Equipment: Firm table; no soft padding.
Starting Position: Supine, with the knees bent and the low back flat on the table.
Test Movement for Lower (Sternal) Part: The examiner places the subject's arm in a position of approximately 135° of abduction (in line with the lower fibers), with the elbow extended. The shoulder will be in lateral rotation.
Normal Length: Arm drops to table level, with the low back remaining flat on the table.
Shortness: The extended arm does not drop down to table level. Limitation may be recorded as slight, moderate, or marked; measured in degrees using a goniometer, or measured in inches using a ruler to record the number of inches from the lateral epicondyle to the table.
Test Movement for Upper (Clavicular) Part: The examiner places the subject's arm in horizontal abduction, with the elbow extended and the shoulder in lateral rotation (palm upward).
Normal Length: Full horizontal abduction, with lateral rotation, the arm flat on the table, and without trunk rotation.
Shortness: The arm does not drop down to table level. Limitation may be recorded as slight, moderate, or marked; measured in degrees using a goniometer; or measured in inches using a ruler to record the number of inches between the table and the lateral epicondyle. Marked limitation is seldom found in this test.
Note: Tightness of acromioclavicular fascia can interfere with length testing ofthe clavicular portion.
Excessive length in upper (clavicular) part of pectoralis major.
Test for Excessive Length: Position the subject with the shoulder joint at the edge of the table so that the arm can abduct horizontally below table level. Record excessive range as slight, moderate, or marked, or measure in degrees using a goniometer. Excessive range of motion is not uncommon.
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