Five Steps to Mindfulness

Seven Minute Mindfulness

Seven Minute Mindfulness is an audio targeted at using the most natural way to maintain a good focus and the mindfulness people need for their daily activities. It combines the various religious methods to reach a balance in ensuring the users reach the highest point of mindfulness they can ever attain. To help them reach this height, the program had been prepared to take only seven minutes of your time. Pending the time of its usage, the users will not have to spend a lot of time dealing with it. The Seven Minute Mindfulness was designed to be used on any device. Getting started is simple and will take just a few minutes after ordering. It comes with various bonuses like The Seven Minute Mindfulness Guidebook (A digital manual that comes along with the audio version); Your Little Book Of Mindfulness Exercises (A digital guide to some exercises that can be practised in the house)The product is in a digital format of Audio messages and has been created at a very affordable price. In case it does not meet their demands or desires, the users have the right to ask for a refund of their money within three months. The implication is that they are given the chance to try it at home and if they suddenly become sceptical or grow cold feet, they will get a 100% refund. More here...

Seven Minute Mindfulness Summary

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Author: Greg Thurston
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Highly Recommended

This ebook comes with the great features it has and offers you a totally simple steps explaining everything in detail with a very understandable language for all those who are interested.

In addition to being effective and its great ease of use, this eBook makes worth every penny of its price.

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Framework for Origin and Neural Elaboration of Human Consciousness

Another construct that benefits from such an integrated model of limbic-cortical function emphasizing vertical control is the problem of where basic conscious awareness is represented and how it may have originated. Several lines of evidence suggest that periconscious, affective processing of emotion takes place subcortically, in areas such as the brainstem, hypothalamus, and amygdala, while cognitive appraisal of emotions takes place in the prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex. In contrast, the dorsal ACC and possibly other paralimbic structures (anterior temporal poles) would represent the alarm center, alerting the organism that immediate conscious action needs to be taken in order to remove the threat (Liotti et al., 2001). This interpretation fits nicely with Donald Klein's notion of an abnormal suffocation alarm center as central to the pathogenesis of panic disorder (Klein, 1993), a disease dominated by body-centered anxious feelings and anticipations,...

The Phenomenology of Mindful Awareness Some Experimental Results

The use of conditionalization of concepts and causal relations was also found to lead to a more mindful consideration of the information received. Students to whom a model of urban development was presented in a conditional way (i.e., in which concepts were presented using the construction 'A could be B,' rather than the construction 'A is B' or 'A is a model for B') were more successful in making use of the information presented to them than were students who were presented with the informationin absolute terms (i.e., using either constructions like 'Ais B' or constructions like 'A is a possible model for B').

Individual Differences

Latent inhibition (LI) is an attentional process by which both perceptual stimuli and conceptual information deemed irrelevant to current pursuits are automatically (i.e., latently) filtered from conscious awareness. At first blush, it would seem that this is an entirely adaptive process, the absence of which would promote confusion and disruption of ongoing behavior. Indeed, consistent with this inference, there is compelling evidence that individuals who exhibit lower LI are more prone to disordered thought and ultimately more likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia. However, consistent with the foregoing proposition that broad conceptual attention facilitates creative cognition, it may be proposed that reduced LI should also increase the amount of information accessible to conscious awareness for use in devising innovative alternatives. To clarify, individuals who fail to filter out presumably irrelevant information will retain this information such that it may be considered...

Motivation and Defense

The assumption that certain motives and desires would be accessible to consciousness were they not repressed and disavowed is, of course, a statement regarding inner conflict and the operation of defense, which is itself motivated. In other words, certain motives, wishes, and desires are barred from conscious awareness and disavowed because of the dysphoric affects, such as anxiety, guilt, and lowered self-esteem, that awareness and avowal would entail. Hence, the basic motivation for defense is the avoidance of unpleasant affects. Devel-opmcntally oriented psychoanalytic accounts of defense suggest that certain wishes and desires are disavowed and denied access to consciousness because they arc-associated with negative affects engendered by early parental disapproval and prohibition and a variety of Other subtle parental communications. Freud (1926 192f> ) referred to the danger situations of loss of the

Settling in Pondicherry

On 24 November 1926 Sri Aurobindo had another major breakthrough in his own sadhana He had been patiently waiting and preparing for this event for years, but for others it was difficult to understand what actually happened on that day. At the time he only said the power has descended into the subconscious. Almost ten years later he casually remarked that it had been the descent of the Overmind into the physical. In Sri Aurobindo's terminology, the Overmind is the cosmic consciousness, way above the ordinary mind, from where, amongst several other things, all the major religions originate. According to the Vedic tradition there is a layer of consciousness still higher than the Overmind, which Sri Aurobindo called the Supermind. The exact nature of the Supermind is obviously difficult to grasp with ordinary human consciousness Sri Aurobindo described it as more difficult for a person to comprehend than it would be for a monkey to understand the nature of abstract human thought The...

The Relation Between Yoga and Creativity

Sri Aurobindo lived his life in accordance with his own premises about the ascent of consciousness from normal human intelligence to higher levels of consciousness. For him consciousness is not only power of awareness, it is also dynamic and creative energy. As one moves from the ordinary, sensory mind-consciousness into the higher realms of consciousness, one becomes more and more illumined about the nature of reality. In this evolution of mind, the initial step is to elevate one's consciousness to a level where it comes in contact with that region of consciousness from which we occasionally receive insight, intuition, and holistic understanding. There the mind is no longer limited by sensory experiences and personal biases, but capable of seeing beyond fragmented and divisive appearances. As the mind gets more and more 'illumined,' it begins to work more through visions than thoughts, more through direct insight, intuition and inspiration than through 'constructed knowledge.'...

Thinking about the brain

Think for a few moments about a very special machine, your brain -an organ of just 1.2 kg, containing one hundred billion nerve cells, none of which alone has any idea who or what you are. In fact the very idea that a cell can have an idea seems silly. A single cell after all is far too simple an entity. However, conscious awareness of one's self comes from just that nerve cells communicating with one another by a hundred trillion interconnections. When you think about it this is a deeply puzzling fact of life. It may not be entirely unreasonable therefore to suppose that such a machine must be endowed with miraculous properties. But while the world is full of mystery, science has no place for miracles and the 21st century's most challenging scientific problem is nothing short of explaining how the brain works in purely material terms. Notwithstanding the brain's well-developed personal vanity, we must grant that it provides you with some very distinctive abilities. It operates in the...

Links with Mood Disorders Yes but They Are Complex

For everyday creators, it appears that relatively well-functioning individuals are most apt to display higher creativity at work or leisure, showing more intermediate levels of bipolar pathology, and sometimes even normalcy, against the background of a bipolar family history. Do note that eminent mood-disordered artists may also represent relatively well-functioning persons within the group of people with a particular diagnosis - although, of course, there are always exceptions. One must again differentiate psychological states from traits, noting, for instance, advantages of the state of mild mood elevation. Then there are potential benefits for creative ability and motivation. These benefits may involve, for ability, a more mindful awareness of one's own personal states and one's world, including the ability to link and access diverse affects

Is It Possible to Be Awake During Surgery

Awareness means that you were conscious of what occurred during some or all of your surgery when you were supposed to be unconscious. You were awake when you were supposed to be asleep. What often adds to the terror of the situation is that the patient with awareness has often been paralyzed with a muscle-relaxant drug, rendering him unable to communicate through movement or speech of this predicament to anyone else in the room. Although rare, this can happen.

Energetic and Tense Arousal

Perhaps the central theme in this book concerns the interactions of two broadly inclusive mood systems. They are called systems because it is likely that each includes the simultaneous interactions of a number of mechanisms of bodily arousal. These systems are broadly inclusive because they probably extend from the biochemical and cellular levels of function to activation of various subsystems of the brain, and finally to conscious awareness. It is at this highest level of integration the awareness of bodily sensations and of related subjective feelings that the most evidence exists for these two systems (Thayer, 1967, 1970). At the psychophysiological and biochemical levels of analysis, the evidence for the existence of these systems is still mixed, perhaps because of the complexities involved. Because the evidence is much more clear at the level of conscious awareness, the most attention will be focused on it.

Summary Heuristicsquestions For Future Research

To more fully understand the nature of conscious processes would pay enormous dividends to all areas of psychiatry, illuminating many of the still well-hidden secrets within the mind-brain realms from where emotional distress arises. Such an understanding of functional neural integration in the brain would also no doubt open many new mysteries and questions. A special focus on early neurodevelopmental processes will also have crucially important implications for psychiatry (Schore, 2001), as the affective climate of early life must have a profound effect on the developing brain, substantially increasing or reducing an epigenetic vulnerability in later life to many psychiatric conditions. There is already abundant evidence from preclinical studies that positive social interactions have robust and life-long benefits for the neuroemo-tional resilience of young animals (Meaney, 2001). Such an understanding of early neurodevelopmental processes will eventually help clarify positive and...

Implications for Transference

Transference is now conceptualized within the broader notion of an analytic field. What are the further implications for the concept and status of transference and interpretation of transference For Ogden 200l, 2004a, 2004b), transference in the form of transference-counter-transference continues to hold a key position in clinical thinking. Ogden views transference as a form of thinking and of experiencing in which past modes of thinking and feeling are particularly alive in the present moment of analytic experience. It cannot be artificially isolated from the total stream of thinkingtfeeling, any more than transference as an aspect of the relationship can be artificially isolated from the totality of the analytic relationship T. Ogdenr personal communication, 2010 . Transfer-ence-countertransference for Ogden becomes synonymous with a view of the analyst and patient engaged in psychological work in which the unconscious anxieties and hopes of both participants come to life, mutually...

Theoretical Framework For Understanding Stress Responsive Systems

Perhaps the most important distinction between environmental and physiological stressors is that physiological stressors do not necessarily require cognitive appraisal, emotional evaluation, or conscious awareness to exert their effects. For instance, exposure to infectious agents (bacteria, viruses, toxins, etc.), hypoxia, hypoglycemia, and hypothermia are all examples of physiological stressors that elicit a stress reaction. Clearly, once the seriousness of the physiological challenge passes some identifiable threshold, the individual would normally develop a subjective experience of stress, which may then further activate stress responsive systems. Nevertheless, psychic stressors are qualitatively different than environmental ones and may activate stress responses via distinct pathways (Herman et al., 1996 Herman and Cullinan, 1997).

Consciousness and Self Observation

From the point of view of the investigator, consciousness can provide a more wide-ranging, and in one sense, more easily interpretable, picture of mood than lower-level physiological processes. An analysis of mood, going from the more basic biochemical level up through molar physiological levels and to the level of conscious awareness, is somewhat analogous to looking at an object through a microscope while changing powers. At the highest power of resolution, elements of the object can be seen that are lost at other levels, but conversely, more general patterns can only be viewed at lower levels of resolution (cf. Peele, 1983). In the case of mood, the more easily interpretable mood-behavior relationships can be viewed only at the level of conscious awareness. These general patterns are easily lost as one moves toward precise biochemical analyses. Valuable and unique insights into mood can be gained at each level, however.

Idealistic Consequentialism

Makes good results the criteria for rightness and wrong-ness in moral decision-making, but argues that the attempt to define what the good is is futile, because good itself is indefinable. Hence, it makes sense that he refuses the strivings of humanity to a specific good such as, for example, gaining pleasure and avoiding pain. Moore espoused instead a richer view of human consciousness in his Ethics. By Moore's account, goodness is an intrinsically indefinable quality or property that may issue from many experiences such as contemplation, gaining new knowledge, or aesthetic enjoyment. The real debate here is whether these human experiences are actually reducible to gradations of something like pleasure and pain. For it seems Mill's emphasis on quality in his consequential scheme can and does absorb the intellectual and the aesthetic into a higher order of pleasure. One's view on this issue depends on the efficacy of Moore's argument for good as an indefinable quality. It has exerted...

Reliance upon nonconscious cognitive processes

Creative people sometimes experience their work as being dependent upon the functioning of cognitive processes which are largely beyond their conscious awareness or control and which may or may not produce useful ideas. In some instances the products of these seemingly nonconscious processes pop up quite unexpectedly while people are engaged in relatively mindless everyday actions such as walking or taking showers, especially after having recently engaged in fairly intense periods of work on the project. In other cases, however, people attempt to engage these rather elusive processes by intentionally establishing what they consider to be particularly helpful internal and external conditions. Though such conditions sometimes include idiosyncratic sensory cues, they are often characterized by lack of distractions, a sense of peace and quiet, and sometimes the presence of an aesthetically pleasing visual scene. Such times and spaces, it should be noted, may be similar in some important...

The End of Repression as a Psychological Defense

As impulsive consumers of possibilities, moderns do not necessarily develop any genuine individuality since they are products of standardization, derealization, and linearity. Yet they are able to navigate the open consumer expanse without conscious awareness of limitations beyond those that are monetary and technical in nature. Some of these limitations are ameliorated by new modes of cultural magic, most notably eulogized credit, that take one always closer to the satisfaction of one's full range of consumer appetites.

Classical Pavlovian conditioning

The examples of intact eyelid conditioning all involve a procedure known as delay-conditioning, in which the presentation of the CS is prolonged and overlaps the US. Another procedure, known as trace-conditioning, involves a brief CS followed by a trace interval during which no stimulus is presented, followed by the US alone. The distinction between these two types of classical conditioning is important because it has been shown that rabbits with hippocampal damage normally acquire the eyelid response with the delay-conditioning procedure but cannot learn under the trace-conditioning procedure. Just like rabbits with hippocampal damage, human amnesics are impaired in trace eyelid conditioning. Moreover, this deficit has been related to the conscious awareness of the stimulus contingencies.

Memory Representations

Retrieval takes place in this complex system as cues drive patterns of activation and inhibition. Control executive processes gate access to activated representations and determine which states can enter consciousness. Note that, because in this model control processes cannot directly influence the spread of patterns of activation-inhibition in long-term memory knowledge structures, such patterns can nonetheless influence processing nonconsciously. Control processes can only influence which cues are to be elaborated in the cycles of generative retrieval, however, once an effective cue has entered the processing sequence, then the knowledge that then becomes potentially available to consciousness is determined solely by the effect of the cue and not by control process. On the other hand, whatever memory details eventually enter consciousnesses is, of course, modulated by control processes. This raises an interesting possibility what if the control of retrieval was impaired such that...

Studies of Cerebral Metabolism and Blood Flow in Anxiety Disorders

Panic disorder (PD) may be characterized by fundamental amygdala hyperresponsivity to subtle environmental cues, triggering full-scale threat-related responses in the absence of conscious awareness. Resting-state neuroimaging studies have suggested abnormal hippocampal activity with abnormally low left right ratios of parahippocampal blood flow and a rightward shift after treatment with imipramine (Nordahl et al., 1998). One study demonstrated a reduced blood flow in hippocampal area bilaterally (De Cristofaro et al., 1993). In contrast, others have observed elevated metabolism in the left hippocampus and parahippocampal area (Bisaga et al., 1998). Symptom provocation studies have revealed reduced activity in widespread cortical regions, including prefrontal cortex, during symptomatic states (Fischer et al., 1998 Reiman et al., 1989 Stewart et al., 1988 Woods et al., 1988).

Phenomenology and nosology of postinjury personality change

Personality is defined as patterns of emotional and motivational responses that develop over the life of the organism are highly influenced by early life experiences, are modifiable, but not easily changed by behavioral and teaching methods and greatly influence (and are influenced by) cognitive processes. In humans, these patterns of emotional and motivational responses are in part self-recognized, but they may remain outside the individual's realm of conscious awareness. Others who are familiar with the individual's daily behavioral characteristics may recognize emotional and motivational responses that the person may not be fully aware of or be able to report subjectively. Finally, the form of a given emotional or motivational response is highly dependent on the environmental consequences as well as the biological state of the organism. (p. 30)

Uncontrolled Direct Retrieval A Case Study

The interesting feature of CR is the overwhelming evidence that she does indeed store many episodic details about the events in her life, but under normal circumstances she loses access to these and therefore presents with a profound amnesia. For the most part, the episodic elements of her autobiographical memory remain locked away and yet with the right memory jig effective cue she is able to have recollective experience and when this happens she describes the experience as reliving the event. Typically, she cannot access memories, but then when viewing her SenseCam photographs she will suddenly have a Proustian moment and a flood of SPAC details from SEMs and CEMs will intrude into conscious awareness. Indeed, when this occurs we have detected uncontrolled spread of activation in the parietal, occipital, and (posterior) temporal lobes. This activation is far more extensive than that seen in intact controls recalling their own SenseCammed events. fragmentary, and formed outside...

Excess Borrowed Heroics And Negative Outer Modernity

It is interesting to hear about people who have enjoyed deeply satisfying lives by enabling themselves simply to be. For example, Robert Thurman writes about his years of training to be a Buddhist monk.21 By his account, he owned nothing at that point in his life, other than the modest clothes on his back. He spent no money on consumer goods, watched no television, and never listened to music. Thurman gave not a thought to cars, houses, career, competition, money, or fashion. Yet he recalls existing in a rich orgasmiclike state of being that was suffused with inner well-being and enormous excitement. By making himself poor and small, he had made possible the greatest contentment he had ever experienced. Eastern thinkers have long known the inner peace that is made possible by overcoming the ego. In an opposite way, the outer modernity of Western culture has the effect of maximizing ego in order to lead people down the path of consumption more easily.

Dance and Healing Practices

Although dance is primarily regarded as an aesthetic art form, there is a long tradition in the healing arts and spiritual practices to include it. For example, ancient shaman practices incorporated dance as a means to communicate with spirits and to activate transformative energy necessary to excise unwanted spirits. Formal spiritual practices frequently require specific physical postures to be assumed during meditation or prayer, the same postures that are repeatedly found in dance forms around the world. Many ancient healing traditions such as yoga and chi kung have clearly prescribed sequences of dance-like movements that are practiced in a state of mindful awareness. Since around 3000 BCE until today, these ancient movement arts offer relief to human suffering by activating physiological and psychological energetic release, and by providing hope to those seeking enlightenment and wisdom. As Western medicine began to depart from these ancient practices, dance and movement were...

Dance and Neurobiology

Our body schema (a felt sense based on physical properties of our body) is ideally matched with our body image (learned attitudes about our body). In dance this is one of the most delicate convergences because many trained dancers acquire great skill at managing body schema activations however, their body image may become distorted by the ideal notion of what a dancer's body is to resemble. Body schemas operate almost entirely outside of our conscious awareness. For example (a) proprioception (meaning perception of one's own) provides a sense of body motion, (b) the vestibular system provides a spatial awareness while we are moving, (c) our senses of touch, sight, sound, and smell provide further information, and (d) muscle memory (procedural memory) facilitates an organized and coherent motor action. Multiple regions within our brain coordinate our body schemas and organize and mobilize conscious and unconscious intentional actions. What is most intriguing is that our perceptions of...

Dance Creativity and Research

Become absorbed in the present-moment of dancing where autotelic experiences reside. They are also able to maintain an optimal balance between skill level and performance challenge. Achieving flow states is pleasurable and desired and most dancers, whether in professional, spiritual or recreational settings, seek and embrace them.

Cortex And The Executive Functions

From the correct response, and this was confirmed in a study by Bernstein et al. (1995). Although some have proposed that conscious awareness of having made an error is required for the manifestation of the ERN (Dehaene et al., 1994 Luu et al., 2000b), a study using an antisaccade test indicates that this may not be the case (Nieuwenhuis et al., 2001). That is, the comparison of an error response with the expected response need not reach the level of awareness to elicit an ERN.

Concept of autonomic reflexes and interactions with the somatic system

Often the sensory trigger for the reflex enters our conscious awareness and an element of voluntary control is involved. For example, in temperature regulation, cooling will trigger both autonomic adjustments of the vasculature through the sympathetic nervous system, and shivering, which is produced by contractions of the skeletal muscle and initiated through the somatic motor nerves. Perception of the skin temperature also occurs, and will lead to appropriate behavioural responses.

Developmental Differences in Cognitive Processes

Once again this same issue can be turned to the advantage of children. Perhaps children are unintentionally creative in part because they are so spontaneous. That spontaneity has many benefits. It precludes the rigidity and inflexibility mentioned above, for example, and it probably ensures a kind of mindful awareness of one's experience. Improvisation of all kinds is creative and necessarily spontaneous.

Minority Distinctiveness

More recently, Niemann and Dovidio (1998) studied the relationship between solo status for racial and ethnic minorities and feelings of distinctiveness and job dissatisfaction. The authors defined distinctiveness as feelings of high visibility, encapsulation in one's role, feeling highly contrasted from other workgroup members, and being stereotyped and viewed primarily in terms of category membership. They hypothesized that feelings of distinctiveness would be closely associated with awareness of stigmati-zation and feelings of vulnerability, which in turn would adversely affect job satisfaction. They also argued that solo status and feelings of distinctiveness could heighten the salience of negative stereotypic expectancies, a phenomena known as stereotype threat (Steele, 1997). Research on stereotype threat has shown that when minority group members are made aware of existing negative stereotypes toward their group, the threat of possibly behaving in such a manner as to confirm...

Creativity Dreams and Culture

Dreams may play a role in the creative process, identifying problems, searching for solutions, testing hypotheses, and communicating the results to the dreamer. In 1996, Strauch and Meier discussed how the creative transformation of memories is an expression of human consciousness that can take place during both wakefulness and dreaming.

Inner Strength and Self Soothing Meditation

This ability to find inner peace is a great inner strength. When you're in touch with this part of yourself, it's possible to feel more calm knowing you have the capacity to calm and soothe yourself and parts of yourself that have needed this calming and soothing so much.

Beyond Survival Self Actualizating Creativity

Self-actualizing creativity is often practiced, in more humble ways, in the ordinary affairs of life like a tendency to do anything creatively housekeeping, teaching, etc. (p. 137) Under the right conditions, one can imagine everyday creativity providing spur to a higher path of development. For some people it could even contribute to a spiritual path, through the rich simplicity of deeper knowing, beyond ego, in the present moment, manifesting in one's life in a way more consistent with Eastern models of creativity, as Zen Master Loori and others have described.

Changing Our Classrooms Changing Cultures

Bravery within - This alludes to the healthy effects of creativity, which are not won without a cost. As per the previous section III, healthy effects involve challenging oneself, hurdling over mental blocks, valuing this creative process more than defending certain fixed views of self. Being non-defensive, and open. Thus one moves beyond ego and more into the present moment.

Characteristics of Flow

The action must be combined with awareness in order to facilitate concentration and high performance of the task. Participants need to be focused and have a great deal of control over what they are doing. Developing a link between body and mind (action and awareness) is a very good way of achieving flow.

In the Wilds of Africa

However, he again extensively read Bhagavad Gita, as well as works by Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau (in particular, his essay on Civil Disobedience). He was also considerably enlightened by his correspondence with Leo Tolstoy and by John Ruskin's Unto This Last. As a result of this program of reading, his personal philosophy went through a radical transformation. After reading Ruskin he decided to build a commune called the Phoenix Settlement. He also created a cooperative commonwealth for civil resisters on an 1100-acre plot, 20 miles from Johannesburg the Tolstoy Farm. In addition, he translated Ruskin's work into Gujarati as a draft proposal for his future economic strategies. Gandhi began observing one day each week (generally Monday) as his day of silence, when he refused to speak, as he believed that silence leads to inner peace. He drew this idea from the Hindu religious principles of mauna (silence) and shanti (peace). On that particular day he would communicate...

Traumaproneness And Alienated Dissociation

Ing to combat the source of the stress. In fact, crude dissociation techniques of this sort keep alive the emotional distress, and hamper final resolution, as they simply banish toxic memories from conscious awareness. Long painstaking psychotherapies are usually needed in order to permit the memories to be emotionally absolved by supported gradual exposure to conscious recognition.

Family Based Interventions

Cate parents and extend the opportunity whenever possible. Although findings are not conclusive, Bou-dreaux et al. (2002) purported that family members may experience less anxiety and depression and better bereavement adjustment if present during resuscitation efforts. Eichhorn et al. (1996) proposed that family-witnessed resuscitation requires discussing the plan in advance with the resuscitation team assigning one team member to remain with the family to answer questions, clarify information, and offer emotional comfort providing sufficient space to accommodate family members and encouraging team members' mindfulness of family presence when communicating.

Modernity and Interpersonal Health

The desolation of modern relationships has been interpreted in terms of the concept of conformist consumption, in which the quality of interpersonal life deteriorates as people adopt a total life-style based on consumption, and in particular on overwork that enables them to overconsume.3 When the consumer program is fully internalized, it becomes a social vision that, with ongoing media assistance, insulates members from a conscious awareness of their loneliness. Consumption as a cultural code has become so prominent that few members find themselves capable of the healthy disobedience required to develop a personal code that makes ample room for the other.4 Even if this were possible, it is likely that self-motivated consumer defiance would have the reverse effect of increasing the amount of estrangement experienced as a result of this cultural disobedience.

Sigmund Freud and the Psychological View

Often such an experience is buried in the unconscious. Although hidden from conscious awareness, this material could nevertheless have a powerful impact on a person's behavior. In his 1895 book with Josif Breuer, Studies on Hysteria, Freud discussed his discovery that the contents of the unconscious could be revealed by suggesting certain key words to patients (as well as by hypnosis). The contents of their unconscious would come forward through their seemingly random associations to those words. These contents are then dealt with by allowing conscious and unconscious ideas to mingle into an innovative resolution of the trauma. The creative act is seen as transforming an unhealthy psychic state into a healthy one.

Some Thoughts on Methodology

In addition, Reber (i992a,b) argued that because human consciousness and its accompanying functions are late arrivals on the evolutionary scene, there should be particular patterns of dissociation between these two systems. The key predictions of the model for this discussion are Implicit learning is the process whereby organisms acquire knowledge about the regularities of complex environments without intending to do so and largely independently of conscious awareness of the nature of what was learned (Stadler & Frensch, 1998 Reber, 1967 Reber, 1993). The complex environments include virtually every facet of human life, including language learning, trait knowledge, categorization, acculturation, and the development of aesthetic preferences. The claim we are making is that people extract information about the world more often than they are aware and that this knowledge exists in a tacit form, influencing thought and behavior while itself remaining mostly concealed from conscious...

Mind Wandering and Mental Time Travel

The term 'mind wandering' refers to a shift of attention away from a primary task toward internal information, including daydreams about fictional worlds, as well memories and plans related to actual experiences. Mind wandering can occur without intention or even awareness that one's mind has wandered. Individuals often fail to notice that their immediate goal of task completion has been temporarily displaced by another concern. As our minds wander from a present task toward unrelated inner thoughts, fantasies, feelings, and other musings, we shift our attention among competing goals, including goals that were being pursued outside of conscious awareness. Why do we have minds that wander away from the tasks that we are performing, often without conscious awareness There are a variety of explanations (e.g., the importance of multi-tasking, maintaining an optimal level of arousal, etc.), but most researchers include the benefits of relating current thoughts to past experiences and...

Opportunistic Assimilation

The opportunistic assimilation hypothesis is, in part, a variation of the unconscious work explanation of incubation effects. This explanation has multiple components. First, it states that when someone has repeatedly tried to solve a problem, but experienced repeated failures, then that person's cognitive representation of the problem becomes sensitized to stimuli in the environment that are related to that unsolved problem. That is, the unsolved problem gathers enough mental energy that, although it is not activated enough to be consciously on one's mind, it is just barely below the threshold of conscious awareness. This sensitization is the result of emotional experiences associated with repeated failures, such as frustration or desire. The next component of this explanation is the random or serendipitous encounter one has with a stimulus in the environment that is related to the eventual solution to the unsolved problem. When, by blind luck, one stumbles across a related stimulus,...

Embedded Processes Working Memory Model

Although Baddeley's multi-component working-memory model has dominated the field for much of the past thirty years, there are alternative conceptions of working memory. Cowan (1988, 1995 ) has proposed a model that tightly integrates short- and long-term memory systems with attention. In his Embedded-Processes working-memory model (Figure 19.4 ), Cowan defines working memory as the set of cognitive processes that keep mental representations in an easily accessible state. Within this system, information can either be within the focus of attention, which Cowan believes is capacity limited, or in active memory, which Cowan suggests is time limited. The focus of attention is similar to James's (1890) concept of primary memory and is equated to the information that is currently in conscious awareness. In contrast, active memory, a concept similar to Hebb's (1949) cell assemblies or Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) long-term working memory, refers to information that has higher activation...

Definitions of Metacognition

Metacognition consists of two components knowledge and control. Metacognitive knowledge pertains to one's knowledge about how one's cognition operates ('I know that I do not memorize names well'), whereas metacognitive control pertains to how one controls one's cognitive operations ('To facilitate remembering I will try some mnemonic technique'). Some authors have conceptualized metacognition as operating at two levels the objective level and the meta-level. The objective level carries out cognitive operations, whereas the meta-level controls activities that occur at the objective level. Terms also used in the literature to describe metacognition are self-appraisal and self-management of cognition, metalearning, deutero-learning, and mindfulness. The number of definitions, terms, and analyses of what metacognition stands for has been the cause for some confusion in the literature.

The Psychological Challenge Of Religious Surrogacy

The convergence of media and religion is evidenced further by the evolution of commercial advertisements that tap spiritual appetites and entice consumers with spiritually laced fantasy in order to sell products. Recent years have seen an increasing prevalence of advertisements that convey indirectly the message that the goods on offer will provide some sort of inner peace or illuminated state. Product developers have discovered the value of choosing brand names that carry associations with the religious domain and of making God into the tempter. Especially common are those that target educated and fashion-conscious doubters who have gravitated toward vogue Eastern spiritual themes, thus we are now tempted by Zen skin lotion, Buddha cologne, and Karma coffee. Of course, it is rather far-fetched to presume that these products can even begin to make good on their implicit spiritual promise. More than anything, they are effective at reinforcing awareness of the new spiritual evil, which...

Mindless and Mindful States

Mindfulness involves the creation of new categories for organizing our awareness of the world. A precondition for the unfolding of this process is an awareness that the concepts which we currently hold to be coherent are only tentatively and therefore temporarily so. Just like the idea of phlogiston -which was held by seventeenth century chemists to be the especially to information which refutes inherent hypotheses and causal models, and which provides test cases for our concepts and ideas. It also involves an awareness of different perspectives or interpretations of the world - usually corresponding to different minds which 'see' in different ways. By contrast, a mindless approach to experience involves a cognitive commitment to inherited categories and causal models of the world, which may be invested with properties like truth and absolute certainty. Necessarily, when we are in a mindless state, we are likely to discount new information, and especially information which challenges...

The Phenomenology of Mindful and Mindless States

Experimental research by Ellen Langer and her colleagues has documented the precursors and effects of mindless states as well as the conditions that make possible a mindful approach to the world. This section reviews her experimental results by considering mindfulness and mindlessness in turn as dependent and independent variables. In this way, the precursors and benefits of mindful approaches, and the precursors and drawbacks associated with mindless states, can be considered side by side.

Mindful Approaches to the World Some Links to the Philosophy of Knowledge

The 'paradox' of mindfulness is that if the attainment of a mindful state could be enacted by following a prescription, an algorithm, or a program, then that state would cease to be mindful. Analogously to self contradictory impulses like 'be spontaneous' or 'try to forget her,' the injunction 'be mindful by following these simple rules' is self-defeating, for it is precisely in the escape from rigid rules and rule-based behavior that the essential characteristic of a mindful state lies. The path to mindfulness must itself be created, and therefore is itself the outcome of a mindful state. As noted previously, a precondition for the unfolding processes of cognitive creation and destruction is a skeptical or at least modest appraisal of the current concepts and ideas which we use to understand the world. Occasions for learning to be modest are to be found even in our daily experience. As Rupert Riedl has shown, a visit to the house of a new friend can throw doubt on intuitions about...

Interpretation and Insight

As a result of increased data from the neurosciences, we now know that implicit associational memory systems operate and are influenced outside conscious awareness (Gabbard and Westen 2003). Change can occur in different systems (conscious and unconscious , with and without words. Implicit change is possible during play not only because procedural schemas of interacting with another (Stern et al. 1998J can shift but also because conceptual symbolic ideas can be played with metaphorically during the play process without necessarily being brought to awareness. derstanding. With children, conscious awareness and self-reflection are more apt to occur toward the end of, and as a result of, the analysis.

Im still feeling emotionally drained Can I wait until Im feeling stronger to get treatment services for my child

One cognitive technique that psychologists recommend to relieve emotional stress is called compartmentalizing. This involves putting your thoughts or feelings into a separate compartment in your mind so that you can focus on what needs to be done in the present moment. For example, if you're feeling emotionally overwhelmed about your child with an ASD, visualize placing your feelings into a box and putting it on a shelf. This can help you focus on making those phone calls for services or taking care of other business without feeling distracted by your emotional state. By removing the emotional

The Social Context of Recollection

Although much remains to be explored about the long-term consequences of early parental reminiscing style, the few studies that have begun to examine this question converge on findings that parental elaboration early in the preschool years is related to both earlier age of first memory as children grow older, as well as to children's own more detailed and coherent personal narratives. But as we have argued, recollection involves more than simply bringing a past event to mind it involves the conscious awareness that one is recalling an event from one's own past that is, it requires a sense of self as an experiencer across time (James, 1890 Tulving, 2002). It is to this development that we now turn.

Investigate holistic or alternative therapies andor bodywork

Many people find that adding a non traditional, holistic element to their more traditional therapy is an effective tool for sustaining recovery. Yoga, Pilates, and other systems of body movement dovetail with the expressive therapies discussed earlier that are usually part of a treatment-oriented environment. Massage enhances body awareness, too, and some forms of body and energy work, such as Cranio-sacral and Reiki, will frequently help a person release deeply-felt emotions.

Separation and Individuation

Rank's approach stands out in contrast to Freud's. While Freudian psychoanalysis traditionally takes place with the analyst behind and out of view of the patient, relies on the patient's memories, and encourages the analyst to be a neutral observer (a 'blank screen'), Rank's psychotherapy involves the face-to-face dialogue between therapist and client and emphasizes the actual relationship between the two in the present or 'here and now.' In this view the therapist is a real person to be dealt with, a presence in the room. Rank thought of the present moment in therapy as a microcosm, a world in miniature that provides access to the client's life struggles. Therapy becomes less a linear process of recollection, repetition, and working through, as in the title of Freud's famous 1914 paper, but is rather a mindful engagement in the dynamic therapy relationship. Rank was prescient current research on psychotherapy process points to just that relationship as a primary healing factor.

Autonomy and Self Determination

As described previously, this statement should include a description of the general goals of supervision. There is currently some consensus in the literature that a supervisor's training responsibilities encompass four broad areas (1) competency (2) ethical sensitivity, knowledge, decision making, and behavior (3) understanding of and respect for individual and cultural differences and (4) emotional awareness and personal functioning (Conoley & Sullivan, 2002 Lamb, Cochran, & Jackson, 1991 Vasquez, 1992). In addition, consistent with the principle of autonomy and self-determination, the supervisor and supervisee should work together to identify specific objectives and experiences to include in the supervisee's individualized learning plan, taking into account the supervisee's current and desired competencies.

Ramona L Paetzold Texas ASM University

When is discrimination illegal This is a question with an evolving answer, changing not only as new protected classes are added, but also as time progresses. Both judicial and Congressional pronouncements have changed the face of employment discrimination law over the last 40 years, with changes occurring in the disparate treatment and disparate impact models of discrimination and the addition of the reasonable accommodation and hostile environment models of discrimination. Refinements in the law of discrimination do not necessarily reflect the current knowledge of the psychological processes underlying discrimination. Moreover, the research in I O, HR, and other behavioral sciences is out of touch in several respects with the law. I demonstrate in this chapter that research in HR OB and psychology has important implications for discrimination law, yielding opportunities for experts in these areas to inform the legal system on this important topic. I also note that researchers in...

Supportive Psychotherapy

Shown that helping patients develop increased emotional awareness can lead to diminished somatic symptoms across many different illness groups. In addition, supportive psychotherapy has been used to reduce negative emotions in parents facing pedi-atric physical illness (Sahler et al. 2005).

Executive control as a multicomponent construct

A further division of the inhibition component of executive functioning may be of particular importance for present purposes. This involves the distinction between inhibition at the response level and inhibition at the cognitive level. Friedman and Miyake (2004) found that performance on tasks requiring the stopping or preventing of prepotent responses (e.g., the Stroop, stop-signal and antisaccade tasks see also Miyake et al., 2000) represented a different latent variable (response inhibition) than measures of resistance to proactive interference (resistance to PI indexed by list-learning paradigms). Response inhibition may be involved in preventing the natural but socially inappropriate tendency to say something embarrassing about a colleague's new purple dress. As an example of resistance to PI, consider the first weeks after purchasing a new mobile phone. During this time, it would be difficult to access the new number in long-term memory because the extensively used old number...

Further Theoretical Considerations

Anderson and colleagues propose that exerting executive control is instrumental in the suppression of unwanted memories. In 2001, Anderson and Green introduced the Think No-Think (TNT) paradigm. In this task, participants first extensively learn a list of cue-target combinations of neutral words (e.g., braid-doll, tattoo -uncle). During a later think no-think phase, only the cue word of those pairs is presented. Participants receive two types of instructions. The first is that on particular trials, they should respond to the cue (e.g., braid) as quickly as possible by saying the target word out loud (e.g., doll). On other trials, however, participants not only have to withhold overt responding upon cue presentation (e.g., tattoo), but they are also instructed to keep the target (e.g., uncle) out of conscious awareness altogether (suppression). The crucial question is what happens to the targets during a later cued recall task. The typical finding is that under respond instructions,...

Agency and Ritualization

While the impact that individual agency can have on ritualized practices may seem somewhat straightforward, these forces may act to constrain behavior insidiously, as their impact on behavior may lie outside of conscious awareness (Bourdieu, 1979). How do people with mental illness come to become aware of their routinized behavior and transform their practices and routines Little systematic research has examined this issue however, models of the recovery process based on personal accounts of mental health consumers identify the importance of an internal awakening or realization that change is possible (Ralph, 2005). This turning point (Strauss, Hafez, Lieberman, & Harding, 1985) is a moment or period of time when a chance event or a remark from another person can lead to a change in perspective. After this moment, an individual begins to redefine his or her interpretation of what it means to have a mental illness and begins to seek out ways to change. As a result, the person...

Innovative Approaches

If you can't connect to a core value image, you might try eye movements. Think about what you are feeling (e.g., powerless or unlovable). Then think about what you would like to connect with (e.g., an image of feeling powerful or lovable). Experience all the negative thoughts, feelings, and physical sensations. While holding all of this in your mind, move two fingers back and forth across your visual field about twelve times, about 14 inches away from your eyes. Follow the movements with your eyes, holding your head still. Then let everything in your mind go (blank it out) and notice what you get. The original negative image might have shifted your mind may even have identified the image you are seeking. You can clear everything from your mind and repeat the eye movements until the desired image is obtained. The theory is that eye movements unlock frozen positive images in the mind and allow them to connect with present awareness.

The Challenge of Attending to Thinking Dispositions

Of mind Baron (1985) as part of his search-inference framework Ennis (1986) and Norris (1995) as part of analyses of critical thinking Langer (1989, p. 44), with the notion of mindfulness, which she defined as an open, creative, and probabilistic state of mind and Facione et al. (1995). Models of self-regulation have emphasized volitional aspects of thinking and individuals' motivation to engage thoughtfully (Schunk & Zimmerman, 1994). We and our colleagues have done extensive work in this area, referring to intellectual character as a particular perspective on dispositions (Ritchhart, 2002 Tishman, 1994, 1995) and to dispositions themselves (Perkins, Jay, & Tishman, 1993 Perkins et al., 2000 Perkins & Tishman, 2001 Perkins & Ritchhart, 2004).

Determinants of Energetic and Tense Arousal Including Cognitive Mood Interactions

Although the participants were told nothing about the purpose of the experiment, it might be argued that they guessed the purpose and cooperated by giving the preferred results. Or, skeptics might suggest that mere expectations about the exercise produced the rating change, even without any conscious awareness on the part of the walkers. However, evidence indicating the unlikelihood of these explanations was available because of the design employed in this research. There are a number of issues yet to be resolved within this theoretical perspective. For example, is this imbalance always a cognitive interpretational process And if so, to what degree is there conscious awareness of the process Unfortunately, the parameters of cognition and awareness are quite unclear in relation to these points (cf. Lazarus, 1982 Zajonc, 1980). The role of cognition and conscious awareness is also unclear in relation to internally generated pain. Anyone who has awakened from sleep with a toothache or...

Toward an Understanding of Nonpathological Mood States Evidence Speculations and Applications

Current evidence suggests at least eight essential features ought to be incorporated in any comprehensive understanding of mood. The first feature is that mood involves conscious awareness. Moods may be judged by behaviors, or they may even be inferred by bodily postures, but first and foremost, mood is part of consciousness. Certainly no conclusions concerning mood could be drawn without some sort of description or self-rating by an individual of how he or she feels. Although some moods such as low-level depression may be unrecognized by a person suffering from the malady, nevertheless, that individual would be aware of such telltale feelings as tiredness or an absence of energy.

Patient Core Beliefs Irrational Thoughts and Fears

Understanding core beliefs has therapeutic implications. The family physician can use simple principles of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to facilitate the management of these patients. The theory of CBT is that patients have core beliefs, a world-view, and personality somatic-specific fears that can be identified and modified by bringing them to conscious awareness (Beck and Freeman, 1990 Greenberger and Padesky, 1995).

A slightly different view of common factors

Every school of therapy advocates helping patients to face their fears. The way this is done (technique) and the types of fears faced differ greatly. Psychodynamic treatments deal more than any other model with unconscious fears and anxieties. Therapists in this tradition try to lower resistance in order to bring conflict-laden, sometimes repressed wishes, beliefs, feelings, and fantasies to conscious awareness, where the patient can more adaptively deal with them (Alexander, 1963 Alexander & French, 1946 Rangell, 1989 Reich, 1933 1976 Weiss, Sampson, & the Mount Zion Psychotherapy Research Group, 1986). In order for this to happen, the therapist makes use of the therapeutic relationship and carries out an examination of associative networks. Dream analysis, analysis of slips, and analysis of the transference are also employed. Brenner (1982) provides a readable exposition of the classical psychoanalytic point of view on these issues.

Case Study 1 Deliriuma Common Disorder Of Attentional Function And Working Memory

Delirium may be the most commonplace disturbance of consciousness encountered by psychiatric clinicians, as well as by other physicians, and is virtually ubiquitous on medical services in general hospitals. Its quite commonplace nature contrasts with a curious neglect within both clinical neuroscience and consciousness studies of the disorder, as relatively little attention has been paid to understanding the underlying neural and neurodynamic foundations for delirium and confusional states. Delirium is most classically associated with toxic-metabolic disturbances of a wide variety, or neuro-modulatory disruptions secondary to psychotropic medicines, often superimposed upon and degrading a baseline dementia of the Alzheimer's type. In terms of neuromodula-tory disruptions, it is most typically associated with the effect of anticholinergics, but it is also commonly seen in dopamine precursor loading, from the effects of opiates, and from gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist effects of...

Exchange Relationshipspostmarital Depression And Divorce Culture

Like the new Western mother who succumbs to depression as a result of perceived social abandonment, the new go-it-alone married person is predisposed in a similar way toward depressive symptoms. When this combines with the conscious awareness of disappointment and the withdrawal effects of a hypercommercialized premarital period, it is an easy step to entertain divorce as a solution to one's negative emotion.

Pratyusha Tummala Narra

Much of traumatic and nontraumatic stress, in a psychodynamic perspective, is conceptualized as located in the individual's unconscious, and the concept of bringing unconscious material to conscious awareness in a safe therapeutic space is thought to be central to effectively and accurately discovering connections between past events (traumatic and nontraumatic) In the case of childhood sexual abuse by a caregiver, the need to stay connected with the abusive parent perpetuates these dissociative processes, in which affect or emotional experience is disconnected from conscious-level experience. Trauma experts2,15 have pointed out how child survivors of sexual abuse experience internal splitting as they face separate realities, including the reality of abuse and the minimization or denial of the child's experience by the abuser and or family environment. In such cases, affect, memory, meaning, and fantasy remain dissociated from conscious awareness and remembered only as isolated parts...

The Importance of Self Care

Most primary care physicians are attracted into the field to make a difference in people's lives through continuous healing relationships. When the demands of the working environment tax the sense of control to maintain these relationships, stress and potential burnout can ensue. One remedy for this is to use the patient encounter to allow meaning to flow through the work. The healing-oriented primary care approach recognizes each patient as a unique individual with specific needs in the physical, emotional, and spiritual domains and sets aside both mental space and physical time to deal with those needs. To be aware of these personal needs is a mindful practice in which the physician is fully present in the moment with the patient, where each is able to reduce suffering in the other (Epstein, 1999). This mindfulness approach has been found to enhance well-being and physician attitudes in patient-centered care (Krasner et al., 2009). It requires that physicians create physical time in...

Overview and conclusions

On the basis of more recent philosophical and psychological models (see especially Chapters 2 and 3), the following components of emotion can be identified an initiating event (external or internal), an analogical interpretation, an appraisal of the interpretation especially in relation to goal relevance, physiological reaction, an action potential or action readiness, phenomenology, and overt behaviour. Probably all of these components are necessary for emotion, with the possible exception of conscious awareness we argued that the concept of emotion is an holistic one that covered all of these potential components, but it was not identifiable with any one component in particular. This holistic approach is contrary to prior theories that have equated emotion with for example conscious feelings (affect), or with the physiology, or with overt behaviour. This approach is also non-reductionistic that is, an emotion cannot be reduced to a particular neurological state because the same...

From spinal cord to cerebral cortex

Disproportionate Body Parts

For this naming task the left hemisphere is used because sensory information from the right side of the body is processed by the left cerebral cortex. However, using the right cerebral cortex patients could not provide a verbal account of what was held in the left hand. These observations confirmed what had been assumed, namely that while both hemispheres have a conscious awareness of things, it is the left that expresses its awareness in words.

Hemsleys and Grays Model

Without effort or conscious awareness and, potentially, in parallel with other processes) instead seems novel, engaging finite, controlled information processing resources (effortful, conscious processing requiring atten-tional focus and operating in a serial fashion Schneider & Shiffrin, 1977). Consistent with an earlier proposal put forth by Nuechterlein and Dawson (1984), Hemsley (1994) and Gray (1 998) argue that schizophrenia patients are significantly more likely to engage these controlled processes than are nonpsy-chotic subjects, resulting in patients' engaging information processing bottlenecks significantly more frequently, and, through physiological mechanisms discussed subsequently, this disparity leads to the conscious experience of psychosis. conditioned responses to conditioned stimuli of two types stimuli to which the subject was already exposed prior to association with the present response and stimuli otherwise novel to the subject when first associated with the...

Reasons for Problems with Grief Resolution

Claiming to be a cousin whom he had not seen since age five. Bob said he was skeptical and had refused to continue the conversation. Trust was a difficult issue for Bob. After this statement, it became apparent that Bob was not mentally present. He had done this before when flashbacks occurred, or when he decided it was too painful to continue talking. The routine had come to be to ask him where he was mentally. Usually he would reply that the walls had just gone up and this would be the signal to back off. However, this time he continued and said he was on a bed playing with his marbles. His baby brother was there with him. All of a sudden his father grabbed the baby and ran. The baby died subsequently, dad abandoned the family, resulting in mom's decision to take Bob and his sister to Ohio to live with his grandmother. His grandmother raised him, as his mother was not emotionally healthy. Until this time, he had never allowed this reality into conscious awareness. He now recognized...

Phantasy See Fantasy Phantasy

Preconscious One of the three components with conscious and unconscious) of the mental apparatus in Freud's topographic theory. The preconscious contains word residues that can connect an unconscious or conscious feeling, thought, or image with a linguistic representation. Elements of the preconscious are not conscious but are easily brought into conscious awareness thn> ugh focusing attention on them. Topographic theory An early effort by Freud to classify mental functionmgand contents in terms of their relationship to consciousness. A mental event, such as a wish, idea, or feeling, is termed unconscious when it exists outside of conscious awareness and cannot be made conscious via focal attention and termed pre-conscious when such attention leads to conscious awareness. The structural theory, which divided the mind into in, ego, and superego, expanded on rather than replaced the topographic theory. Unconscious fantasy A narrative about the self in relation to others that is either...

The Hierarchy Of Treatment Evidence

More recent pre-post studies have tested manualized treatments or modifications of manualized treatments for BPD. For example, Bohus and colleagues (2000) showed that DBT, a manualized cognitive behavioral therapy that was developed for treating chronically suicidal or parasuicidal women in outpatient settings, could be adapted for inpatient use. DBT (Linehan, 1993) includes weekly individual psychotherapy that emphasizes validation and acceptance, balanced with behavioral strategies designed to promote change. DBT also incorporates weekly groups that focus on the acquisition of interpersonal, self-regulation, and distress-tolerance skills. Although originally intended as an outpatient treatment, Bohus and his colleagues developed an intensive three-month inpatient program based on DBT, including weekly individual therapy and skills training groups, as well as weekly mindfulness, psychoeducation, and peer groups. Compared to assessments at admission, patients showed significant...

The peripheral nervous system

As noted above, in the neurologically intact male, erections are mediated by both the reflexogenic and psychogenic pathways. The reflexogenic pathway is mediated primarily by the automatic sacral parasympathetic nerves and can be activated independently of conscious awareness. Psychogenic erection on the other hand involves supraspinal efferents and is thought to be mediated primarily by sympathetic innervation (Horn & Zasler, 1990). Psychogenic erection can be elicited by mental imagery and by nontactile sensory stimuli (Szasz, 1983). Reflex vasodilation of the genital vasculature in response to sexual stimuli is responsible for both male penile erection and female lubrication (Segraves, 1996). Neuroanatomical studies have demonstrated a dual innervation of the genitals in both sexes sympathetic innervation from the T12-L4 segments of the spinal chord and parasympathetic sympathetic innervation from the S2-S4 chord segments. Stimulation of the sacral parasympathetic fibres elicits...

Sensory perceptions imperfections

See the lips mouth 'bah' you hear 'bah' even though the sound entering your ear is in fact 'dah'. Your brain is trying to provide your consciousness with its best guess about what the senses are telling it. In this case there is a contradiction between what the eyes and ears are telling it to perceive. In this instance, the eyes have it.

Application to therapy

A central feature of CBT is the need to be able to share a clear, easily grasped, rationale with the person with whom you are working, and obviously the exposition of the Interacting Cognitive Subsystems model given above does not match that description However, it does lead to some very simple and user-friendly ideas that have been central to Helena's therapy. In summary, if the desynchrony between propositional and implicational levels, mediated by high arousal, is at the root of at least the psychotic symptom part of the problem, getting these to work together is at the heart of the solution. The ideas of shared and non-shared reality, the ability to hold two ideas at once, and the role of state of arousal in mediating access to the more rational explanation, as introduced above, all relate directly to this model. Fundamentally, being in the world is seen as a balancing act rather than a given. In most mental health problems the balance becomes tipped, but in psychosis it becomes...

What distinguishes an emotion from a nonemotion

The major problem is that if we describe pain as the feeling produced by a physiological state, we buy into all the problems of feeling theory that we raised in our discussion of Descartes. The principal problems are those outlined by Wittgenstein (1958) in his private language argument. So, according to this line of attack, the word pain cannot obtain its meaning as a label for a purely private experience because it is a concept that is only verifiable publicly. If it were such a label, we would have no way of knowing that what we call pain was the same as what someone else would call pain. As we noted earlier, the arguments around this point are immensely drawn out and complicated. We shall content ourselves with providing the functionalist attempt at a solution to the problem. In this analysis, pain is a functional state that alerts us to the possibility of physical damage. However, if we reject the feeling theory idea that pain is merely the label given to our experience of this...

Their relationship with each other

It seems unlikely that it is possible to answer the question of how many emotions there are, or even whether it is meaningful to ask it. Some of the early philosophical analyses of emotion such as those of Aristotle and Descartes did present lists of emotions, but even here it is unclear whether they viewed these lists as illustrative or finite. Within cognitive theory the sensible approach would be that the number of emotions is determined by the number of states that fit the conceptual analysis that is, states that include an appraisal that has as its object an interpretation and that causes some form of physiological change concomitant with some form of action potential and conscious awareness. However, this does not help us to come up with numbers. Another way in is to perform some kind of socio-linguistic analysis and look at the number of emotion terms in a given language or culture. This approach has gained considerable currency in recent times (e.g., Johnson-Laird & Oatley,...

The role of consciousness in SPAARS

In SPAARS the content of conscious awareness is a product of the various levels and formats of the system (schematic model, propositional, associative, and analogical). The individual can be aware of images, smells, sounds, and tastes (analogical), and of thoughts and language (propositional), and finally of the higherorder schematic meaning that these things evoke. In addition, one can be aware of the products of associative-level processes for example, Peter's awareness of his fear at his father's shouting. Whether or not someone is conscious of the content of these various representational systems depends on the extent of the person's attention to the information in question, the level of activation of that information in the system, the current configuration of schematic models, and the influence of any inhibitory processes within the system (see below). We also want to emphasise the distinction made by Lambie and Marcel (2002) and others, between a reflective consciousness and an...

The generation of emotion via the associative level of representation some preliminary remarks

We propose that within SPAARS emotions can be generated directly, via an associative level, without concurrent access to the schematic model level of meaning. To understand what we mean by this statement in more detail, it is useful to return once again to the components of the emotional experience that we outlined following the philosophical analysis in Chapter 2. These were an event, an interpretation, an appraisal, physiological change, an action potential, and conscious awareness.

The concept of repression within SPAARS

The psychology of repressors seems a clear illustration of the role of inhibition processes within a SPAARS analysis. As we have discussed in Chapter 5, we propose that for some individuals the fulfilment of core appraisal criteria for certain emotions leads to a simultaneous imperative for the generation of emotion-related products such as physiological change, action potential, and conscious awareness on the one hand, and an inhibition of the experience of that emotion as a function of dominant schematic models that have become established during the individual's development on the other hand. In the case of repressors this would mean that physiological concomitants of emotion would be present but the individual has no conscious awareness of that emotion, and this is what the research data suggest (e.g., Weinberger et al., 1979). A further suggestion in Chapter 5 was that such emotional inhibition utilises processing resources, and consequently fewer resources are available for the...

Some Theoretical Remarks Concerning A Theory Of Mind

All emotional states comprise an event an appraisal an interpretation a physiological change and conscious awareness Emotional states can only meaningfully be distinguished one from the other on the basis of the appraisal component Broad distinctions can be drawn between emotional states, moods, and dispositions

Emotion Generation Via Schematic Models

We now have a significant part of the main framework of the theory of emotion that is the centrepiece of this volume. So far in this chapter we have reiterated the argument that the components of the emotion process always involve event, interpretation, appraisal, action potential, physiological change, and conscious awareness. We then sketched out the principal divisions in the content of the mind which we feel are useful to adopt in an understanding of emotions. Finally we have described three formats of representational architecture within which these other constraints and processes can be instantiated. In this section we shall endeavour to bring about a rapprochement between these aspects of the theory to illustrate the first of two proposed ways in which emotions are generated. In this case via the activation of the schematic model level of meaning. First, it will be useful to illustrate how the three main domains of information that are represented in the mind (knowledge and...

Components of the emotion of fear

In line with our discussion of the components of emotion throughout the book, we see fear as comprising an event, an interpretation, an appraisal, physiological arousal, conscious awareness, and, in the paradigm case, overt behaviour (see Chapter 2). However, before considering some of these components in detail, it is important to review briefly other deconstructions of the fear response most notably the work of Peter Lang, which we have considered more fully in Chapter 3.

A reanalysis of Clarks theory of panic disorder within the Spaars framework

David Clark's theoretical work on panic has been extremely influential, especially within the clinical domain, and any analysis of panic phenomena within SPAARS would have much in common with Clark's ideas. Enshrined within the SPAARS approach is the proposal (see Chapters 2 and 5) that emotions consist of an event, an interpretation, an appraisal, physiological arousal, an action potential, conscious awareness (and behaviour). We can see that these components are clearly delineated within Clark's model bodily sensations are the proximal event catastrophic misinterpretations are the interpretation and there is an implicit assumption that these interpretations will be appraised in a fear-related way leading to the physiological activation of fear-related bodily systems. Furthermore, Clark argues that the catastrophic misinterpretations of bodily sensations need not be conscious, and we have made this suggestion in Chapter 5 with respect to all emotion-related interpretations. In...

A formulation of the basic emotion debate in terms of the philosophy of emotion

In Chapter 2 we argued that the concept of emotion includes an event, a perception or interpretation, an appraisal, physiological change, a propensity for action, and conscious awareness. We further suggested that emotion as a paradigm case could also embrace overt behaviour. Within this conceptualisation we suggested that, in philosophical terms, it is only meaningful to distinguish one emotion from another on the basis of the appraisal component. That is to say, an emotion is specified as, for example, one of fear or one of sadness due to the nature of its appraisal component. We noted in Chapter 2 that a case can be made for distinguishing emotions on the basis of core components other than appraisal. For example, a number of authors such as William James have suggested that emotions can be distinguished on the basis of physiology (see Panksepp, 1998, for a review). In considering this argument, it is important to remember that the physiological component of emotion must...

Psychological questionnaires

The DRAM may help to identify patients who should be referred for more formal psychological assessment. Those showing no distress can have routine clinical management, without much concern for psychological issues. Those who are at risk can also be managed routinely, but with awareness and monitoring of the possible development of distress. Management of those who are clearly

Direct Laboratory Assessment of Sperm Oxidative Stress

Chemiluminescence assays using luminol are probably the most commonly described technique to detect ROS production within semen. This probe is very sensitive and has the advantage of relatively well-established reported ranges for both the fertile and infertile population 3-5, 8, 118, 120 . However, its general uptake by clinical andrology laboratories has been hampered by expensive equipment (luminometer) and difficulties with quality control created by assay confound-ers such as incubation time, leukocyte contamination and presence of seminal plasma contamination 8 . Measurement of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) within seminal plasma can also be measured using luminol, with the ability of seminal plasma to inhibit chemiluminescence elicited by a constant source of ROS (horseradish peroxidase) being the most commonly used technique. The TAC is usually quantified against a vitamin E analogue (Trolox) and expressed as a ROS-TAC score 109 . At the present moment the ROS-TAC score...

Mystical and trancelike experiences are delusional

Mystics describe many weird experiences, such as the feeling of transcending human consciousness, experiencing the presence of God, sensing being at one with the divine, a feeling of absolute dependence, experiencing the transcendent and mysterious reality of the universe, communicating with a world beyond normal experience, etc. The nature of these experiences seems akin to the experiences and feelings reported by some schizophrenic patients. Mysticism is a form of avoidance, a way to escape the harsh realities of a hostile environment that cannot be controlled 4 . Mysticism in this age seems like a form of adult autism, an abnormal introversion with egocentricity, and an escape into a fantasy that for some is more acceptable than reality.

Creativity in Response to Cancer

Desiderio, who had an aggressive type of nasal pharyngeal cancer, said that the ordeal of illness and treatment with chemotherapy and radiation was grueling but it changed him. He stated he now lives in the present moment and has developed greater internal strength because he no longer requires 'validation from outside.'

The Cancer Counselling Center of Ohio

In the situation of life-threatening illness, anticipatory grief is compounded by uncertainty. At the Center, many clients have a disease which is potentially lethal. They face, as if this threat were not bad enough, the incursions and perhaps the worsening of bodily illness, the difficult treatments and their often debilitating side-effects, and the loss of many aspects of their customary daily life. The possibility of dying is just one facet of a much greater complex of issues. Treatment in these cases often calls for unique methods. We routinely use tools which can access the internal states - the subliminal message systems - that lie beneath the surface of conscious awareness. It is our belief that where denial, doubt, and ambivalence prevail, clearer messages can often be obtained from the 'inner self'. We begin with relaxation, brainwave biofeedback, or other calming techniques to create a disposition of openness. Then, mental imagery, searching for internal direction (i.e.,...

Initial Onsite Assessment

If the athlete is unconscious or is regaining consciousness but still disoriented and confused, the injury should be managed similar to that of a cervical spine injury because the clinician may not be able to rule out an associated cervical spine injury. Therefore, the unconscious athlete should be transported from the field or court on a spine board with the head and neck immobilized. Vital signs should be monitored at regular intervals (1 to 2 minutes), as the clinician talks to the athlete in an attempt to help bring about full consciousness. If the athlete is in a state of lethargy or stupor and appears to be unconscious, the athlete should not be shaken in an attempt to arouse him or her. Shaking the athlete is contraindicated when a cervical spine injury is suspected. If LOC is brief, lasting less than 1 minute, and the remainder of the examination is normal, the athlete may be observed on the sideline and referred to a physician at a later time. Prolonged unconsciousness,...

Forgetting Fixation also Set Breaking

The forgetting fixation theory attributes incubation effects to cases in which time away from unsolved problems allows people to break out of fixating mental sets hence, the term set-breaking. A mental set is a type of cognitive structure, consisting of a collection of operations that are automatically reapplied to new problems. This automatic engagement of mental operations is referred to by cognitive psychologists as implicit, which means a cognitive process that occurs without conscious awareness, such as a habit or a skill that has been acquired through practice. The implicit use of a mental set can occur because the set was used recently, frequently, and or if the set was previously associated with the same context in which a problem occurs. If the implicit use of a mental set is caused by recent use of that set, then time away from the problem may help one forget that set of mental operations. If the engagement of a mental set is due to its association with a particular context,...

Acting Theory

These major concepts confirm the universality of acting in which actions are performed in a contextual relational field between the performers, the audience, and the socio-cultural experiences that have shaped them. To perform something profoundly true, to hold the mirror up to nature, to retain critical balance and yet maintain an ability to be emotionally engaged requires training and practice, and then it must be performed with others in the immediacy of the present moment.

Affect

Table with a candle, a box containing tacks, and a matchbook. They are asked to attach the candle to the wall such that it does not drip wax on the table. Most participants fruitlessly attempt to pin the candle directly to the wall using the tacks or to glue it to the wall using melted wax. However, the only viable solution involves pouring the tacks out of the box and using the container as a pedestal for the candle. Responding in this manner has been characterized as requiring an ability to overcome functional fixedness, that is, the capacity to use an object with a previously well-established function in a new way. This ability may be viewed as a special case of breaking mental set, a fundamental component of creativity. Moreover, it may be seen as benefiting from expanded conceptual attention, inasmuch as this should increase accessibility to associations that are relatively remote from conscious awareness, for instance, the nonobvious idea that the box is not only a container,...

Theories of concepts

Waismann and many others, including Kuhn, were inclined to see the problem as one of the future application of existing concepts. However successful we have been up to the present moment in specifying necessary and sufficient conditions for the application of a concept, there is, on this view, no guarantee that the next instance of the concept we encounter will not violate the norms specified in the

Treatment

With respect to psychosocial and behavioral treatment approaches for anxiety in the pediatric setting, the short duration of the patient's hospital stay often necessitates a brief and focused approach. Supportive psychotherapy and reassurance play an important role in correcting patients' misconceptions about the significance of physical symptoms. When more intensive psychotherapeutic support is indicated, CBT-based interventions are recommended because they have received the most empirical support for the treatment of pediatric anxiety disorders (Connolly and Bernstein 2007 Graczyk and Connolly 2008). CBT approaches essentially include three core components psychoeducation, cognitive restructuring (i.e., uncovering and correcting misinterpretations and irrational thoughts that are associated with symptoms of anxiety), and behavioral experiments (Coyne et al. 2008). In the past decade, numerous child-focused CBTs have been developed, including applications with very young children,...

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