Flexok Digiiohum Lunoub A Nu Quadratus Plantae

Flex hall long

Flex. hall. long.

Flex hall long

Flex. hall. long.

Quadratus plantae •-Flex, digit, long

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FLEXOR DIGITORUM LONGUS

Origin: Middle 3/s of posterior surface of the body of the tibia and from fascia covering the tibialis posterior.

Insertion: Bases of the distal phalanges of the second through fifth digits.

Action: Flexes proximal and distal interphalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints of the second through fifth digits. Assists in plantar flexion of the ankle joint and inversion of the foot.

Patient: Supine or sitting. With gastrocnemius tightness, the knee should be flexed to permit a neutral position of the foot.

Fixation: The examiner stabilizes the metatarsals and maintains a neutral position of the foot and ankle.

lest: Flexion of the distal interphalangeal joints of the second through fifth digits. The flexor digitorum is assisted by the quadratus plantae.

Pressure: Against the plantar surface of the distal phalanges of the four toes in the direction of extension.

Weakness: Results in a tendency toward hyperextension of the distal interphalangeal joints of the four toes. De creases the ability to invert the foot and plantar flex the ankle. In weight bearing, weakness permits a tendency toward pronation of the foot.

Contracture: Flexion deformity of distal phalanges of the four lateral toes, with restriction of dorsiflexion and eversión of the foot.

QUADRATUS PLANTAE (FLEXOR ACCESSORIUS)

Origin of Medial Head: Medial surface of the calca-neus and medial border of the long plantar ligament.

Origin of Lateral Head: Lateral border of plantar surface of the calcaneus and lateral border of the long plantar ligament.

Insertion: Lateral margin and the dorsal and plantar surfaces of the tendon of the flexor digitorum longus.

Action: Modifies the line of pull of the flexor digitorum longus tendons, and assists in flexing the second through fifth digits.

Note: No test illustrated.

408 EXTENSOR DIGITORUM LONGUS AND BREVIS AND PERONEUS TERTIUS

EXTENSOR DIGITORUM LONGUS

Origin: Lateral condyle of the tibia, proximal 3A of the anterior surface of the body of the fibula, proximal part of the interosseous membrane, adjacent intermuscular septa, and deep fascia.

Insertion: By four tendons to the second through fifth digits. Each tendon forms an expansion on the dorsal surface of the toe and divides into an intermediate slip attached to the base of the middle phalanx, and into two lateral slips attached to the base of the distal phalanx.

Action: Extends the metatarsophalangeal joints, and assists in extending the interphalangeal joints of the second through fifth digits. Assists in dorsiflexion of the ankle joint and eversión of the foot.

EXTENSOR DIGITORUM BREVIS

Origin: Distal part of the superior and lateral surfaces of the calcaneus, lateral talocalcaneal ligament and ape of the inferior extensor retinaculum.

Insertion: By four tendons to the first through fourth dig its. The most medial slip, also known as the extensor A lucis brevis, inserts into the dorsal surface of the base the proximal phalanx of the great toe. The other three ten dons join the lateral sides of the tendons of the extensor digitorum longus to the second, third, and fourth dig'

Action: Extends the metatarsophalangeal joints of e first through fourth digits, and assists in extending the terphalangeal joints of the second through fourth dig'

Note: Because the extensor digitorum brevis ft dons fuse with the tendons of the extensor longs A the second through fourth digits, the brevis as " as the longus will extend all joints of these toes-Wit hout an extensor longus, however, no extens of the fifth digit will occur at the metatarsopl'" langeal joint. To differentiate, palpate the t""*" / the longus and the belly of the brevis, and try to tect any difference in movement of the toes.

PERONEUS TERTIUS

Origin: Distal xh of the anterior surface of the fib"'

terosseous membrane, and adjacent intermuscular sep j

Insertion: Dorsal surface, base of the fifth metatars

Action: Dorsiflexes ankle joint, and everts foot.

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