Real Masculinity and Manhood

Core: How To Connect With Your Masculine Energy

Most men feel stuck in life, empty, and unhappy despite having a lot of wealth, good job, fame, and several conquests with the opposite sex. These men experience these problems because they lack the mature masculine energy. In fact, this is the reason why most men who seem to have it all sometimes decide to take their own life. Fortunately, someone has decided to provide a solution. David Tian is a Ph.D. holder in psychology. In his course known as the CORE, he reveals various ways any man can reach the ultimate masculinity and achieve true joy, happiness, and live a more fulfilling life. The Core comes with 8 video seminars, downloadable meditative audio exercises, PDF slides, worksheets, and 3 free bonuses. Currently, you can be able to purchase this course at a discount price. More here...

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Parasites masculine adornments and sexual selection

Hamilton and Zuk (1982) originally proposed that female mate choice might be affected by masculine secondary sexual adornments that signal the ability to tolerate or resist parasitic infections. The Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis was formulated as a result of comparative studies of blood parasites in avian species. Clearly, the secondary sexual adornments of male primates and their greater development in polygynous forms could provide opportunities to further explore the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis, including its possible relevance during human evolution. The theory predicts that, in comparative terms, those species in which males have the most striking adornments should be subject to higher disease risks selection having favoured the evolution of masculine adornments precisely because risks of infection are high. Intriguing examples of effects of infectious diseases upon secondary sexual traits in male non-human primates have been reviewed by Nunn and Altizer (2006). In the red uakari (Cacajao...

Masculine secondary sexual adornments a comparative perspective

Nasalis Larvatus Skica

Many of the secondary sexual adornments that are visually distinctive and sexually dimorphic in primates are difficult to quantify. It is probably for this reason that most authors have concentrated on sex differences in more readily measurable traits, such as body weight or canine tooth size. Exact measures of masculine adornments, such as the lengths of capes of hair, beards, or crests, or quantitative data on the distribution and brightness of sexual skin colours, are difficult to obtain for comparative studies. When 'fleshy' secondary sexual characters are of interest, such as the large nose of the male proboscis monkey or the bulbous flaps at the mouth corners of the male golden snub-nosed monkey, comparative measurements can be especially challenging (Figure 7.18). Figure 17.19 shows scores for sexual dimorphism in visual trait scores for adult male primates analysed according to their principal mating systems (monogamy, polygyny, or multi-male multi-female). Polygyny is...

Steroids Anabolicandrogenic

There are more than 100 different types of anabolic-androgenic steroids, synthetic substances related to male sex hormones (androgens). Anabolic refers to increased muscle building, and androgenic refers to increased masculine characteristics. Steroids refers to the class of drugs. These drugs are available legally only by

Degas and the Creative Imagination

Be inspired through attaining a special position with an important male figure in her life. This man, who is usually her father, admires her 'masculine' aspects such as creativity, ambition, and motivation for success. He also encourages the woman to identify with his interests and achievements. This happened twice with Cassatt first in assimilating her father's fervor for business and success, and then with Degas, who became a role model and inspiration for her art. It was he who suggested that Cassatt paint mothers and children, a subject matter that remained central throughout her career.

Theme Four New Initiatives or Research on Issues Relating to Women and Creativity

This theme suggests that women often manifest their creativity in more diverse and diffused ways, whereas men tend to be more single-minded. If this is so, Camille certainly expressed a more masculine type of creativity. She was very focused and driven in her sculpting from an early age, and she became more focused as she matured. It should not be surprising that Camille expressed a more masculine focus in her creativity. She clearly identified more closely with her father than her mother. Louis-Prosper was intelligent, well-read, sophisticated, and interested in classics and the arts, everything that Camille's mother was not.

Theme Five Internal and External Barriers to Creative Work in Women

In the years preceding and since Camille's death, much had been made of Rodin's exploitation of her and her family's mistreatment of her. The facts about these situations indicate that all parties had a part in both facilitating and hindering her creativity. But, Camille, herself would have to claim some of the credit and blame for her success and downfall. Her stubbornness and determination fortified her to pursue a career in a very masculine field in the nineteenth century. Yet, these same characteristics estranged people and further isolated her from society. Her behavior before her institutionalization seems by all accounts to have been bizarre and worsening, and she clearly exhibited signs of paranoia. So, her family did not institutionalize a perfectly normal person though her sequestration seems to have been an extreme reaction.

Endogenous testosterone levels

In contrast to Shute etal. (1983) and Gouchie and Kimura (1991), several studies have shown a significant linear testosterone-cognitive relationship. Gordon and Lee (1986) investigated 32 men with four visual-spatial and four verbal tests and determined testosterone levels of their subjects. Testosterone concentrations correlated significantly positively with one spatial orientation task, but not with any of the other spatial or verbal tests. The study by Christiansen and Knussmann (1987b) attempted a broader investigation of the effects of androgens on spatial and non-spatial cognitive abilities in a larger sample of 117 men in their twenties. They collected blood and saliva samples to determine serum concentrations of testosterone, non SHBG-bound saliva testosterone, and 5a-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Cognitive functioning was ascertained by 11 spatial and verbal ipsative test scores, reflecting intraindividual variance in the performance of these tasks, independent of the person's...

Left Brain Right Brain Split

While not scientifically proven, it is also fair to say that the right hemisphere has those attributes that are commonly associated with the feminine and the left has those that are traditionally thought of as being masculine. Intuition, holism, synthesis, simultaneity, and emotions have been traits we usually associate with the feminine. Linearity, sequence, reduction-ism, analysis, and duality are concepts traditionally associated with the masculine. In a similar duality, science is traditionally associated with the left hemisphere and the masculine, and art is traditionally associated with the right hemisphere and the feminine. Leonardo's ability to perceive time was also sui generis. He observed and recorded in his drawings the complex sequence of pigeons' wings fluttering in flight, as well as the patterns made by fast-flowing water. It was not until time-lapse photography was invented 300 years after he worked that anyone else could slow down these visual blurs, and then the...

Political Approaches To Ethics

Like existentialist feminists, psychoanalytic and cultural feminists seek an explanation of women's oppression in the inner recesses of women's psyche. As they see it, because children are reared almost exclusively by women, boys and girls are psychosocialized in radically different ways. Boys grow up wanting to separate themselves from others and from the values culturally linked to their mothers and sisters. In contrast, girls grow up copying their mothers' behavior and wanting to remain connected to them and others. Moreover, because of the patriarchal cues they receive both in and outside the home, boys and girls come to think that such ''masculine'' values as justice and conscientiousness, which they associate with ''culture'' and the public world, are more fully human than such ''feminine'' values as caring and kindness, which they associate with ''nature'' and the private world.

Gender Conflated Critiqued Deconstructed Reassembled

Throughout history and across cultures, gender categories male female, masculine feminine) have been almost universally construed as mutually exclusive oppositions, each side defined by what the other was not. Feminist theorists critiqued this principle of gender polarity, reconceptualizinggender as a culturally instituted, normative ideal (Butler 1990) that sexes the body and genders the mind. Butler 11990) argued that gender actually creates subjectivity itself, because persons only become intelligible through becoming gendered, and thus gender and sexual identities that fail to conform to norms of cultural intelligibility appear only as developmental failures or logical impossibilities (p. 16 . One of the core projects and accomplishments of psychoanalytic feminism has been to articulate the clinical implications of this regulatory regime as lived experience. Chodorow's (1999b) early work situated gender in the object-relational matrix of mothering rather than in psychoanalytic...

Nominal Gender Subjective Gender Ideological Gender The Anatomical Difference

Although Freud did, of course, write continuously about masculinity and femininity, he was not systematic or self-conscious about theorizing gender as a category or construct, tending to oscillate between the construction and deconstruction of gender categories (Benjamin 1998, p. 38). Yet he was ultimately constrained by his early theorizing, rooted in anatomical difference, which concretized masculinity and femininity as expressions of an individual's mental sexual character an unwieldy phrase that nevertheless captures the conflation that has dogged the thesis ever since.

Attachmentlndividuation Theories of Gender

(1968) theorized an initial phase of proto-femininity for both boys and girls. With this move he was reversing Freud yet again by substituting a version of primary femininity for the phallic monism of primary masculinity, thus making masculinity, not femininity, the second, more precarious sex. In the classical account, it is the girl whose gender development is doubly challenged, because she has to switch her love object from mother to father in order to abandon active masculinity in favor of passive femininity. In S to tier's (1976) account, it is the boy whose gender is doubly challenged, because he must abandon his primordial identification with his mother's femininity in order to become male like his father. Neither Schema is theoretically adequate or plausible, because each proposes an cssentialist theory of one gender and a constructionist theory of the other. In the classical trope, Man is born, woman is made ' in the revisionist account, Woman is born, man is made (Person...

Toward a Decentered Gender Paradigm

2Sec Coates 1990 for an exegesis of the relational dynamics of extreme boyhood femininity, and Corbett 1996 lor a critical pcrspcctivc that theorizes cifcminacy in relation to the normative regime ol phallic masculinity Chodorow's (1999a) work on personal gender shows how every individual creates a uniquely personal, dynamically driven, multilayercd, relationally savvy version of gender assembled from the gender tropes that each culture and historical period make available. Put another way, gender is a uniquely personal and conscious unconscious interpretation of a cultural archetype, an embodied expression of the statement This is what I mean by femininity (masculinity). Once we have established that gender is psychody-namic and indeterminate, it becomes obvious that the ideal of a unified gender identity makes sense only as a resistance in terms of treatment, and an impoverishment in terms of character (May 1986). As Person (1999) wrote, A gainst what appears to be a...

Sex and the Single Narrative Development and Identity

As it turns out, however, no one story of male psychosexual development exists either. It is not only that, among men as well as women, sexuality takes at least two forms, heterosexual and homosexual. Differences abide even within these categories. Among homosexual men, as Corbeu (I 993) demonstrated, masculine gender identity may remain intact whether the sexual aim is active (i.e., the wish to care for another man, the wash to fill up the other's erotogenic zones) or passive i.e., the wish to be cared for by or have one's erotogenic zones filled up by the other). Reminding us, furthermore, that it is from fantasy rather than behavior that we are to deduce sexual orientation A. Freud 1952 , Corbeu (19931 proposed that masculinities may be differently structured (p. 347) a man may alternate between passive and active aims he may, in sex, be inserter or insert-ee bui nevertheless experience himself as male. Certainly the same sort of variation must apply to heterosexual masculinity.

Person and Personality

Even here, domain differences need to be taken into account. A great deal of research suggests that the traits that are common to one domain, such as mathematics, may differ from other domains, including the arts, science, and so on. Additionally, there are several reports of creative persons having paradoxical personalities. These are apparent when creative individuals have one tendency, but also the opposite tendency A good example of this is psychological andro-geny, which is defined as being open to both stereotypically masculine and feminine tendencies. The androgenous

Gandhis Celibacy and Androgyny

In comparison to the 'masculinity' of the leaders of the West, Gandhi's image was perceived as 'androgynous.' Androgyny is one of the personality traits of eminent creative people. His 'bisexually-toned passivity' meant that he was unable to overcome his colonial identity. Gandhi's maternal attributes were evident in his assertion that men need to learn to care more the way women do if the human condition is to be improved. Erikson noted He undoubtedly saw a kind of sublimated maternalism as part of the positive identity of a whole man, and certainly of a homo religiosus. Gandhi's main virtue in his later life was care an interest in producing life and maintaining it.

Female Underrepresentation

Whereas power, masculine contexts, and female underrepresentation enhance the degree that women are stereotyped in work environments, Vescio and her colleagues (Vescio, Snyder, & Butz, 2003 Vescio, Gervais, Snyder, & Hoover, 2004) recently demonstrated that powerful men may be encouraged to construe goals and ideas about subordinates' ability to enhance goal strivings in ways that eliminate stereotyping tendencies. Traditionally masculine domains often encourage adversarial processes that focus attention toward the weaknesses that employees may possess, which may impair goal strivings (e.g., the so-called corporate up or out policy). In such situations, gender stereotypes provide information of relevance, or point out the dimensions along which women have critical shortcomings (e.g., illogical, irrational, weak) and low power women are treated in patronizing ways (e.g., receive fewer valued resources, but are praised more) and exhibit performance decrements (e.g., Vescio et al.,...

Indiana University Bioomington

Recognizing these limitations, researchers began to define sexual orientation more precisely (Coleman, 1987 Garnets & Kimmel, 1993). Three main distinctions emerged. First, instead of viewing sexual orientation as a single dimension, sexual orientation was viewed as falling along two continuous scales of homosexuality and heterosexuality. This view allowed for a more accurate assessment of bisexuals (i.e., those with high scores on both the heterosexual and homosexual dimensions) and also addressed the construct of asexuality (i.e., those with low scores on both dimensions.) Second, a distinction was made between behavioral preference, based on physical actions, and affectional preference, based on feelings and emotions (Shively & DeCecco, 1977). This distinction allowed for the scenario in which an individual is physically attracted to one sex, but emotionally attracted to another. Third, sexual identity was conceptualized as involving four factors (a) biological sex (b) gender...

Her Marriage to Diego Rivera

Diego and Frida were comrades and bound by their commitment to Communism as well as art. In several self-portraits, she holds Diego in mind and heart, 'Diego in My Thoughts' (1943). They seem to complete each other, which is clearly evidenced in 'Painting of Diego and Frida' (1944). From a different perspective, they may have found in each other what they longed for in themselves, and hold the paradox of the masculine and feminine anima and animus in the other.

Copulatory frequencies

Intercourse declined with age, from a median value of twice each week (in men aged 16-24 years) to 0.75 times per week in middle age (45-49 years). Although the majority of sexual activity took place between married partners, and those in long-term relationships, Wellings et al. also found that 'among single people, more than a quarter of men (28.1 per cent) and close to one-fifth of women (17.5 per cent) reported two or more partners in the last year while 13.1 per cent of men and 6.1 per cent of women reported more than two partners, a pattern that contrasts markedly with that of married individuals.' The tendency for males to have a larger number of partners over time is interesting and probably does reflect a biological predisposition for males to be more sexually active. As an aside, I mention here a most interesting hypothesis advanced by Symons (1979) regarding high frequencies of sexual activity with multiple partners among some male homosexuals. Symons suggests that this...

Stranded on a Mountain

Mead ultimately considered Sex and Temperament, the book that emerged from her work with the Arapesh, and subsequently the Mundugumor and Tchambuli, to be her most misunderstood work (1963). For years readers would be impressed by the striking contrasts evident in her description of the three groups. Mead herself had been struck by the different ways in which they either attended to or ignored sex differences. Among the Arapesh she found that qualities considered stereotypically feminine in American culture were valued in members of both sexes. Among the Mundugumor, on the other hand, aggression thought to be more characteristically masculine in the Western world was cultivated in both sexes. In the third group, the Tchambuli, there was differentiation of expected behavior, but it was the reverse of that in Mead's home culture. Yet Mead seemed to feel her readers did not fully appreciate that the real target of her research was the discovery of personality traits as variations among...

Needs for Mentoring Creative Individuals

Exceptionally creative students have unusual personalities, which may lead them to experience social and personal difficulties. Exceptionally creative children's thoughts are more divergent, seeing connections where others do not. They may encompass both feminine and masculine characteristics equally. Exceptionally creative students tend to be rebellious and nonconformists, ready to express their creative ideas to peers and adults. At the same time, they may be more sensitive, reactive, and experience deeper and larger range of feelings. Therefore, if their unusual ideas are ignored or ridiculed, they may become disturbed and withdraw, leading them to be more cautious next time they have a creative idea or an unusual question. Eventually, ridicule may discourage their desire to pursue their interests, and result in mediocre knowledge and achievement. Both typical masculine and typical feminine characteristics are essential to creativity, and creative students tend to be more...

The Current State of Affairs Resurgence and the Need for Rethinking

The last decade has witnessed an increase in research and policy attention to stigma. Across the social and socio-medical sciences, special issues have appeared in journals (e.g., Schizophrenia Bulletin, The Lancet, Psychiatric Services), national data collections have been mounted (e.g., the General Social Survey modules in 1996, 1998, 2002, and 2006), conferences have been organized (e.g., 2001 Conference, Stigma and Global Health Developing a Research Agenda see Keusch et al., 2006), and targeted grant initiatives have become available (see Michels, Hofman, Keusch, & Hrynkow, 2006). Moreover, for the first time in U.S. history, the Surgeon General focused attention on mental illness, beginning with a review of recent evidence on stigma and concluding that stigma constitutes the foremost barrier to treatment and recovery (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1999, p. 3). This report was followed, four years later, by the President's New Freedom Commission on Mental Health...

Dermatological disease

Placebo applied to the other half of the scalp (Savin 1968). Given the dependence of male pattern balding on masculine levels of androgen exposure after puberty, acceleration of hair loss might have been expected but the study endpoints (investigator and patient subjective global grading of regrowth) were not designed to detect this. More recently controlled studies of a topical 5a-reductase inhibitor have added a selective anti-androgen to the already vast list of baldness cures (Rittmaster 1994).

Florestan and Eusebius Literature or Music

Schumann was an isolated child in a middle-class family with no tradition for musical professionalism. He was endowed with a wonderful talent for improvisation, which he used to capture people's manners and idiosyncrasies. Robert's education was enhanced by his father's private library, which contained approximately 4000 books, a definite stimulus to intellectual development. He discovered a passion for literature comparable to his love of music. It created a lasting conflict, trying to achieve verbal mastery to please his father while striving to communicate with his mother through musical sounds. This duality was later expressed when, at the age of 21, he created two imaginary companions, Florestan representing Schumann's masculine, outgoing self, and Eusebius the shy, withdrawn, and sensitive alter ego.

Recruitment Of Volunteers

Before dealing with factors related to the recruitment of participants, a few words must be said about how to refer to volunteers. The term experimental subject is considered disrespectful of the human personality (see the guidelines of the Society for Neuroscience on the bioethics of human experimentation). The term participants or volunteers is preferred as being more respectful and more correct. Oddly, in the guidelines of Picton et al. (2000) for using human event-related potentials to study cognition, the term subjects was extensively used. Similarly, the use of pronouns (he, him) or masculine nouns (e.g., in man ) to indicate individuals of both genders should be avoided. The awkward effect due to the repeated use of the she he formula can be avoided, for example, by using pronouns in their plural form (they).

Patient Who Cannot Express His Thoughts in Words5

When he was offered psychotherapy, he eagerly grasped the opportunity. There was much that he wanted to discuss, even though he no longer had the words to do so. One of the many things he wanted to tell his therapist was that he now felt like half a man. He communicated this by drawing a stick figure of a man, bisecting it vertically, and saying man halfie halfie. This communication was pregnant with meaning. It conveyed the essence of his emotional situation, and it simultaneously linked them symbolically with his neurological (hemiparetic) condition. He had lost his masculinity and the self-esteem that was attendant upon it. However, he worked extremely hard in his psychotherapy to come to terms with these losses, and ultimately he was able to construct a new, viable life for himself, built on revised premises and priorities.

Group and Dyadic Factors Influencing Discrimination

Discrimination can be rooted in informational needs such as the reduction of uncertainty, in which case the discriminatory behavior is based on incorrect beliefs and faulty information. In this case, prejudice and the discrimination reflect ignorance, and education may be the most effective intervention. In the case of utilitarian-based discrimination, the discriminatory acts originate from efforts to obtain rewards and avoid punishments. In an organization that has a hostile climate toward women, men who are egalitarian may engage in harassing behavior to get along in that climate. Perhaps the hardest to change are attitudes that are rooted in ego-defensive and value-expressive functions. Discrimination that is ego-defensive in nature is based on the individual's attempts to protect self-esteem and defend against threats to self-esteem. From this perspective, discrimination can be rooted in the individual's self-concept and may require what amounts to therapy. Thus, the sexism of...

Sensitivity Risk Taking and Socialization

Highly creative students face social difficulties due to their unique personality characteristics and needs which may not be experienced by other students. What distinguishes creative adolescents from their less creative counterparts is their greater independence and rebelliousness, deeper feelings and fuller range of emotional expression. Creative people are highly sensitive and are easily disturbed. They integrate feminine and masculine characteristics more fully, and demonstrate higher originality, imagination, and divergent thinking. In addition, compared to students with high IQ, highly creative students exhibit much higher degrees of humor. They enjoy taking risks and being in unusual situations. Torrance showed in 2000 that if a student asks an unusual question or advances a new idea, the student runs a risk of ridicule by classmates and by the teacher. This risk of ridicule may tend to discourage risk-taking, which is important in the acquisition of skills and knowledge.

Human physique and sexual attractiveness

Somatotypes Figures

Masculine Somatotype A number of studies have produced evidence that women find certain types of masculine physique more attractive sexually. A broad chest and shoulders, narrow hips, and a muscular torso are important traits which influence female assessments of masculine physical attractiveness (Lynch and Zellner 1999 Dixson et al. 2003). In order to quantify these preferences, some studies have made use of Sheldon's (1940) system of somatotyp-ing. This classifies human physique according its degree of mesomorphy (muscular and powerful build), ectomorphy (slim and lean build), and endo-morphy (heavy-set and fatter build). Examples of pronounced mesomorphic, ectomorphic, and endo-morphic somatotypes are shown in Figure 7.6, along with an intermediate, or average, type of physique. Images of this kind, back-posed to avoid the distraction of facial cues and standardized for height and posture, have been used in cross-cultural studies to measure female preferences for masculine physique...

Traditional Chinese Medicine

Tao created two opposing forces, yin and yang, which are the opposites that combine to create everything in the world. Yin is a force of darkness and is associated with such qualities as femininity, cold, rest, passivity, emptiness, introverted, and negative energy. Yang is a force of brightness and is associated with masculinity, heat, stimulation, activity, excitement, vigor, fullness, extroverted, and positive energy. Table 4-1 lists the aspects of yin and yang polarity.

Multiple Pattern ejaculations number

Figure 5.8 Dewsbury's (1972) classification scheme for masculine patterns of mammalian copulatory behaviour. Figure 5.9 A modification of Dewsbury's scheme for classifying masculine copulatory patterns, to include intromission duration as an important evolutionary trait. Source After Dixson (1998a).

Psychological Effects in Men Who Have Undergone Treatment for Penile Cancer

The psychological effects of penile cancer surgery have been poorly researched, although it is relatively easy to speculate on the relevant issues. Mental illness has been observed in 20 of men who have undergone treatment for penile cancer, most commonly related to anxiety disorders. 1 3 The central theme relates to the patient's perception that masculinity has somehow been lost or diminished.4 There will be a notable change in the appearance of the penis, and a probable loss of length for those who have undergone penile surgery. As described earlier, penile size has historically been associated with attributes such as strength, virility, endurance, ability, courage, intelligence, and knowledge, and the psychological effects of any form of excisional surgery should not be underestimated. It is in these areas of fear and anxiety regarding masculinity, sexual function, and voiding function that patient support is most important. It is important for the healthcare professional team to...

The paradoxical effects of androgens on human hair growth

Vellus Hair

Androgenetic alopecia has also been described in women, but the pattern of expression is normally different. Women generally do not show the frontal recession, but retain the frontal hairline and exhibit thinning on the vertex which may lead to balding (Ludwig 1977) (Fig. 6.3). Post-menopausal women may exhibit the masculine pattern (Venning and Dawber 1988). The progression of balding in women is normally slow and a full endocrinological investigation is recommended if a rapid onset is seen (Dawber and Van Neste 1995). Although female pattern hair loss is seen frequently in association with hyperandrogenism, other women frequently have no other symptoms of androgen abnormality. Therefore, there is some debate about whether androgen is essential for this hair loss in women (Birch etal. 2002) though this is still generally assumed. If, as occurs in men, the changes develop due to the genetically influenced, specific follicular responses within the scalp follicles themselves, it is not...

Pratyusha Tummala Narra

An association between trauma and sexual risk behaviors.1,16 For example, women of diverse ethnic backgrounds (White, African American, Hispanic) who experienced sexual trauma were at greater risk to use substances at the time of sexual intercourse with partners, and to have two or more sexual partners at the same time.17,18 Additionally, sexual violation can contribute to confusion concerning sexual orientation and identity, even though the experience of sexual violation does not determine sexual orientation. While both men and women who have been sexually abused may experience post-traumatic symptoms, such as flashbacks, loss of trust, depression, feelings of shame, dissociation, addictive behaviors, and boundary violations, sexual abuse may have different meanings for boys and girls.19 For example, men tend to underreport experiences of sexual violation and may experience sexual trauma as undermining or challenging a sense of gender identity and sexual orientation. James, a...

Architectural Education

The second half of the twentieth century has seen a phenomenal growth in higher education, for which the university has become the prime vehicle. Many new universities were founded around the globe. The great majority of schools of architecture, whose number has surged proportionally, operate today as academic departments within universities, sometimes independently but often in partnership with other departments (e.g., planning, construction, environmental studies, engineering, or art). Despite the many differences among schools of architecture and their institutional contexts, almost all of them share similar goals and the programs they offer are based on training principles that were, to a significant extent, inherited from the Beaux Arts and the Bauhaus-Vkhutemas traditions. The omnipresent design studio, central to the curriculum of every school of architecture, is a direct descendant of the Beaux Arts' atelier. Striving for originality and innovation and the legitimization of...

Approaches to Intelligence

Stephen Ceci (Ceci & Roazzi, 1 994) found similar context effects in childrens' and adults' performance on a variety of tasks. Ceci suggests that the social context (e.g., whether a task is considered masculine or feminine), the mental context (e.g., whether a visuo-spatial task involves buying a home or burgling it), and the physical context (e.g., whether a task is presented at the beach or in a laboratory) all affect performance. For example, fourteen-year-old boys performed poorly on a task when it was couched as a cupcake-baking task but performed well when it was framed as a battery-charging task (Ceci & Bronfenbrenner, 1985). Brazilian maids had no difficulty with proportional reasoning when hypothetically pur

The Evolution Of Modesty I

Modesty, which may be provisionally defined as an almost instinctive fear prompting to concealment and usually centering around the sexual processes, while common to both sexes is more peculiarly feminine, so that it may almost be regarded as the chief secondary sexual character of women on the psychical side. The woman who is lacking in this kind of fear is lacking, also, in sexual attractiveness to the normal and average man. The apparent exceptions seem to prove the rule, for it will generally be found that the women who are, not immodest (for immodesty is more closely related to modesty than mere negative absence of the sense of modesty), but without that fear which implies the presence of a complex emotional feminine organization to defend, only make a strong sexual appeal to men who are themselves lacking in the complementary masculine qualities. As a psychical secondary sexual character of the first rank, it is necessary, before any psychology of sex can be arranged in order,...

Prenatal hormones and aggression

Overall, the results of pertinent studies show a slight effect of exposure to testosterone, progesterone with androgenic potential or diethylstilbestrol (a synthetic, nonsteroidal estrogen which exerts organizational effects similar to those of androgens converted to estrogens) an increase in physical aggressiveness, play with fighting figures, and intense energy expenditure (e.g., vigorous play and athleticism) but not on verbal aggression during childhood years. The positive effects of early exposure to sex hormones are significant for both boys and girls, yet these influences seem subtle (Berenbaum and Hines 1992 Ehrhardt and Baker 1974 Ehrhardt and Meyer-Bahlburg 1981 Ehrhardt et al. 1989 Hines 1982 Jacklin et al. 1983 Nordenstrom et al. 2002 Reinisch 1981 Reinisch and Sanders 1984). In a recent study, Hines et al. (2002) found that the mothers' endogenous testosterone level measured once between gestational weeks 15 to 36 (mean 16th week) related linearly to masculine-typical...

Historical Interpretations

The feminists who would argue that nineteenth-century physicians mistreated women consciously on the basis of gender must account for the fact that many of the treatments accorded women by male physicians at the time derived from an inadequate understanding of reproductive physiology, and that masculine sexual conditions were also mistreated. The historian who argues that chlorosis was nothing more than a cultural construction of Victorian family life, that physicians diagnosed the condition simply because they expected to encounter it, and that young women simply learned to manifest the clinical picture of chlorosis (Brumberg 1982) must explain the well-documented existence of the disease in young men as well (Fox 1839 Evans 1845 Witts 1930).

Patients Experiences Prior to and at the Time of Diagnosis of Penile Cancer

Upon sexual function, and upon masculinity. Although in many patients the stereotypical masculine response to illness is to get on with it there will inevitably be underlying concerns and fears. For example there will be anxiety regarding the risk of tumor recurrence and the potential effects upon sexual function and relationships. Within existing relationships, there may be a concern that surgery will significantly affect their sexual life, while men who are not in a relationship will be concerned about starting and maintaining future relationships. Even within close relationships there may be a tendency for the patient to attempt to hide the full extent of the surgery from their partner for fear of ridicule or for fear of sexual incompetence.4 Outside the relationship, it is common for the man to wish to hide the true diagnosis, and to simply be seen as a cancer sufferer rather than have to admit to a disease affecting the penis, with the accompanying perception of some reduction in...

History and Geography

S ome of its most interesting and important characteristics are, its tendency to relapse, the very great frequency with which it will be found to have been preceded by the act of coitus, the fact that it rarely, if ever, is found in patients who have been perfectly free from all venereal trouble, and that it is confined to the period of youth and early manhood.

The new professionalism and the new managerialism tensions and convergence

As we will see in Chapter 6, far from augmenting professional autonomy, the individualization of care, coupled with its detailed documentation, can actually increase the scope for external control over nursing, not by direct intervention but by standard setting (Dingwall et al. 1988 Salvage 1995). It also increases nurses' personal accountability for care delivery (De la Cuesta 1983 Salvage 1995) even though they may have little control over many of its constituent elements. Ironically, moreover, although 'new nursing' ideology brings nurse-patient relationships centre-stage, this kind of work is invisible to the language of business and is written out of the charts (Diamond 1988 Samarel 1991). Davies (1995) interprets these problems as a reflection of the masculine vision embedded in the new managerialism. She argues that the language of managerialism, with its targets and indicators, performance culture, rationality and gloss of scientific neutrality is blind to the business of...

Gender work and nursing

These ideas have been developed by Davies (1995) in her analysis of 'the professional predicament in nursing'. According to Davies, the discontents of nurses have to be seen in terms of a broader societal devaluation of women and the work that they do and the ways in which metaphors of masculinity have come to shape the visions of what is achieved in the health care context. Davies argues that bureaucracy and profession are important for nurses. It is common for them to berate the Davies maintains that the ideal-typical fleeting encounter of the consultant on the ward round is sustained in an analogous way through much preparatory and often considerable follow-up work with patients performed mainly by women. Davies concludes that there is a sense in which nursing is not a profession but an 'adjunct' to a gendered concept of profession. Nursing is the activity that enables medicine to present itself as masculine rational and to gain the power and the privilege of doing so. Davies...

Human Sexual Dimorphism Opposites Attract

Darwin's emphasis upon the effects of sexual selection on masculine body size, weaponry, attractive adornments and displays is consistent with the fact that females usually represent a limiting resource for males. Females invest a huge amount physiologically in reproduction and in the care of their offspring, so they are expected to be more 'choosy', whilst males may be expected to compete among themselves and to invest more in attempts to attract and control prospective mates. This is not to imply, however, that sexual selection does not act upon females. In the last chapter, the importance of female sexual skin swellings in mandrills, talapoins, chimpanzees, and other Old World anthropoids was discussed in relation to changes in female sexual attractiveness during the menstrual cycle. These extraordinary oestrogen-dependent swellings are prime examples of the effects of sexual selection acting upon females, to enhance their 'charms' during the 'more peaceful kind of contest'...


My wife and I have lost two children to untimely and tragic deaths, one very young and the other in the prime of young manhood. Our own sense of loss and the accompanying grieving have been powerful personal experiences of what bereavement feels like, what it does to one's sense of being, and how it shakes one's values and challenges meaning in one's life. Though the learning these children have offered me is quite unwelcome, I must thank them. In addition, in my work as a counsellor with persons who have life-threatening illnesses, I have dealt with loss and grief on a daily basis. My clients have been special in how they guide me on the path of helping them. Finally, I am indebted to my dear spouse, Lou, for her constant support and unfailing belief in me. Without her nothing I do would be easy in fact, perhaps impossible. For 50 years she has been my rock.

Personal Level

Ed McMullen argued that many creative people are 'paradoxical personages' by which he referred to the coexistence of eight polarities in their personalities. First, most creative people tend to delay closure and are open to new ideas while at the same time they feel a strong urge to achieve closure and eventually form a gestalt. Second, they are inclined to swing between the modes of lateral thinking and logical thinking. Third, they can also merge the unconscious into consciousness which allows them to keep up 'mindless perception.' Fourth, creative people are often fault finders and destructives, but they also reconstruct and make new syntheses. Fifth, they mostly have passion, but they also need to stay calm and reasonable. Sixth, they are both ego-centered and empathetic since they desire success, power, fame, and honor, yet are also altruistic, concerned about others and their well-being. Seventh, they are usually confident about their abilities and proud of their successes...

Freuds Legacy

Many commentators have shown that in his revolutionary opus Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality, Freud (190 5J set out in one direction only to subvert that trajectory in his footnotes and commentary (see, e.g., Ber-sani 1986 Dimen 1999 Marcus 1975 May 1995j. In the text Freud wrote that heterosexual reproductive coitus was the inevitable goal of sex and the ultimate statement of maturity while at die same time countering that there was nothing inevitable about the developmental outcome of sexual object choice. Freud stated that gender splitting (masculinity activity, femininity pas-sivityl was necessary for procreative purposes (resulting from active, genital masculine heterosexuality and passive, genital feminine heterosexuality) while also maintaining that every individual displays a combination of activity and passivity whether or not this tallies with their biological (sex) and that there is nothing to inherently distinguish procreative from other kinds of sex (Freud 1905, p....

The Oedipus Complex

The oedipal narrative that dominates classical psychoanalytic theory tracks the boy's (and girl's) emergence into heterosexual masculinity (femininity) from his (and her) early embeddedness in what Freud and later with more theoretical fervor, Lacan deemed a presymbolic, precultural maternal universe. The trip from pre-oedipal symbiosis and later romance to the patriarchal order of reality civilization is framed as cautionary tale, illustrating how repression serves the needs of culture by installing the incest taboo in each mind and family. The prohibition prevents romantic sexual love from flowering at the wrong time (between a child and his or her parents), the wrong place (inside instead of outside the family), and toward the wrong type of person (of the same sex instead of the opposite sex). The Oedipus complex, as theory and as lived experience, is the psychodynamic narrative that accords personal meaning and social legitimization for the cultural imperative that links die...


A number of writers have emphasized the importance of personality in creativity, some even arguing that creativity may have little to do with cognitive processes at all, and may be the result of a special personality constellation. Reviews of the relevant research typically list characteristics such as flexibility, sensitiveness, autonomy and ego strength. Recent analyses of earlier research, however, suggest that the relationship between creativity and personality is by no means simple and straightforward. It is not possible to identify a certain kind of personality profile that is typical of the creative, regardless of their field, and also distinguishes the creative from the noncre-ative. Some research has emphasized the importance of a 'complex' personality that combines, among others, sensitivity with toughness or high intelligence with naivete. Striking in the discussion of this point is that the personality characteristics regarded as important for creativity sometimes seem to...

General discussion

Males who form less intimate relationships that often occur within a group may be less influenced by one friend's relative accomplishments. If a close friend who is a fellow group member became more successful in a domain, a male might feel that the status of his group, and therefore his own status, would be enhanced by his fellow group member's success. Further, there would be many other members of the group who were not as successful in the domain, so any one group member would not feel alone in his relative inferiority. Males' style of continually vying for relatively greater success with their friends has serious limitations, such as an unwillingness to express vulnerabilities or to elicit direct psychological support from their same-sex friends. Nevertheless, it is difficult to imagine that two friends will always attain identical levels of success, especially over an extended period of time. Thus, there may be some heretofore neglected benefits of males' friendships. Healthy...

Childhood and Youth

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born of propitious parents, at the appropriate place, and at the inevitable time on 2 October 1869, to a Vaisya (merchant) family of Modh Bania subcaste. The respectable traits attributed to the 'Banias,' as Erik Erikson described, are enterprise, caution, realism, compromise, and shrewdness. His father was 'diwan' (Prime Minister) to the raja of three small city-states annexed to a minor princely state in the Kathiawar Agency of British India. Mohandas perhaps inherited the qualities of truthfulness and leadership potentials from his family. Gandhi's mother Putlibai, Karamchand's fourth wife, was an intense believer and he was raised by his deeply religious mother with whom he had a strong emotional attachment. He was also raised in a mixed 'bhakti' tradition, and Islamic and Jain ambience. He assimilated quite early many of the influences that would play an important role in his future. Gandhi's father, apparently indifferent to his son (in accord with...

Creative Performance

Earned celebration and fame at a much higher degree than their female counterparts, who were often few and far between. Even more so, those creative women who were able to break through social expectations and generate opportunities to hone their creative craft usually met with fierce resistance, if not from their families then from their compatriots in the field. Consider for example that many famous and highly creative women even went to great lengths to obscure their identities as females, such as the acclaimed writer 'George Sand,' who adopted a masculine pseudonym and quickly gained widespread renown for 'his' literary ability.

Biological Arguments

The presence of androgens such as testosterone (which are present at higher levels when a male fetus is in utero) are believed to have many significant effects upon brain development, distinct from that which occurs within female fetuses. The hormones signal changes of both a structural and functional nature, and their continued presence is thought to contribute to everything from increased aggression in males to increased anxiety in females. It is important to note however that hormone-driven, gender-based differences in brain size, shape, and development do not carry a connotation of superiority in either direction - but they are thought to have predictable effects upon the personality, aptitudes, and possibly even the preferences of the individual in question. Consider, for example, that in cases where female fetuses are exposed in utero to androgens (as in the case of different-gender fraternal twins), they have been found on average to display more traditionally 'masculine'...

Key thinkerstheories

Children learn gender-appropriate behaviour through the application of reward and punishment, or vicarious learning (observation). These behaviours may be reinforced unconsciously either directly or indirectly by observing stereotypes, for example, by observing people being rewarded or punished for their feminine or masculine activity and this may occur through observing the media, books, peers, and so on.

ShannonM Lynch

An additional orientation that facilitators may use is a feminist approach to trauma therapy. Group facilitators who identify as feminist will place an even greater emphasis on empowering the group members in their recovery, placing control of many tasks and decisions in the hands of group members (though still remaining active enough to maintain safety of the group). Oftentimes, feminist groups will explicitly acknowledge the ways in which the sociopolitical environment that we live in increases our risk for sexual victimization. For example, a feminist-identified facilitator is likely to explicitly encourage a discussion of the variety of ways in which gender oppression, or the devaluing of women and girls in society, as well as the narrow view of masculinity with which many men and boys are socialized, contribute to increased risk of sexual assaults. An additional component of feminist therapy often includes encouraging members to consider taking social action on behalf of...

Gender Roles

Gender role expectations may have an impact on underachieve-ment and creativity. Creative individuals seem to diverge from sex norms because both sensitivity, which is traditionally a feminine virtue, and independence, which is considered to be a masculine virtue, are essential for creativity. Torrance indicated in 2004 that some students may sacrifice their creativity in order to maintain their masculinity or their femininity, which can lead to emotional issues and other problems for highly creative students. Teachers who are sensitive to gender issues among their students are in a position to soften the negative impact of sex-role stereotyping.

Adams Apple

Membrana Thyreoidea

Given that the larynx is markedly sexually dimorphic in adult human beings, and that testosterone stimulates laryngeal growth during puberty (Beckford et al. 1985 Hollien, Green and Massey 1994), it is important to determine whether sexual selection has influenced the evolution of these traits. Firstly, we may ask whether the human voice conveys any information concerning an individual's hormonal or physical status. The answer to these questions appears to be 'Yes'. Indeed, many years ago Eberhard Nieschlag showed that masculine vocal register, body condition, and circulating testosterone are correlated in the human male. Thus, he found that bass singers have higher testosterone oestradiol ratios and ejaculatory frequencies than tenors, as well as being, on average, taller and more athletic in their physique (Figure 8.2). Subsequently, Dabbs and Mallinger (1999) reported that men who have deeper voices also exhibit significantly higher levels of salivary testosterone. Low-pitched male...

Mom Fctish Photos

Gender Gender identity A concept comprising two aspects of the experience of the SELF core gender iden -tity and gender role identity. Core gender identity refers to the individual's anatomical self-image, usually as either male or female, rarely as hermaphrodite. (lender role identity is the sense of oneself as being masculine or feminine, in comparison to perceived familial cultural norms on a continuum.

The Road to Truth

Success in hunting, and especially in endurance running and persistence hunting, as well as intermale competition may have favoured the evolution of masculine physical traits required for survival (Bramble and Lieberman 2004). In all probability, these developments took place relatively early in the evolution of the genus Homo, for instance, in H. ergaster and H. erectus which lacked the degree of cerebral development and hunting technology achieved by H. sapiens. Then, as now, it is surmised that males provided resources as well as protection for their female partners and offspring. It is interesting, therefore, that women in a variety of cultures rate images of men with muscular (mesomorphic) or average somatotypes as most attractive. The ideal form may lie somewhere between the average and the mesomorphic male physique. A muscular male torso, with broad shoulders and a narrow waist and hips, is often preferred. Images of very slim men (ectomorphs) tend to be assessed as somewhat...

Sexual Subjectivity

If the oedipal narrative historically organizes and creates sex and gender, the new narrative generates the question of sexual self-states. Sexuality itself is no longer taken for granted as a self-evident drive, affect, or set of behaviors. Sexual desire is no longer a unisex model of tension, discharge, relief. Not only must femininity as well as masculinity, homosexuality as well as heterosexuality and biscxuality, be taken into account when it comes to desire. There may be as many sorts of desire as there are individuals who desire (Chodorow 19941 individual sexuality, manifesting as compromise formation Chodorow 2003), comprises linked, interacting elements that are universally occurring but idiosyncratically combined. Finally, desire itself changes throughout life, to extend a point insisted on by the classical narrative.

General prospects

For the male there are ways to eliminate both procreation and sex at the same time. Such methods have been used in the past and are still being practiced on a limited scale. Castration has been employed since ancient time to destroy enemies by abolishing their ability to reproduce and transmit their genes. Until the end of the imperial period in China (1912), men were willing to sacrifice their testicles (and often with them their lives) in return for high-ranking positions and political influence at the emperor's court. Meanwhile, in the West, up until almost the same time, some promising boys were forced to give up their manhood for the sake of preserving their prepubertal voice and achieving fame as singers, often without success. Abstinence is a less bloody means of eliminating procreation, but few men are willing to give up both sex and procreation for extended periods of time, let alone their entire lives.

Sexual Self Concept

Humans possess a gender identity and a sexual orientation. Gender, in many Western cultures, is synonymous with their chromosomal or genital phenotype (male or female sex). Gender identity, however, is a more comprehensive internal self-perception of being male or female, masculine or feminine. Many cultures, including Native American and African groups, do not regard gender as being determined by sex characteristics, and these cultures may provide an accepted role for persons in whom these aspects are not congruent. Sexual orientation may be defined as the attraction individuals feel toward sexual partners of their own or the other gender. Sexual orientation is self-defined, and individuals may describe themselves at different points in their lifetime as exclusively attracted to their own gender (homosexuality) or the opposite gender (heterosexuality), or somewhere between these two (bisexuality).

Amy Tuttle

Changes within society and family therapy opened the possibility for inclusion of the cultural aspects of the family into healing from sexual violence and trauma. In this process, families and mental health professionals may consider sociocultural and political forces that impact the recovery process and work to expose dominant cultural norms that have contributed to the client's abuse and oppression (p. 15).13 Further, issues of gender, culture, sexual violence and trauma, and sociocultural implications and meanings of victimization must be considered, and issues of masculinity and sexuality ought to be considered to avoid dominant social discourses leading to isolation and oppression.

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