Muscles

Full range of scapulohumeral and scapular motion for normal overhead elevation of the arm in flexion or in abduction requires adequate length in the pectoralis major, pectoralis minor, latissimus dorsi, teres major, sub-scapularis and rhomboids.

Full range of motion in lateral rotation requires normal length of the medial rotators—namely, the pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, teres major and subscapularis. Full range of motion in medial rotation requires normal length of the lateral rotators—namely, the teres minor, infraspinatus and posterior deltoid.

To test accurately for the various movements, there must be no substitution by movements of the trunk. The trunk position must be standardized, with the subject supine, the knees bent and the low back flat on a flat sur face. The table should not have a soft pad; however, a folded blanket may be used for the comfort of the subject.

If the low back arches up from the table, the amount of shoulder flexion or lateral rotation will appear to be greater, and the amount of medial rotation will appear to be less than the actual range of shoulder and scapular motion. If the chest is depressed, the amount of shoulder flexion and external rotation will appear to be less, and the amount of medial rotation will appear to be greater than the actual range of motion.

If the trunk bends laterally with convexity toward the tested side, the amount of abduction will appear to be greater than the actual range of shoulder and scapular motion.

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