Daily Rhythms of Subjective Energy and Other Biopsychological Cycles

The newly emerging area of chronobiology, or perhaps more appropriately for this chapter, chronopsychology, can provide extremely important insights into mood. There is an extended history of research on biological cycles, including empirical observations and some theory (see reviews by Brown, 1982 Colquhoun, 1982), but until the last half of this cent ury scientists have not really captured the full significance of these natural cycles in relation to mind and behavior (Aschoff, 1965 Colquhoun,...

Biochemical Correlates of Mood

It is assumed, for example, that the brain amines play a central role in an individual's moods. These substances function at the level of the synapse, selectively enhancing and reducing neural transmission. The three monoamines most associated with mood are norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin. (Norepinephrine and epinephrine, together with their precursor, dopamine, are catecholamines, and serotonin is an indolamine.) Other neurotransmitters, including acetylcholine, may also be important...

General Arousal States and Mood

In addition to the relationship of biological cycles, brain, and biochemical substrates to mood, more general variations in the autonomic nervous system and the skeletal-muscular system are probably related to mood (cf. Levenson, 1983). Research demonstrating this relationship has been done, but not to any great extent. Two studies of interest in this regard were conducted by Levenson and Gottman (1983, 1985). These investigators asked married couples to discuss a variety of marital situations...

Tense Arousal

Now let us consider the same hypothetical young man in a different situation. He is working slowly at his desk in a quiet office. It is late afternoon, and he is feeling rather drowsy. His physiological and psychological state is one of quiescence, or low arousal. The telephone rings, and his boss, speaking in a loud voice, orders the young man to come to his office immediately. The sound of the boss's voice suggests anger, and the young man is immediately alarmed. As he walks hesitatingly down...

Naturally Occurring Antecedents of Mood

In recent times a good deal of attention has been paid to the kinds of naturally occurring events that affect moods, and a variety of influences have been tentatively identified. None of the findings was entirely unexpected, but nevertheless, the actual empirical data provide greater understanding than is possible from simple casual observations. As examples of research, Kirchler used a diary method to study thirty unemployed workers over a six-month period (Kirchler, 1985). Feelings of...

Chapter

Moods related to anger or sexual arousal may not be interpretable within this theoretical context. 2. Within the traditional division of mind into affect and cognition (e.g., Isen, 1984 Lazarus, 1984 Zajonc, 1980), these states are clearly affective. Moreover, moods of tension (including anxiety, fearfulness, etc.) are certainly emotional in character. Whether moods of energy and tiredness are also emotional is open to interpretation, but I regard them at least as central elements of common...

Food and Mood

Although the relationship between eating and mood is of intense interest in the general culture, this area of study is highly underrepresented in the scientific literature. Popular science writers commonly assume that mood is directly affected by certain food groups (Dufty, 1975 Fredericks & Goodman, 1969), but there is a surprisingly small amount of data to support this. For example, sugar consumption is widely believed to result in tension, but recently, biochemical studies have suggested...

Autosuggestion and Hypnosis Manipulations

Perhaps the most frequently used experimental manipulation in the past ten years was developed by Velten in his doctoral research (Velten, 1967, 1968). Although Velten's procedure is often modified, in the original research, participants in the experiment read aloud or to themselves a series of statements designed to produce either elation, depression, or a neutral mood. They were instructed to be responsive and receptive to the idea of the statement. In many ways this manipulation is similar...

Toward an Understanding of Nonpathological Mood States Evidence Speculations and Applications

There are a number of features that any comprehensive understanding of mood must incorporate. After first indicating what these essential features are, some observations and speculations will be provided about the ways in which energy and tension moods meet these criteria. Parts of this understanding were more fully developed elsewhere in this book, but ideas specific to mood will be added in the present discussion. This chapter also includes hypothetical scenarios of mood relations that might...

Determinants of Energetic and Tense Arousal Including Cognitive Mood Interactions

The common perception that exercise results in fatigue is frequently wrong. One of the most interesting things about subjective energy is that often this feeling is immediately enhanced by moderate exercise. I am not speaking here of the enhancement that comes over time with physical conditioning. Instead, my point is that on any single occasion energy is often increased by moderate exercise, and the effect can continue for minutes if not hours. At first thought, this doesn't seem logical....