Tests For Length Of Lumbricales And Interossei

Pronator Teres Muscle Length Test

SHORTNESS OF INTRINSIC MUSCLES OF THE HAND In this case, illustrated by the above photographs, a middle-aged woman presented with a complaint that her middle finger occasionally pained rather severely and that a constant, tight, drawing feeling was felt along the sides of this finger. She did not feel that the pain was actually in the joints of the finger. A medical checkup had revealed no arthritis. This person was an avid card player, and the condition was present in the left hand, which was...

Back Extensors Testing And Grading

Quadratus Lumborum Muscle Length Test

In the trunk extension test for the back extensors, the erector spinae muscles are assisted by the latissimus dorsi, quadratus lumborum, and trapezius. In the prone position, the low back will assume a normal anterior curve. To avoid false interpretations of the test results, it may be necessary to perform some preliminary tests. It is not necessary to do so routinely, however, because close observation of the subject in a prone position and of the movements taking place during trunk extension...

Test For Length Of Pectoralis Major

Normal length of upper fibers. Normal length of lower fibers. Normal length of upper fibers. Equipment Firm table no soft padding. Starting Position Supine, with the knees bent and the low back flat on the table. Test Movement for Lower (Sternal) Part The examiner places the subject's arm in a position of approximately 135 of abduction (in line with the lower fibers), with the elbow extended. The shoulder will be in lateral rotation. Normal Length Arm drops to...

Upper Abdominal Muscles Testing And Grading

Fair Muscle Grade

Normal (10) Grade * With the hands clasped behind the head, the subject is able to flex the vertebral column (top figure) and keep it flexed while entering the hip flexion phase and coming to a sitting position (bottom figure). The feet may be held down during the hip flexion phase, if necessary, but close observation is required to be sure that the subject maintains the flexion of the trunk. Because many people can do a curled-trunk sit-up with hands clasped behind the head, it is usually...

Medial Rotators Of Hip Joint

Lateral Rotatio

The medial rotators of the hip joint consist of the tensor fasciae latae, gluteus minimus and gluteus medius (anterior fibers). Patient Sitting on a table, with the knees bent over the side and the subject holding on to the table. Fixation The weight of the trunk stabilizes the patient during this test. Stabilization is also given in the form of counterpressure, as described below under Pressure. Test Medial rotation of the thigh, with the leg in a position of completion of the outward arc of...

Transversus Abdominis

Transverse Abdominis Muscle Shape

Origin Inner surfaces of cartilages of the lower six ribs, interdigitating with the diaphragm thoracolumbar fascia anterior3 4 of internal lip of the iliac crest and lateral ' of the inguinal ligament. Insertion Linea alba by means of a broad aponeurosis, pubic crest, and pecten pubis. Direction of Fibers Transverse (horizontal). Action Acts likes a girdle to flatten the abdominal wall and compress the abdominal viscera upper portion helps to decrease the infrastemal angle of the ribs, as in...

Variations In Length Of Posterior Muscles

Motorpoint Adductor Muscles

Normal length of the gastroc-soleus. normal length of the gastroc-soleus. Excessive length of the upper back muscles, slight shortness of the muscles in the mid back and in gastroc-soleus. Hamstrings and low back are normal in length. Excessive flexibility of the back overcompensates for shortness of the hamstrings. This subject is unable to touch his toes because of shortness in the gastroc-soleus, and slight limitation of flexibility in the mid-back area. The upper back shows some excessive...

Child With Overdeveloped Muscles

Knock Knee Ray Pronated Feet

Ideal Alignment In ideal alignment, the hips are neutral in rotation, as evidenced by the position of the patellae facing directly forward. The axis of the knee joint is in the coronal plane, and flexion and extension occur in the sagittal plane. The feet are in good alignment. Postural Bowlegs Postural bowlegs results from a combination of medial rotation of the femurs, pronation of the feet and hyperextension of the knees. When femurs medially rotate, the axis of motion for flexion and...

Painful Conditions Of The Upper Back

Pectoralis Minor Length Test

MIDDLE AND UPPER BACK PAIN FROM OSTEOPOROSIS Thoracic kyphosis is a primary deformity in osteoporosis, usually accompanied by compensatory extension of the cervical spine. Complaints of upper middle and low back pain are common and can best be treated by gentle efforts to reduce the postural deformity and prevent further progression before the faulty posture becomes a fixed structural fault. If a support can be tolerated, encourage the patient to use one to help maintain the best possible...

Section Iii Neck Muscle Tests

Patient Supine, with the elbows bent and the hands overhead, resting on the table. Fixation Anterior abdominal muscles must be strong enough to give anterior fixation from the thorax to the pelvis before the head can be raised by the neck flexors. If the abdominal muscles are weak, the examiner can provide fixation by exerting firm, downward pressure on the thorax. Children approximately 5 years of age and younger should have fixation of the thorax provided by the examiner. lest Flexion of the...

Trendelenburg Sign And Hip Abductor Weakness

Trendelen Burg

When body weight is supported, alternately, on one leg, such as in walking, the body must be stabilized on the weight-bearing leg during each step. By reverse action (i.e., origin pulled toward the insertion), strong hip abductors can stabilize the pelvis on the femur in hip joint abduction, as shown in Figure A. The lateral trunk flexors on the left also act by pulling upward on the pelvis. Figure B shows a position of hip joint adduction that results when hip abductors are too weak to...

Apparent Leglength Discrepancy Caused By Muscle Imbalance

Naturist Male Wrestling

Without any actual difference in leg length, subjects have an appearance of a longer leg on the high side when the pelvis is tilted laterally. In the right photograph below, this appearance has been created by displacing the pelvis laterally. (The feet were anchored to the floor.) If tightness develops in the tensor fasciae latae and iliotibial band on one side, the pelvis will be tilted downward on that side. With gluteus medius weakness on one side, the pelvis will ride higher on the side of...

Spinal Nerve And Motor Point Chart

Nerve Point Image

Lat and Mod. pectoral Ns Pectoralis major Pectoralis nta lat and Mod. pectoral Ns Pectoralis major Pectoralis nta AM poll b Opp poll Fl po4> b (sup h ) I Lumbricfllts I, II Accessory N. (cran XI) Sternocleidomastoid Mid. & low. trap Upper trapezius Suprascapular N. Supraspmatus Infraspinatus Axillary N AM poll b Opp poll Fl po4> b (sup h ) I Lumbricfllts I, II Palmaris brevis Abd. digiti min. Opp. digiti min. Fl. digiti min. Palmar interossei Lumbricales III. IV Dorsal interossei (se Fl....