Clostridium Perfringens Type C Enteritis A Backgroundepidemiology

Infection with C. perfringens type C has been linked to a unique syndrome of segmental necrotizing enteritis of the proximal small intestine and has been locally referred to as 'Darmbrand' (or 'fire-bowels') in Germany where outbreaks occurred in the post-World War II period and as 'pigbel' in Papua New Guinea where it was originally associated with ritual pork feasts.81'82 Several lines of evidence have implicated the (3-toxin produced by C. perfringens type C as the primary virulence factor...

Clinical manifestations

Because botulinum toxin is hematogenously distributed and because relative blood flow and density of innervation are greatest in the bulbar musculature, all three forms of botulism manifest clinically as a symmetrical flaccid paralysis that first affects and descends from the muscles of the head, face, mouth and throat. It is not possible to have botulism without having bulbar palsies, yet in infants symptoms such as poor feeding, weak suck, feeble cry, drooling and even obstructive apnea are...

Physiology of Sporulation of Clostridia

Clostridium Sporulation Pathway

Food Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA and, *Department of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616-5294, USA Exposure of Clostridia to conditions of nutrition depletion activates alternate metabolic pathways. Sporulation is the ultimate example of this adaptation response, which begins at the onset of stationary phase. Unlike most adaptive responses, bacterial sporulation...