation of the region circling the inner margin of the hemispheres. The amygdala is the centre for basic feelings, particularly fear and sexual responses, and receives inputs from the visual, auditory and sensory parts of the cortex, with numerous further connections to the frontal lobes. Thus it has a crucial and important role in the mediation and control of major emotions like friendship, love, rage and aggression emotions that are fundamental for

Creativity and Cultural Diversity

Similarly, the daily lives of people impact how creativity is expressed in a culture. For example, in Turkey there is much poverty and oppression toward women. As a consequence of the arduous farm life experienced by Turkish women, artistic creativity is expressed in the form of embroideries, folk art, and song. Tales of happiness, love, and friendship are intricately interwoven into colorful embroidered traditional clothing, while tales of pain and sorrow are incorporated in their songs. In some East Asian countries such as India, creativity is highly associated with spirituality. Creativity is viewed as a personal journey of self-actualization and transformation of self which may not create a tangible visible product. Therefore, creativity is highly valued across cultures but differs in its manifestations.

Donna Chrobot Mason University of Colorado at Denver

In organizations, social identity has consequences for members of organizations through its effects on issues such as organizational socialization and intergroup relations (Ashforth & Mael, 1989). For example, Mehra, Kilduff, and Brass (1998) examined networking and friendship patterns within an MBA program. Both women and racial minorities were underrepresented in the program. Yet despite both groups having a minority status, only ethnic minorities were motivated to form ingroup friendships. Women established relationships more broadly than their ethnic minority counterparts. The researchers suggest that differences in the friendship formation patterns between women and minorities in this study may be in part the result of differences in the stereotype and marks attached to each group.

Tactile communication

Mutual grooming provides a means of maintaining the social structure of the herd. Friendship bonds are firmly formed through grooming. These friendship bonds tend to form between horses of a similar age and social rank. Preferred grooming sites are concentrated near the autonomic nervous

Pivotal Response Training

PRT draws upon the natural motivations and individual interests of each child to make learning engaging and fun. This treatment provides guidelines to improve pivotal behaviors such as motivation and the ability to respond to multiple cues and stimuli. Emphasizing functional communication and skill development, PRT has been successful in helping children with ASDs expand their communication and language skills, reduce interfering and challenging behaviors, and improve their attention spans. In the classroom, PRT is a valuable teaching tool that helps broaden children's interests and improve their academic performance. Most significantly, PRT helps children learn the skills they need to enjoy positive social interactions and make friends.

Little Help from Your Friends

I start yelling and then I'm suddenly happy again, my sleep gets all disturbed, my thoughts go so fast 1 can't grasp them. I get high-spirited and strong-willed. But the weirdest thing to me is that I don't even know I'm ill, and why would I take my medications if I'm not ill My husband always knows first, my sister next, and then my best friends. I'm always the last one to know when I'm getting manic.

Minority Distinctiveness

Ibarra (1993,1997) suggests that women and racial minority group members lack informal support and resources provided by networking relationships in organizations. Because minorities are highly underrepresented in organizations, it is difficult to consult with members of one's own group to seek friendship, support, feedback, and role models. Additionally, Ibarra (1992) has shown that the homophily bias exists with respect to network relationships. The preference to interact with people who are similar in terms of background socioeconomic status, race, attitudes, and so forth, is known as the homophily bias and has been widely supported in the literature (Konrad & Gutek, 1987). The implications of this for minority members in networking relationships is that (a) there are fewer opportunities to establish homophilous network relationships, (b) minority members must develop diverse interpersonal networks that include relationships with the dominant group to provide instrumental support...

Social Skills Training

Social Skills Training is an umbrella term that can include social skills groups, one-on-one social skills therapy, peer modeling, and video modeling. The goal of Social Skills Training is to help children with ASDs make friends, establish relationships, and have appropriate social interactions. Social Skills Training sessions are usually run by a trained facilitator such as a psychologist, behavior therapist, speech therapist, play therapist, or special education teacher. Parents can even be taught to facilitate sessions with their children by playing fun games that promote social interactions.

Sex differences in reactions to outperforming samesex friends

Past research has shown that within their separate peer cultures, females and males differ in important ways in their interactions with their samesex friends. One of the most prominent differences in the same-sex interactions of males versus females is males' hierarchical style of interaction versus females' more egalitarian style. This sex difference in style of interaction has been reported for young children (for reviews, see Maccoby, 1990, 1998 Omark, Strayer, & Freedman, 1980), children in middle childhood (e.g. Gilligan & Wiggins, 1988 Lever, 1978), adolescents (e.g. Douvan & Adelson, 1966 Karweit & Hansell, 1983 Savin-Williams, 1979, 1980) and adults (for a review, see Cross & Madson, 1997 also Rubin, 1985 Tannen, 1990). In discussing the empirical research on sex differences in children's styles of interactions, Maccoby concludes that 'the most interesting thing about all-boy and all-girl groups is the divergence in the interactive styles that develop in them. In male groups,...

What to Expect in Therapy

Perhaps you've tried to overcome your eating disorder on your own, but nothing has worked. You may have relapsed so often that you now assume it will always be the dominant force in your life. This exhausted, depressed resignation is sometimes called hitting a wall or bottoming out. It is a low point that feels so awful that you are willing to see the value of getting some support beyond your immediate friendships and family. You realize that you don't have to be isolated and alone with your illness or in your recovery and that you can ask for and get professional help.

Katharines Atypical Adolescent Years

During adolescence Katharine engaged in activities that paved the way for her career in-the-making including organizing and acting in plays. One summer, for example, she and her good friend, Ali Barbour, put together a performance of 'Beauty and The Beast' that mobilized siblings and neighborhood children. The girls charged admission to benefit Navajo Indians of the American Southwest.

Kates Relationships The Intermingling of Early Private and Public Life

In her senior year in college, two young men showed considerable interest in Kate. One of these, Bob McKnight, a student at Yale, proposed but she put him off. A second young man, Ludlow Ogden Smith, was waiting in the wings. Luddy' was highly educated and showed broad interests and Kate esteemed him as a good friend and a very nice man. 'Luddy' strongly believed that Kate would become a superb actress, and he was willing to do anything that he could to support her career goals. Kate and Luddy' were married in a private ceremony in December 1928. A few weeks into Kate's first and only marriage, the young couple separated. Kate concluded that her aspirations to become a first-rate actress did not fit with being married. 'Luddy,' who came from an aristocratic, wealthy family, continued to do all he could to be supportive to Kate as her acting career unfolded. They were formally divorced in 1934 but especially during her last years Kate treasured Luddy' more and more for his selfless...

Toward The Invisible Parent

Many new age parents like to believe that day care centers are not harmful to a child's development, and furthermore that their children receive benefits through increased exposure to other nurturing adults and to other children who add to their friendship network. Parents who are concerned about the quality of day care settings are turning to new technologies that give them the impression that they are still participating in the care of their children.

One Friend Above Others

Best friends is a meaningful category among preschoolers, just as it is with older children and adults. A best friendship is closer and more exclusive to the preschooler than his other relationships. In one study, Canadian and Scottish children were asked what qualities they expected in a same-sex best friend. Children beginning in preschool and throughout grade school chose similar interests as the most important aspect of this special relationship. Rarely mentioned by children as either a positive or negative factor were physical attributes such as attractiveness. The same went for shared personality traits, such as seeking out children who were either shy or outgoing. These attributes were simply not as important as enjoying the same games and activities.

Intraurban Spatial Distribution Segregation Of Social Groups

Theories of ethnic assimilation to yield a model of spatial assimilation. Minority groups initially are dissimilar in culture and social status and locate in the poorer areas of the central city. As they acculturate and assimilate on socioeconomic characteristics, they are better able to secure housing in higher-status areas, both because they have the means to do so and because they are more accepted based on lower social distance. Eventually, they gain acceptance into such primary relationships as coresidence, friendship, and marriage with the majority population and are fully spatially assimilated.

How do I measure the effectiveness of my childs therapists and treatment providers

It's okay if your child's therapist does become a friend, as long as the friendship does not impact his or her professional relationship with you and your child. Treatment therapists should always be professional when it comes to working with your child they should be respectful of your time (sessions should run on time as scheduled) and they should be respectful and open to your opinions and feedback. The treatment provider should also offer consistent verbal feedback on how your child is doing, as well as provide you with written evaluations.

Coming of Age in Samoa

Resounded in Margaret's mind for months after they parted, and what began as a friendship culminated finally in divorce and remarriage for Margaret. The ease with which Margaret secured a nonacrimonious divorce and made the marital transition from Luther to Reo is somewhat remarkable. She supplied few details in her autobiography (and, indeed, had tried earnestly to keep the matter private for decades).

General Aspects of Michelangelos Creativity

For starters, it is hard to think of anyone in history who had a significantly stronger motivation to create than Michelangelo. He aspired to artistic greatness as early as age 13, when he defied his family to be apprenticed to Ghirlandaio. As an adult, despite phenomenal success, he lived only for his art, largely forsaking friendships and basic comforts, sleeping in his boots, rarely washing, eating moderately, and taking on project after project that would require all of his energy. The David, the major frescoes, Julius II Tomb, Medici Chapel, and architectural work on St. Peter's each took multiple years of intensive and often lonely effort. Coupled with his high standards and strong opinions, Michelangelo's irascible, melancholy temperament isolated him even further. However, he continued to create even under the worst conditions, for example, while in hiding after the siege of Florence in 1530.

Will all of this treatment change my childs unique personality

Everyone should be respected and appreciated for his or her uniqueness. Parents of children with autism want most of the same things as parents of typical children. They want the best for them to help their children get along in the world, to communicate, interact and to make friends.

Elaborations from the Sociology of Emotions

This gap has been noted in the race literature by both Pettigrew (1997) and Welch et al. (2001). Specifically, these theorists argue that the public's reports of the emotions experienced during interactions with members of out-groups have a direct impact on prejudicial attitudes toward members of that group. That is, interpersonal contact that eventuates in feelings of closeness or friendship reduces the endorsement of prejudice and the willingness to discriminate. Similar concerns have been only infrequently discussed, however, by researchers examining the impact of interpersonal contact on stigmatizing responses to mental illness. We have argued elsewhere that the major emotion driving stigmatizing responses is the fear associated with mental illness. How individuals evaluate the dangerousness of individuals attenuates, and nearly eliminates, the influence of the label and the disturbing behaviors (see, for example, Martin et al., 2000). While Thoits (1985 2005) has...

The Concept of Overexcitability and Its Origin

As Dabrowski kept developing his theory, the five overexcit-abilities became components of the concept of developmental potential, together with talents, intelligence, and the autonomous factor of inner transformation. It is the potential for emotional development to a higher level such as, for example, self-actualization. In fact, Maslow and Dabrowski began a friendship which was cut short by Maslow's premature death in 1970. The overexcitabil-ities are ways of experiencing with great intensity, aliveness, vividness, depth and richness in the sensory, intellectual, imaginative, and emotional realms. They are also the means of expressing and transforming emotional tension.

Celiac Disease Life Without Wheat Rye Bailey and Oats

As you can imagine, life on this diet is no picnic A bowl of pasta, a bagel, cereal, crackers, or even a slice of bread can send a celiac's intestines into a sumo-wrestling match. Obviously, with the tremendous amount of food restrictions, members of the gluten-free club should consult a knowledgeable nutritionist. What's more, become best friends with your local health food store It's celiac-friendly and will generally carry the specialty items you need.

Treating the Depressed Child

Including ideas like I am worthless, Nothing will ever get better in my life, or I don't deserve to be happy will reinforce a child's feeling of despair and hopelessness. The therapist then gently challenges these thoughts and helps the child change her negative thoughts to positive ones. Substituting a new stream of self-talk containing ideas like I am okay the way I am and I can make friends can dramatically improve a child's mood.

Review of Empirical Research Using a Functional Perspective

Research on the social functions of autobiographical memory has focused on retrieving memories in an effort to initiate social bonds in new environments where others are unknown, by providing autobiographical information about oneself to others (Bluck, Alea, Habermas, & Rubin, 2005 Cohen, 1998 Nelson, 1993 Pillemer, 1998). Alternatively, when already in the context of an ongoing relationship, engaging in private or collaborative memory retrieval can be used to serve the function of enhancing the level of intimacy in the relationship (Alea & Bluck, 2007 Alea, Sanders, & Vick, 2008 Bazzini, Stack, Martincin, & Davis, 2007 Vick & Alea, 2008). Bluck and colleagues (2005) found that young adults self-report retrieving and sharing autobiographical memories in order to nurture existing social relationships, such as developing and strengthening friendships, more often than to serve other functions of autobiographical remembering. In a series of studies, Alea and Vick (Alea, Sanders, & Vick,...

Legalistic Dissentions The Fight for Clara

Friedrich Wieck, writing secretively to a good friend of Clara in Paris, disclosed plans to instigate legal proceedings against Robert and Clara. Using his legal background, Schumann prepared an affidavit. He would request legal permission to marry Clara if Wieck persisted in his refusal to settle out of court. After unsuccessful attempts to negotiate, Schumann filed his complaint on July 16, 1839.

Marriage and Motherhood

In the beginning, Anne Sexton's relationship with Kayo was intense, happy, and sexually fulfilling. Sexton tried hard to become a good housewife while Kayo continued taking pre-medical courses at Colgate University. But he dropped out of school in order to begin a more serious and mature life with Sexton. He got into the wool business as a salesperson. Sexton became good friends with Joan, her sister-in-law. They eventually moved in to Kayo's parents' house where Sexton began to display some interesting personality traits, such as throwing temper tantrums when her mother-in-law would ask her to do something simple. But from the start, Sexton had not made a good impression on Kayo's mother Billie. The first time they met, right before the couple was married, Sexton shocked Billie with her bright red lipstick and chain-smoking. Motherhood and couplehood presented a variety of complications for Sexton. In 1953 Sexton had her first daughter, Linda Gray. In 1955 she had Joyce (Joy) Ladd....

Abusive Or Hostile Patients

In everyday life there are a few people we genuinely like, some few that we genuinely dislike and the mass of people towards whom we generally feel indifferent. In every-day life we can generally simply avoid the latter two categories. In medical practice we have obligations towards patients that transcend the obligations we have towards other casually encountered minimal ethical obligations.3 Sometimes there is psychopathology on one or the other side.4,5 To deny that there are patients we dislike is either self-delusion or simply not true. To claim to be friends to and with everyone is not only absurd but devalues the meaning of friendship. 6 In one sense believing that all people are our friends means that we do not truly have any friends. The habit of calling every casual acquaintance by their first name is pathognomonic of this state of affairs. Medical practice is no different physicians like a few patients very much, cannot (for good reasons or bad) stand a very few others and...

Other Protected Groups

For example, Section 109 of the 1991 U.S. Civil Rights Act reverses a Supreme Court ruling (EEOC v. Arabian American Oil Co., 1991) and extends protection to extraterritorial American employees unless compliance with the law violates laws in the host country. Foreign companies operating in the United States are also obligated to comply with U.S. employment legislation. However, Friendship, Commerce and Navigation Treaties (FCN treaties) between the U.S. and foreign countries can contain provisions to preclude employment discrimination claims (Hoguet & Dansicker, 1996). In Weeks v. Samsung Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. (1997), an American alleged that the Korean company unlawfully replaced him with a Korean employee. Samsung used the 1956 FCN Treaty between the United States and Korea to successfully defend its practice because this treaty authorizes such personnel decisions for companies of either nation without invoking any national origin discrimination. Similarly, Bennett v. Total...

Choosing Your Acu Pro A Needle in a Haystack

How would you find the best restaurant, barber, or car mechanic in town I think most of us would ask a good friend. Finding out if a trusted friend, one who you know and respect, has been to or heard of a qualified acu-pro in your area is still the best and most reliable way to locate acu-help.

Group and Dyadic Factors Influencing Discrimination

When we discuss discrimination at these levels, the relationships among individuals become crucial to understanding discrimination. It seems unlikely that discrimination would occur in the context of a close relationship characterized by friendship, but the nature of the relationship has been largely ignored. Pettigrew (1997) presented evidence from four nations that friendship causes lower prejudice rather than the opposite.

Object Relations Theory

As they grow up, children internalize good and bad aspects of their objects of attachment (usually their parents) and take them on as their own internal objects. These internal objects then form the basis of how a person perceives and forms close relationships, such as to a wife or husband, but the perceptions and process also can extend to parent-child relationships and even friendships. The expectation of this theory is that, if the characteristics of these internal objects are not made conscious, there is a tendency to be attracted to the sort of person who resembles an internal object. You then may perceive that person as having the good or bad characteristics of your own internal object. The result is a projection of inappropriate good or bad qualities onto the other person.

Strategies for Combating Discrimination

Likely to eliminate prejudice if it involves interaction among members of the groups that is intimate, equal in status, supportive, and cooperative. One could hypothesize that close, high-quality relationships in the form of friendships among employees mediate the impact of these conditions. Wright, Aron, McLaughlin-Volpe, and Ropp (1997) demonstrated under laboratory conditions the effectiveness of a relationship building exercise in reducing intergroup bias. A potentially fruitful direction for future research is to explore whether similar relationship building interventions could be used in the workplace to deal with discrimination and prejudice. Wright, S. C., Aron, A., McLaughlin-Volpe, T., & Ropp, S. A. (1997). The extended contact effect. Knowledge of cross-group friendships and prejudice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 73-90.

Ephemeral Identity And Selfabsolving Morality

Cial mediation of morality, defining aspects of morally appropriate behavior have been equated with the act of being good to oneself. This is reinforced by the breakdown of morally meaningful relationships. Friendships have become largely symbolic, with the myth of their genuineness maintained mostly by a series of impression management strategies.

Pratyusha Tummala Narra

Lorna enjoyed attending school, as she felt that this gave her a break from her home life. She excelled academically and studied dance for several years. At the same time, she experienced difficulty with fitting in socially with the other children at school. She described herself as shy and feeling as though she was different because of her Chinese background. While school felt like a place of respite in some ways, Lorna continued to feel lonely. In college, she developed a few close friendships and attempted to create an identity that was separate from her parents and from other Chinese Americans. After graduating from college, Lorna worked in a bank for several years and then decided to pursue a graduate degree. During her years of working at the bank, she began to use marijuana regularly to cope with her feelings of loneliness, depression, and anxiety. The substance use increased in frequency after she had been raped. She eventually decided to seek help from a therapist to address...

Psychological Effects Of Materialism

Other revealing research by Marsha Richins and Scott Dawson highlights the relationship between materialism and various aspects of life sat-isfaction.32 They found that, as the degree of materialism increased, the amount of satisfaction with life as a whole decreased. They also found that higher levels of materialism result in reduced satisfaction with friendships and with leisure activities. Materialism was also associated with in

Interventions Using Psychosocial Data

Interventions that should be part of the standard repertoire for family physicians are those that do no harm, usually help, and employ traditional skills. Specifically, physicians can work with patients directly to reduce stress, to enhance or mobilize social support resources, and to reinforce or model positive stress appraisal and coping. Direct approaches to stress reduction may include intervening in the patient's environment (e.g., arranging respite care for an older patient to relieve stress on his middle-aged daughter) and allaying a patient's unrealistic fears about an illness. Social support can be enhanced directly through the provision of more contact with the physician or indirectly through mobilizing the patient to increase contact with family or friends. Physicians can support positive coping through instilling hope, modeling optimism, and encouraging patients who adapt. Reminding patients of personal strengths previously used to confront crises is also helpful. The...

Seven Habits of Highly Effective Couples

Structure time for fun and friendship. It is said that A friend is glad to see you and doesn't have any immediate plans for your improvement. 5 Plan time to relax and enjoy each other, without trying to fix your partner or give advice. Brainstorm ideas for fun. You might refer to the Pleasant Events Schedule in Chapter 9. Partners might make separate lists of ideas and pick an event from each list on alternate weeks. Plan spontaneity. For example, set aside a day to be together, with only general plans, such as going to the zoo. Let the details evolve as you go. 2. Keep fun and friendship times off limits from arguments and discussion of issues. Say, This is our fun time. How about if we plan to discuss this tomorrow night Try to balance problem-solving meetings with fun evenings. Just as with couples, families need fun and friendship time where enjoyment, not problems, is the focus.

The Joy of Family Practice

The rewards in family medicine come largely from knowing patients intimately over time and sharing their trust, respect, and friendship. The thrill is the close bond (friendship) that develops with patients. This bond is strengthened with each physical or emotional crisis in a person's life, when he or she turns to the family physician for help. It is a pleasure going to the office every day and a privilege to work closely with people who value and respect our efforts.

The Pediatric History

A good relationship with a child begins by making friends with him or her. Not wearing a white coat may alleviate some of the child's fears, but there are other ways as well. Start by admiring the child's shoes or toy his possessions are more neutral topics for the child to talk about at first than his or her own body or behavior. One of the best ways to make a child feel comfortable is through praise. When talking to a child, it is useful to say, ''Thank you for holding still. That makes the examination easier.'' The use of ''You're a good boy'' or ''You are such a sweet girl'' may produce embarrassment. Therefore, praise should be given for a child's behavior and not for his or her personality. Sharing a book with the child (e.g., as part of the ''Reach Out and Read'' program*) is another useful way to engage the toddler or preschooler. Interviewers are often amazed by how well a child can respond to questions phrased according to these rules. School-aged children can respond to...

The Cancer Counselling Center of Ohio

Occasionally a client will present what appears to be continual denial of the possibility of death, even in the face of worsening symptoms and physical decline and the ineffectiveness of medical treatments. This person's focus may be entirely on restoring a former way of life, returning to their job, and maintaining friendships. Saying the unsayable may be appropriate in this event (namely, introducing the possibility of death to the client) it many unleash a cascade of fears and other emotions heretofore bound up in stoic silence. The counsellor must be cautious, however, that his or her own expectations or conclusions (namely, about the inevitability of death) do not become prophecies to be imposed on the ill one. And the reverse is true also, i.e., that the counsellor not impose a desire to live at all costs. It is, after all, the client's life to live. As helpers we can nudge and challenge a client's expectations, but we cannot prod or push toward what we consider is 'best' for...

Attraction SelectionAttrition

Discrimination, based on demographic characteristics, therefore can result in a more informal manner from the friendships and social networks that emerge in an organization (Riordan & Shore, 1997 Ibarra, 1995). Even when not officially sanctioned by organizations, the formation of ingroups outgroups can define who has access to information and other resources needed to effectively perform in a job. Moreover, individuals who are commonly different from the majority in the organization, such as racial minorities, women, disabled persons, older individuals, and gays and lesbians, can be excluded from these informal relationships. Additionally, early in one's career, dissimilar individuals who are not a part of the ingroup may lack the mentoring that is often important to achieving success within organizations (Ragins, 1999 Thomas, 2001).

Self Analysis and Dreams The First Topographic Model

Although his clinical practice began to offer Freud more financial security, he continued to be fairly isolated scientifically. In 1896, Freud's father died, and beset by his own neurotic symptoms, Freud began a course of self-analysis and a close study of his dreams. Recalling that the Nancy school had considered hypnosis as a sort of sleep, Freud decided to use dreams as analogous to unconscious, hypnotic hallucinations fMakari 2008). Always needing an interlocutor for his developing ideas, Freud developed an intense friendship with Wilhelm Fliess, with whom he corresponded intimately and frequently between 1897 and 1904. Fliess was an ear, nose, and throat specialist from Berlin who came to Vienna in 1897 and had treated Freud's sinus problems and attended one of Freud's lectures on neurology. He had some odd beliefs in the primary connection between the nose and genital organs, in universal bisexuahty, and in a male and female periodicity, but he was a close listener and...

Emotional Overexcitability

Highly emotional individuals become strongly attached to people, living things, and places. They experience great difficulties adjusting to a new location and a new environment. To pull up so many roots and strike them in new soil takes up much energy. Adjusting to a new place often takes a long time, or it fails to happen. Hence compassion toward others, their loneliness, and being out of place. Friendships are strong and enduring. In his autobiography Darwin made frequent observations on his friendships and their personal importance to him in contrast to his association with scientific colleagues. In


One cannot write a book that focuses on loss and grief without being reminded of what we have loved and appreciated the most in our lives. What has meant the most, upon reflection, has often been taken for granted. Writing this second edition has once again given me the opportunity to remember and appreciate my gifts of life. These gifts include my husband, children, and grandchildren. John, my husband of 40 years, has enriched my life in ways that would not have been possible without his encouragement and support. My children, whose adult friendships I now cherish, have validated my belief that life presents difficult challenges that can become opportunities of growth. And now my young grandchildren, symbols of new life and fresh energy, are reminders that despite the losses of those we love, we can and will love and live fully again.

Plasmas in Metals

The United States was now at war and Oppenheimer was essential to the running of the Manhattan Project. However the security services were uneasy with his left-wing sympathies and he was subject to investigation. When questioned, Oppenheimer was willing to name names and discuss his students' political sympathies. One of those whom he termed 'politically suspect' and possibly 'dangerous' was David Bohm. It would be some years before Bohm learned that his father figure had betrayed him. Not having security clearance for the Manhattan Project Bohm moved to Princeton where he developed a strong friendship with Einstein. He continued his work on plasmas but also began to write a text book on quantum theory, one that would present a clear expression of Bohr's Copenhagen interpretation.

Listening Well

Physicians who express interest in patient opinions and who use humor more often are sued less often. Tasteful humor can reduce anxiety and create a bond of friendship, but humor used inappropriately can magnify the distance between patient and physician, especially if it belittles the patient.


There is a sense of Abraham's prideful accomplishment in this note to his good friend in having tracked down a symptomatic reaction in myself and not having caught myself at it any more. This has been achieved through the analyst's observation of his reaction to the patient's infantile transference, a reaction he has had with other patients that is considered to be a distraction from his task of listening carefully to the analysand's associations. Abraham then engages in a piece of self-analysis he realizes his guilt is connected to his not too easy separation from his parents, and this insight has subsequently freed him from similar diversions. In essence, he has succeeded in three ways first, by recognizing his distracting personal reaction stirred by the patient's infantile transference second, by engaging in self-analysis to remove this symptomatic reaction and last, by returning his attention to the analysand's narrative.


Aristotle skillfully captures what each of these theorists generally mean by the natural human drive to live a full life, to flourish. He observed that there are many human goods that people strive for, such as health, money, friendship, power, and fame. A middle-aged man cuts down on his fat intake for health reasons, a young man saves to buy a motorcycle, a rich person creates a foundation to support philanthropic causes, and a young music student diligently practices the guitar. However, Aristotle was astute enough to ask if, among all good things, there is a highest human good, or summum bonum. It would be something all people want, not as a means to other goods, but as an end in itself. This ultimate goal would be the final desire of all human striving, that is, justice, security, eudaimonia, or happiness. Each of these posited ''ends in themselves'' serve as proposed theoretical definitions of what it means to flourish as a human being.

Design Details

Writing reading love of books ( a home without books is like a house without windows ). Writing learning wisdom, leadership ( knowledge is power ). Writing creativity artistic acclaim ( a man of letters ). Writing political persuasion political eminence ( the pen is mightier than the sword ). Writing books and libraries personal wealth (public libraries are a comparatively recent innovation). Writing letters friendship, love ( letters - the elixir of love ).


In the next paper, the authors use a questionnaire to find out whether adolescent boys and girls differ in their reaction to doing better than their friends. The paper brings together previous findings from a number of different strands of research in order to arrive at the specific prediction for the study. This is that females, who tend to have a more egalitarian style of interaction than males, will feel more uncomfortable than males in dealing with situations where they achieve more highly than a female friend. Note that this research concentrates on same sex friendships in adolescence, a time when romantic interest in opposite gender peers increases. The authors note that 'even in adolescence and young adulthood, individuals form their identities through comparisons with others of the same sex' (p. 92) so for the issue they are examining, same sex peers are the most important. The focus on same sex peers also makes the study more straightforward because both males and females are...


The questionnaire was divided into three sections, each of which focused on four domains previously demonstrated to be important to adolescents romantic relationships, close friendships, academics and athletics (Harter, 1990). In section 1, two questions in each of the four domains assessed students' desire to be successful in the domain, yielding a total of eight questions. In Section 2, four questions in each of the four domains assessed students' responses to an imagined situation in which they performed at a higher level than their same-sex friend yielding a total of 16 questions. Section 3 asked students to describe their current level of achievement in each of the four domains. Two measures were used to assess the desire to be successful in each of the domains caring about success and feelings concerning lack of success. For each of the four domains, participants were asked to report on a 6-point scale how much they care (1 Not at All through 6 Care Extremely) about being...

General discussion

Results from both studies provided support for the hypothesis that females would report feeling more negative than males when they achieved better outcomes than their close same-sex friends. Further, results from Study 1 indicated that participants believed that their good friends would agree with their assessments When asked what their good friends' attitudes would be if the participants were more successful than their friends, compared with males, females believed that their good friends would think more negatively of them. Furthermore, a female may anticipate that another female would not make a good friend if the other female already had achieved more (Owens et al., 2000). Thus, females may reject other females even before they have formed a friendship with them. In contrast, males are more likely than females to be attracted to same-sex peers of higher status (Karweit & Hansell, 1983). Further research is necessary before the reasons that females react more negatively than males...

Role of Peers

Psychologist Howard Gardner, in his study of highly creative lives representing each of the Multiple Intelligences, delineated the crucial aspect of informed peers, who play a supportive and caring role as an essential element in the creative process through their beliefs in the revolutionary ideas of the creators. At the same time, the seven eminent individuals he studied had problems forming deep emotional attachments or close friendships. Friends, spouses, or lovers were important, but more for their contributions to the needs and purposes of the creator, rather than for their inherent value. These creators benefited from supportive relationships during periods of major work toward breakthrough, but caring others were less important once the breakthrough occurred and were sometimes discarded. This implies that the friend or significant other's personhood was less central than his or her supporting role. However, what has been overlooked is a discussion of supportive persons...


But there are also conflicts in friendships and close relationships for creative people, particularly when the friend is not supportive of a creative idea, the creator feels judged or rejected, or power issues arise, such as who gets credit for the new product or idea. Although, as Robert Sternberg and

Support Groups

For many men, prostate cancer support groups become their main support system. Properly run, such groups can be extremely helpful in providing information, friendship, and a place to discuss problems and side effects of treatment with others who have been there. Many men with prostate cancer derive satisfaction from helping others who are so affected.

Couples Skills

Satisfied couples spend time working and playing together, building trust, respect, and joint interests. Their relationship is marked by friendship, unconditional acceptance, laughter, shared control, compliments, commitment, and expressed affection and liking. They tend to use the word we when referring to their experiences. They make each other feel important, equal, secure, and not taken for granted. Shared fun permits the couple to be themselves and enjoy relaxed intimacy. Steady, comfortable friendship is more predictive of marital success than blissful, intense romance.

Benefits to Mentees

Benefits of having a mentorship relationship abound. These include, but are not limited to creativity enhancement, career advancement, an increase in knowledge and skills, development of known and undiscovered talents, development of a personal ethic, and establishment of friendship. Mentors may also display unconditional belief in the mentee express ideas freely and uphold high expectations. These benefits can enhance self-esteem, self-concept, and self-confidence.

Benefits to Mentors

Benefits to mentors may not be as tangible as for mentees, but they are powerful nevertheless. Mentors develop long-lasting meaningful friendships with their mentees, leading to a greater quality of life. They experience lasting satisfaction of contribution, which may result in increased confidence and a sense of well-being. Through their mentees, mentors become exposed to fresh new energy and curiosity, and to a new way of looking at things. With the help of mentees, mentors may become energized themselves, revitalizing their own career and receiving creative stimulation. The process of learning and achieving, as well as creativity, are enhanced for both people in the mentoring relationship. In addition, mentees often collaborate with mentors, leading mentors to higher productivity and future success.

The Individual

An alternative approach is to view the individual as being embedded in a broader social network. With this approach, the type of network becomes very important. In other words, the effect of network position on individual emotions, attitudes, or behavior may vary depending on the type of network being considered. For example, centrality within the friendship network versus the workflow network may differentially affect individuals. This approach is a more global approach to networks in contrast to the ego network approach, because the entire network is being considered (see the previous section on 'Network centrality').

The Group

Density is often of interest when understanding relationship patterns within the group. Density is the total ties divided by the total possible ties. In some cases, friendship ties may be of interest. In this case, density reflects the level of closeness among group members. Researchers continue to investigate the effects of density on various group outcomes. Generally, Coleman's notion of closure (see earlier section) suggests that redundant trust laden ties help groups perform better however, the conditions under which this is true continue to be investigated.

Weak Ties

Strong ties are not universally bad for creativity. In particular, the social support and positive affect associated with friendships may be helpful for creativity. It makes sense that one may be more comfortable sharing creative, and potentially odd or unusual ideas, with a trusted friend. As a result, one line of argumentation is that these ties may help with the implementation of new ideas and may help an actor gain support for his or her idea. However, when it comes to the generation of creative ideas, rather than their implementation, strong ties may not be helpful and actually may undermine creativity.


The early 1960s during one of her visits to England. Although this first kiss was special, it would also be associated with Nana's breakdown in Anne's memory. So the kiss was also associated with betrayal. Her other good friend from adolescence was Richard Sherwood. She later ran into him while on honeymoon with Kayo in Virginia Beach. Sherwood recalls Anne as being fun to be with and very talkative. When he saw Anne again with Kayo, he remembered how happy and full of sexual energy they were.

Social Outcomes

Childhood TBI often results in problems with social functioning. This is not surprising, given that the neuropathology associated with TBI often involves the frontal and temporal regions, which have been implicated in social behavior (Yeates et al. 2007). Cognitive explanations for a link between TBI and later problems with social functioning have also been offered (Yeates et al. 2004). Numerous studies have documented adverse social outcomes following childhood and adolescent TBI. Bohnert et al. (1997) investigated friendships and social outcomes and found that children with TBI were perceived by their parents as less socially competent with peer relations, especially in the context of severe TBI. Gender effects were also found such that boys with TBI were less likely than girls with TBI to maintain pre-injury friendships. Andrews et al. (1998) found that children with TBI had lower self-reported ratings of self-esteem and higher ratings of loneliness than a control group....

And patients

The products of elimination assume a special place in the culture of all social groups (Douglas 1966 Loudon 1977 Lawler 1991). According to Douglas (1966) the body is an important symbol of society. Its margins symbolize the boundaries of the community and are therefore potentially polluting. There are no human societies where the acts of excretion are not subject to normative expectations of some kind. Loudon (1977, cited by Lawler 1991 77) argues that in childhood, people learn to be positive or neutral about their own excreta and negative to that of others. As Dunlop (1986) observes, to care for another's pollution is a restatement of humility and love. Sharing dirt assumes a knowledge and friendship with a person. Nursing involves, inter alia, the handling of body products and the management of leaky bodies. In the course of their everyday work nurses have to transcend pollution taboos and cross sensitive social boundaries (Lawler 1991 Littlewood 1991). Ward staff at Woodlands...

The Young Adult

Friendship with women continued to play a major role for the rest of Sara's life. In the Potters, Williamina Parrish played a prominent role, helping her organize the poems for her first collection. The women in these years played a nurturing and guiding role, taking the place of her mother in supporting her, and Sara always seemed to need one of them to help her complete a book of poems (after Williamina Parrish, there was Marion Stanley, Jessie Rittenhouse, Marguerite Wilkinson, and finally Margaret Conklin). Later, however, she became less dependent upon them, and her final friend (Margaret Conklin) was more like a servant daughter to Sara. In Sara's early years her heroes were women - Sappho, Guenevere, and the modern Eleonora Duse. Nonetheless, she also needed fantasy male figures for her love poems. Until she was age 28, though, the lovers about whom she wrote poems were almost entirely imaginary. In both 1908 and 1909, Sara's health continued to be poor, and so she spent some...

The Unexpected Baby

Me with tears in his eyes, he says, Well, you have a Down's syndrome child. And I didn't know what he meant. I says, Is it a cold, does it go away, what the hell is it And he says, Patsy, the baby is mongoloid. I mean, it hits home, it's like, Are you for real And then he looks me square in the eye and he says, We have some papers. You could award him to the state if you don't want him. And I looked at my doctor that just delivered my son, my doctor that I loved, we had such a friendship, and I says, Get the hell out of this room. (Patsy DelVecchio, white bus driver, mother of a 6-year-old with Down syndrome)

Where Can I Download Making and Keeping Friends

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