Opponens Digm MINIMI

Origin: Hook of the hamate bone and the flexor retinaculum.

Insertion: Entire length of the fifth metacarpal bone, ul-nar side.

Action: Opposes (i.e., flexes with slight rotation) the carpometacarpal joint of the little finger, lifting the ul-nar border of the hand to a position in which the metacar-pophalangeal flexors can oppose the little finger to the thumb. Helps to cup the palm of the hand.

Patient: Sitting or supine.

Fixation: The hand may be stabilized by the examiner or rest on the table for support. The first metacarpal is held firmly by the examiner.

Test: Opposition of the fifth metacarpal toward the first.

Pressure: Against the palmar surface, along the fifth metacarpal, in the direction of flattening the palm of the hand. In the illustration, one-finger pressure was used to avoid obscuring the belly of the muscle; usually, the thumb is used to apply pressure along the fifth metacarpal.

Weakness: Results in a flattening of the palm, and makes it difficult, if not impossible, to oppose the little finger to the thumb.

ABDUCTOR DIGITI MINIMI

Origin: Tendon of the flexor carpi ulnaris and the pisiform bone.

Insertion: By two slips: one into base of proximal phalanx of little finger, ulnar side and one into the ulnar border of the extensor expansion.

Action: Abducts, assists in opposition, and may assist in flexion of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the little finger. By virtue of its insertion into the extensor expansion, may assist in extension of the interphalangeal joints.

Patient: Sitting or supine.

Fixation: The hand may be stabilized by the examiner or rest on the table for support.

Test: Abduction of the little finger.

Pressure: Against the ulnar side of the little finger, in the direction of adduction toward the midline of the hand.

Weakness: Decreases the ability to abduct the little finger and results in adduction of this digit.

Note: One should be consistent regarding the placement of pressure during all finger abduction and adduction tests. Pressure against the sides of the middle phalanges seems to be most appropriate for all these tests.

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