Shoulder Lateral Rotators Group Test

INFRASPINATUS

Origin: Medial h of the infraspinous fossa of the scapula.

Insertion: Middle facet of the greater tubercle of the humerus and shoulder joint capsule.

Action: Laterally rotates the shoulder joint, and stabilizes the head of the humerus in the glenoid cavity during movements of this joint.

Patient: Prone.

Fixation: The arm rests on the table. The examiner places one hand under the arm near the elbow and sta-

TERES MINOR

Origin: Upper 2h, dorsal surfaces of the lateral border of the scapula.

Insertion: Lowest facet of the greater tubercle of the humerus and shoulder joint capsule.

bilizes the humerus to ensure rotation by preventing adduction or abduction motion. The examiner's hand cushions against the table pressure. This test requires strong fixation by the scapular muscles, particularly the middle and lower trapezius, and in performing this test, one must observe whether the lateral rotators of the scapula or the lateral rotators of the shoulder break when pressure is applied.

Test: Lateral rotation of the humerus, with the elbow held at a right angle.

Pressure: Using the forearm as a lever, pressure is applied in the direction of medially rotating the humerus.

Action: Laterally rotates the shoulder joint, and stabilizes the head of the humerus in the glenoid cavity during movements of this joint.

Patient: Supine.

Fixation: Counterpressure is applied by the examiner against the inner aspect of the distal end of the humerus to ensure rotation.

Test: Lateral rotation of the humerus, with the elbow held at a right angle.

Pressure: Using the forearm as a lever, pressure is applied, in the direction of medially rotating the humerus.

Weakness: The humerus assumes a position of medial rotation. Lateral rotation, in antigravity positions, is difficult or impossible.

For the purpose of objectively grading a weak lateral rotator group against gravity and for palpation of the rotator muscles, the test in the prone position is preferred over the teres minor and infraspinatus test in the supine position. For action of these two rotators without much assistance from the posterior deltoid and without the necessity of maximal trapezius fixation, the test in the supine position is preferred.

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