Work Leisure And Overeffort Pathologies

Despite enormous advantages in technology that make most types of work faster and easier, individuals are actually working more than they did prior to these advances. Research in the United States shows that, between 1970 and 1990, the number of hours worked per week increased by 3 hours.11 Thus, even though the real need to work has decreased, people's perceived need to work is increasing. The decision to push themselves until they exceed their coping ability is often regarded by modern...

Cultural Perspectives On Depression

The best way to put depression into perspective is to begin by analyzing its prevalence and mode of expression across cultures. Abroad generalization can be made about so-called clinical depression when it is examined in a wide cross-cultural context. In its full form, which entails an extensive psychological and cognitive component (e.g., sadness, self-doubt, self-denigration, guilt, personal worthlessness and low self-esteem, social withdrawal, loss of interest in life), clinical depression...

Psychological Effects Of Materialism

Materialism has been defined as a cultural system in which material interests are not made subservient to other social goals and in which material self-interest is preeminent.22 It refers to the degree of importance that a person attaches to possessions, and the extent to which consumption becomes the primary source of satisfaction, as well as the dominant mode of motivation. One reason to suspect that materialism may not be entirely conducive to psychological well-being concerns the...

Futuremindedness And Collective Agitation

It is not difficult to understand why future-oriented cultures have members with elevated anxiety levels. Humanistic psychologists preach about the therapeutic value of immediacy and warn of the emotional risks of abandoning the moment in favor of anticipation and concern about future occurrences. The rationale for a relationship between anxiety and fu-ture-mindedness involves issues such as control, predictability, and reliability of experience. Some thinkers have described modernity as a...

Depression In Theoretical Perspective

The ongoing upsurgence of depression in Western settings can only be understood in relation to historical developments that put members at increased risk. If depression were a universal phenomenon whose cause could be traced to organic factors, one would not see the high degree of cross-cultural variation that exists with regard to the prevalence of depression. As we will see, some non-Western cultures appear to have no indications whatsoever of clinical depression. If biological...

Competition Depression And Psychological Wellbeing

The alienation that is so central to contemporary life is accentuated by the cultural emphasis on competition, which is a core working of mass market individualism. The imprinting of members with internalized control mechanisms, as well as an egocentric orientation toward self-interest and self-development, lends itself readily to the pitting of people against one another in a variety of competitive social contexts. This arrangement can also help to explain the current rise of...

Exchange Relationshipspostmarital Depression And Divorce Culture

Marriage has become steadily more private and voluntary in nature. Decisions about marriage are being made in light of the prospects for personal fulfillment. The institution itself has been dethroned as a supraindividual entity that supersedes both the individual and the couple. In its place, we have another possible life choice that, if taken wisely, has something to offer the individuals involved. Rather than being the basis for compromise and sacrifice, it has been reshaped into a...

Infinite Possibility And Choice Fatigue

The word acculturation refers to the process whereby members of a culture are put in the position of needing to learn the rules of another culture. Although adaptation to a new culture may have some positive outcomes, it is also a potentially stressful exercise. Various terms have been used to describe the type of stress that accompanies adaptation to new cultural settings (e.g., culture stress, culture shock). In recent years, the term acculturative stress has become popular. The process of...

Example of Cultural Immunity to Clinical Depression

The Kaluli of New Guinea have been studied for decades by medical anthropologists, yet not a single case of clinical depression has ever been documented among any of these people.6 When you outline the actual symptoms to them, they have no idea what you are trying to describe. To them, it sounds like an exotic affliction that falls well beyond the limits of their culture and their own personal experience. Additionally, it is not even accurate to surmise that these people experience the...

Depression Cultural Catharsis And Modern Rage

The absence of depression among the Kaluli seems to make sense in terms of internalization models of depression. In depression-prone Western society, members are forced into emotional constriction by a lack of culturally defined and sanctioned pathways for emotional expression. There is also the fact that many recent social developments increase the likelihood of negative emotions such as anger and frustration. It is easy to see the inner rage that is generated as a direct consequence of modern...

Notes

INTRODUCTION THE HUMAN CONTEXT OF MODERNITY 1. Featherstone, M. (1995). Undoing culture Globalization, postmodernism, and identity. London Sage, p. 145. 2. Mestrovic, S. G. (1997). Postemotional society. London Sage. 3. Marsella, A. J., & Choi, S. C. (1993). Psychosocial aspects of modernization and economic development in East Asian nations. Psychologia, 36, 201-213, pp. 207-210. 4. Inkeles, A. (1966). The modernization of man. In M. Weiner (Ed.), Modernization The dynamics of...

Cultural Immunity from Postnatal Depression

Usually postnatal depression is explained as a reaction to hormonal disequilibrium stemming from childbirth. This biological hypothesis can be tested by asking whether postnatal depression exists in all cultures. If it does not, then one must question the hormonal explanation while exploring cultural factors that could account for the presence in or absence from a culture of this type of disorder or, as with clinical depression, it could be that certain cultures are competent to the extent that...

Ephemeral Identity And Selfabsolving Morality

The modern person is largely free from tradition, community, and shared macrounderstandings of the world. This freedom impacts upon our moral relationships, and in turn upon some important determinants of psychological well-being. As modernity continues to liberate the self from time-honored sources of definition, individual members find themselves unable to discern moral reference points beyond themselves.14 The conflicts that fuel moral anxiety have been relocated to the private realm, and...