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New Perspectives in Cognitive Psychology

New Perspectives in Cognitive Psychology is a series of works that explore the latest research, current issues, and hot topics in cognitive psychology. With a balance of research, applications, and theoretical interpretations, each book will educate and ignite research and ideas on important topics.

Cognitive biases and depression

The question of cognitive biases and distortions has long held interest in the study of depression with, for example, the emphasis on logical distortions and irrational beliefs in the early work of Beck (e.g., 1976) and of Ellis (e.g., 1962) (see also Chapter 6). However, as Haaga et al. (1991) have pointed out, the terms bias and distortion were not distinguished in this early work, and only recently has care been taken with this distinction. A bias is a proclivity to take one direction over another which under some conditions will lead to accuracy or realism, but under other conditions will lead to inaccuracy (see Power, 1991). In contrast, distortion is invariably wrong. For example, if a group of depressed and a group of normal individuals are given a set of positive and negative adjectives to recall, then the depressed people are typically found to recall more negative adjectives and the normal controls more positive adjectives (e.g., Derry & Kuiper, 1981). Neither group is...

Patient Core Beliefs Irrational Thoughts and Fears

Understanding core beliefs has therapeutic implications. The family physician can use simple principles of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to facilitate the management of these patients. The theory of CBT is that patients have core beliefs, a world-view, and personality somatic-specific fears that can be identified and modified by bringing them to conscious awareness (Beck and Freeman, 1990 Greenberger and Padesky, 1995). Core beliefs and fears are deeply held, intense, and idiosyncratic in quality. When stress occurs against the background of a core belief, a reinforcing feedback sequence ensues. The core belief is acted on by the stressor, which leads to irrational fears, negative moods or emotions that lead to maladaptive physical symptoms or behaviors, which in turn confirm or amplify the core belief or fear. Core beliefs and fears are readily activated during a visit to the physician, when a patient has symptoms, feels sick, or is vulnerable. For example, a patient with...

Ehlers and Clarks cognitive theory

A cognitive-therapy-based model of PTSD has been presented by Ehlers and Clark (2000). The main core of the theory is centred on the proposal that there is a cyclical process that maintains a current and continuing sense of threat, analogous to the cycle that leads to panic in Clark's (1986) model of panic presented earlier in the chapter. The sense of threat is based on the past traumatic event, the nature of the trauma memory, and the negative appraisal of the trauma and its consequences. The cycle of continuing sense of threat is therefore based on key appraisal processes that link the approach to appraisal theories of emotion (Scherer, 1999 Scherer et al., 2001 see Chapter 3). These appraisals can be about the nature of the event, which for example could imply that nowhere is safe or that the next disaster will strike soon alternatively, the subsequent symptoms experienced can be appraised to mean I'm going mad or I'll never get over this (Ehlers & Clark, 2000, p. 322). One of...

Clarks adaptation of cognitive therapy for panic

So far the discussion of cognitive therapy has been dominated by reference to depression, but in order to illustrate how the approach can be modified and applied to other emotional disorders we will briefly mention David Clark's (1986) cognitive model of panic, which will be discussed in more detail in Chapter 6. One of the criticisms that we have raised previously about the cognitive therapy approach was that it focused on a single level of representation, the propositionally based schema (see Chapter 3). We argued instead that in line with the analysis of meaning in psycholinguistics two levels of representation were necessary, one that was propositionally based, and one that reflected a higher level of representation such as that of mental models (Power & Champion, 1986). We suggested that if cognitive therapy simply focused on the truth value of propositions in therapy, and if therapeutic practice was primarily the disputation of the truthfulness of such propositions (e.g., I...

Becks Cognitive Therapy

The type of knowledge representation that cognitive therapy focuses on is schemas. These structures have been widely used (and abused) in the history of twentieth-century psychology and have appeared in the work of Bartlett and Piaget and in modern cognitive psychology. In Beck's use of the term, schemas are seen to be the units by which memory, thinking, and perception are organised they have been considered by most writers on cognitive-behaviour therapy to be no more than collections of (propositional) beliefs. To quote especially those centred on dependency issues, may remain elevated even during full recovery from depression (Lam, Green, Power, & Checkley, 1996 Power, Duggan, Lee, & Murray, 1995). A second possibility is that the traditional view of schemas that is incorporated into cognitive therapy is too simplistic to capture the type of high-level representation system necessary within cognition-emotion systems. Teasdale and Barnard (1993 Teasdale, 1999) have argued that...

Cognitive theories of emotional disorder

BECK'S COGNITIVE THERAPY SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORIES The cognitive theories presented in Chapter 3 took normal emotions as their starting point. However, there are a number of influential cognitive approaches to emotion that have taken their starting points to be disorders of emotion rather than normal emotions themselves. These theories will form the focus of the present chapter. In contrast to theories of normal emotion, cognitive approaches to the emotional disorders have typically focused on a specific disorder such as depression or anxiety rather than attempting broader accounts of a range of emotional disorders. This carving up of the emotional disorders can lead to a false sense of disjointedness between the emotions in comparison to the more over-arching theories that were considered in Chapter 3. Fortunately there are signs that recent theories may buck this trend, although for at least two different reasons. First, the sheer success of a theory in its own domain may lead it,...

Cognitive Theories

Cognitive theories emphasize the creative process and person process, in emphasizing the role of cognitive mechanisms as a basis for creative thought and person, in considering individual differences in such mechanisms. Some cognitive theories focus on universal capacities, like attention or memory others emphasize individual differences, like those indexed by divergent thinking tasks some focus on conscious operations others, on preconscious, implicit, or unintentional processes. One classic cognitive theory, by Sarnoff A. Mednick, argues that creative insights can result from associative processes in memory. In this view, ideas are chained together, one after another, and more remote associates tend to be more original. This perspective argues that more creative individuals tend to have flatter hierarchies of associations than less creative individuals in other words, more creative people have many more relatively strong associates for a given concept, rather than only a few. This...

About The Editorsinchief

RUNCO earned a Ph.D. in Cognitive Psychology from the Claremont Graduate School. His dissertation was on divergent thinking and he has studied creativity ever since. He founded the Creativity Research Journal over 20 years ago and remains Editor-in-Chief. He is currently the E. Paul Torrance Professor of Creative Studies at the University of Georgia, Athens. He is also Director of the Torrance Creativity Center, a Fellow and Past President of the American Psychological Association's Division 10 (Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and The Arts). His textbook on creativity was released by Academic Press in 2007.

Thinking and Reasoning

The Cambridge Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning is the first comprehensive and authoritative handbook covering all the core topics of the field of thinking and reasoning. Written by the foremost experts from cognitive psychology, cognitive science, and cognitive neuroscience, individual chapters summarize basic concepts and findings for a major topic, sketch its history, and give a sense of the directions in which research is currently heading. The volume also includes work related to developmental, social and clinical psychology, philosophy, economics, artificial intelligence, linguistics, education, law, and medicine. Scholars and students in all these fields and others will find this to be a valuable collection.

Electrical Probes Of Mind And Brain

Chapter 3 provides a very useful summary of many findings that indicate different cognitive function (e.g., working memory and attention) often recruit the same brain area. The authors are surely correct that cognitive psychology textbook chapter titles are not an appropriate guide to brain localization. However, before we conclude that different operations activate the same brain area, we need to be more clear about what makes a difference in mental operations. For example, theories of working memory assume the involvement of attentional networks, so it would be surprising not to find attention areas active in working memory tasks, but it is rather easy to design an attention task that does not involve working memory. We also need to be more explicit about what the same brain area means (i.e., the extent of overlap needed to assume identity). Finally we need to know when in the task a particular area is active. Both perception and imagery tasks may activate prestriate visual areas,...

Psychological Factors

Neuroticism propensity to experience negative emotions on an ongoing and regular basis. The experience of chronic negative emotions (depression, anxiety, and anger) tends to be associated with poorer health. There is an extensive research literature linking negative affectivity and pessimism to adverse health outcomes (Peterson et al., 1988 Salovey et al., 2000). Although the experience of negative emotions is a natural part of the human experience, effective management of such emotions through cognitive strategies, active coping, and social support can be learned, and medications can be a helpful adjunct when negative emotional states are prolonged or severe.

Developmental psychology and related disciplinestheories

Cognitive psychology Cognitive psychology deals with topics such as perception, memory, attention, language and thinking decision-making. Most critically it is based on the idea that we are like a computer when processing information and have input, storage and retrieval functions. Experimental cognitive psychology presumes that cognitive processes can be tested using empirical (scientific) methods because they can be inferred from behaviour obtained under controlled conditions. Introspection can however also be used whereby one examines one's own mental processes. The development of cognitive development generally, and areas such as perception and language in particular, are key sections in this current text. Although developmental psychology draws on the contribution of social, comparative and cognitive psychology, and biology, it is unique in its consideration of all of these disciplines when looking at development from a lifespan perspective.

Experimental Research on Aesthetics

Berlyne's findings have come under increasing attack by Martindale and other researchers in the field of cognitive psychology. Martindale suspected that the arousal system may not be a necessary factor in explaining hedonic responses. Martindale pointed out that formal collative and psycho-physical aspects of the work of art are the ones that people tend to ignore in their search for meaning. Martindale believes that the laws governing aesthetic pleasure are quite similar to the laws governing perception and cognitive processes.

Basis in cognitive behaviour therapy

The use of CBT in schizophrenia has been drawn from Beck's theory of emotional disorders (Beck, 1976). It has been founded on a tradition of evaluation, using experimental and research studies of defined therapeutic techniques. These techniques are problem-oriented and are aimed at changing errors or biases in cognitions (usually thoughts or images) involving the appraisal of situations and modifying assumptions (beliefs) about the self, the world and the future. The Cognitive Therapy Scale (Young & Beck, 1980) is used in research studies to ensure fidelity to the treatment model described by Beck and colleagues, but it is also a valuable tool in training. There have been adaptations to this for general use (e.g.Milne et al., 2001) and also for use in psychosis (Haddock et al., 2001). It describes the general therapeutic skills used in psychological treatment and the more specific conceptualisation, strategy and techniques used in cognitive therapy. The use of CBT in schizophrenia...

Therapeutic Interventions

Identify specific instances when the negative emotions associated with failure to learn were a trigger for addiction, and verbalize constructive coping mechanisms to use in future learning situations. (10, 11) 10. Review specific instances of the client's failure to learn and the negative emotions associated with the experience note if these emotions triggered addictive behavior as an escape.

How Do We Evaluate Whether a Course of Action Is Ethical or Unethical

Choices of a moral nature primarily on an intuitive level or a critical-evaluative level (Hare, 1981 Kitchener, 1986). Choices made on the intuitive level are based on people's immediate feeling responses to situations, along with personal beliefs about what they should or should not do (Kitchener, 1986, p. 309).

The place of kuhns work in studies of science

Kuhn's notion of incommensurability provoked especially intense criticism from philosophers, who rejected his early account and largely ignored later attempts to dispel misunderstandings and refine or vindicate the notion through detailed studies ofconceptual change in science (Hoyningen-Huene 1993 Kuhn 2000). There were many reasons for this one of the most weighty was the conflict between mainstream English language philosophy and the theories of concepts developed by Kuhn and other cognitively inclined philosophers of science as the foundation for their work on scientific change. At the same time that Kuhn was refining his theory of concepts, empirical research in cognitive psychology and cognitive science began to undermine the classical theory of concepts, thus providing a new kind of support for Kuhn's philosophical account of science, and especially his account of scientific change. In this book we will use techniques from cognitive psychology and cognitive science to support...

Greater Interactions between Work on Concepts and Psycholinguistic Research

There is an opportunity for theorists and experimenters here to provide an account of the interface between these functions. One possibility, for example, is to use sentence comprehension techniques to track the way that the lexical content of a word in speech or text is transformed in deeper processing (see Pinango, Zurif, & Jackendoff, 1999, for one effort in this direction). Another type of effort at integration is Wolff and Song's (2003) work on causal verbs and people's perception of cause in which they contrast predictions derived from cognitive linguistics with those from cognitive psychology.

Case 1 John Douglas Turkington

There are a number of patients with antipsychotic-resistant schizophrenia who derive minimal benefit even with Clozapine (Kane et al., 1988). These patients often suffer from delusions which are systematised and entrenched. Such delusions are usually not only impervious to treatment with antipsychotic medication, but they are also very difficult to treat psychologically. The problem in relation to these cases is that the delusion is often systematised with a grandiose or paranoid theme and insight is usually virtually completely lacking. The delusion is often held with a very marked conviction and the patient sometimes acts in a dangerous way upon the content of the delusion. The questions then arise as to whether patients with such systematised grandiose or persecutory delusions can be understood within a cognitive therapy framework and whether the application of the principles of cognitive therapy (Fowler, Garety & Kuipers, 1995) can produce benefit. One of the key issues that...

Emotional Regulatory Network

The primary structures in the circuitry for emotional regulation include the orbital and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (BA 12), regions of the DLPFC, and the amygdala, hippocampus, and anterior cingulate. Other interconnected structures implicated in aspects of emotion, affective style, and the maintenance, amplification, and attenuation of an emotion include the hypothalamus, insular cortex, and ventral striatum. This system also suppresses negative emotions such as anger and impulsive aggression, partly through seroton-ergic neuromodulation.363 Antidepressant and antianxiety medications act on the system through such modulation.

Comparing Different Cognitive Functions Within Subjects

Only a few functional neuroimaging studies have tried such direct within-subject comparisons. One reason for this scarcity is historical because most cognitive researchers specialize in a single cognitive function, it is only natural that they maintained this specialization when they started conducting functional neuro-imaging studies. In addition, functional neuroimaging researchers inherited a long list of research questions about each particular function from cognitive psychology, and this list of questions kept them focused for many years on their favorite function. Another reason for the dearth of cross-function studies is that these studies are particularly difficult to design. First, the paradigms used to investigate different cognitive functions tend to be dissimilar (e.g., the cuing paradigm used to study attention vs. the old new recognition paradigm used to study episodic retrieval), and it is challenging to design tasks for two different functions that have a similar...

Cognitive Neuroscience Approach

Cognition in general) has been the development of the cognitive neuroscience approach. This research approach focuses on the brain anatomy and neural processing involved in human cognition. Originally, the neuropsychological study of autobiographical memory was restricted to detailed case studies of individuals who lost their ability to access autobiographical memories or form new memories because of brain damage. The famous case of HM is a classic example of this neuroscience approach. More recently, this approach has expanded to include new brain scanning technologies, such as EEG, PET, and fMRI. The cognitive neuroscience approach is heavily indebted to the cognitive psychology methods we have just described, because many of these tasks and measures have been incorporated into cognitive neuroscience experiments. However, many new methods have also been introduced, while other methods have been cleverly adapted to the physical constraints imposed on the participant by the brain...

Individual Differences

A third individual difference is the level of prejudice that people hold. Whereas authoritarianism and social dominance orientation may be related directly to overt biases, such as old-fashioned racism, other forms of bias have emerged as current norms and laws sanction open discrimination. Examples of contemporary racial biases include aversive racism (Gaertner & Dovidio, 1986), modern racism (McConahay, 1986), and symbolic racism (Sears, Henry, & Kosterman, 2000). A common, critical aspect these three different forms of contemporary bias is the conflict between the denial of personal prejudice and underlying unconscious negative feelings and beliefs.

Target Characteristics

Once a person is categorized as a member of a group, the nature of the stigmatizing elements that characterize the social category strongly influence whether and how discrimination will occur. As suggested earlier, the extent to which a person's membership in a negatively viewed outgroup (i.e., a stigmatized group) is perceived to be controllable is one of the strongest determinants of whether individuals will openly express negative feelings and beliefs and discrimination (Weiner, 1995). Those who possess stigmas that are perceived to be more controllable (e.g., homosexuality, obesity, alcoholism) particularly when the person's failure to exercise control is seen as violating cultural values, such as the Protestant Ethic (Crandall & Martinez, 1996) are regarded much more negatively and are generally the targets of open discrimination. In contrast, when group membership is perceived to be uncontrollable (e.g., as with stigmatizing conditions such as physical disabilities)...

What is the difference between and the relationship of the socalled normal emotions and the emotional disorders

Hand in hand with notions of emotional disorder goes the issue of therapy. Again, we will consider this issue in greater detail later however, it is useful to offer up some preliminary points at this juncture. At the simplest level, and to use a tried and trusted example from cognitive therapy (see Chapter 4), consider the interpretation that the noise which wakes us up in the middle of the night is that of an armed intruder. We are likely to subsequently appraise this interpretation as one indicative of danger and feel afraid. However, if we then discover that the noise was made by the cat, the fear goes away. Here, the process of changing the interpretation and hence the appraisal is enough to dissipate the emotion. Within the cognitive model of emotions, this simplified example is really what therapy may be seen to be trying to achieve. However, most beliefs or interpretations are not as accessible as the noise in the night example and they are often held with far greater...

The Freefloating Individualistic Structure Of Identity

The free-floating nature of the modern self is consistent with the growing impression that one's fate is determined at all levels by market forces, rather than sources of power that reside in the social domain. This situation does not mean, however, that individuals are doomed to doubt and uncertainty. Most members are able to superimpose cognitive biases on market unpredictability in order to extract hope of winning as a result of favorable market movements. Beyond that, a certain solace can be forthcoming from the knowledge that one can tip the market odds in one's direction through acquired expertise or clever manipulations. This carries with it the positive illusion that market success could be converted eventually into greater social visibility and reward. However, the emotional attachments that can be made with the market are less sustaining than those that develop from a sociocentric milieu. Likewise, market support lacks many of the mental health advantages of social support,...

Initial case formulation

Formulating can be done at different levels of complexity. A more detailed cognitive formulation examines why the person is interpreting events in a particular way. Following a cognitive model it is proposed that early experiences determine the manner in which the person sees himself in the world. These core beliefs then colour the person's view of events from there on, and such interpretations will influence the person's moods and behaviour.

Honesty and Striving for Objectivity

Many forensic psychiatrists will come to the field with their own personal biases already well entrenched. For example, like any other members of society, psychiatrists may hold personal beliefs consistent with the law-and-order camp or the liberal sympathy camp. Psychiatrists offering legal opinions who hold sociopolitical biases should endeavor to be aware of their views and how they might potentially bias expert opinions (Gold 2004). The time-tested aphorism know thyself will ultimately help the forensic psychiatrist remain vigilant on issues of objectivity and bias.

Jonathan St B T Evans

The study of deductive reasoning has been a major field of cognitive psychology for the past 40 years or so (Evans, 2002 Evans, Newstead, & Byrne, 1993 Manktelow, 1 999 ). The field has its origins in philosophy, within the ancient discipline of logic, and reflects the once influential view known as logicism in which logic is proposed to be the basis for rational human thinking. This view was prevalent in the 1 960s when psychological study of deductive reasoning became an established field in psychology, especially reflecting the theories of the great developmental psychologist Jean Piaget (e.g., Inhelder & Piaget, 1958). Logicism was also influentially promoted to psychologists studying reasoning in a famous paper by Henle (1 962). At this time, rationality was clearly tied to logicality. logicians). This is one weakness of logic in describing everyday reasoning, but there are others. The main limitation is that deductive reasoning does not allow you to learn anything new at...

Biases in Deductive Reasoning

The external validity argument is that the demonstration of cognitive biases and illusions in the psychological laboratory does not necessarily tell us anything about the real world. This one I have much less sympathy with. The laws of psychology apply in the laboratory, as well as everywhere else, and many of the biases that have been discovered have been shown to also affect expert groups. For example, base rate neglect in statistical reasoning has been shown many times in medical and other expert groups (Koehler, 1996), and there are numerous real world studies of heuristics and biases (Fischhoff, 2 002 ).

Prototype Categories I

The past few years have seen considerable debate, especially within cognitive psychology, on the nature and structure of categories. The debate was triggered by an increasing body of empirical evidence which seriously challenged the foundations of the classical, Aristotelian theory of categorization that we reviewed in Chapter 2 (see e.g. Smith and Medin 1981). The purpose of this chapter is to review some of the better known empirical findings which point to the need for a non-Aristotelian theory of categorization. We will also consider, in a preliminary fashion, the potential relevance of these findings to linguistic inquiry.

Conclusions and Future Directions

The deductive reasoning field has seen discussion and debate of a wide range of theoretical ideas, a number of which have been described here. This includes the long-running debate over whether rule-based mental logics or mental model theory provides the better account of basic deductive competence, as well as the development of accounts based on content-specific reasoning, such as pragmatic reasoning schemas, relevance theory, and Darwinian algorithms. It has been a major focus for the development of dual-process theories of cognition, even though these have a much wider application. It has also been one of the major fields (alongside intuitive and statistical judgment) in which cognitive biases have been studied and their implications for human rationality debated at length.

Mood Self Management and Self Help

Still another theme in these pages concerns the applications of theoretical and empirical findings to everyday life. Although this is not a self-help book, and no lists of methods to elevate mood are readily provided, this point must be addressed because the topics raised have immediate implications for self-functioning. Years of research and teaching in this area have made it clear to me that an understanding of the dynamics of mood states is an essential first step in alleviating the unpleasantness of negative moods. And the first, step in this understanding is systematic self-observation.

Conclusions And Implications

The motivation for and causes of discrimination at the individual level also commonly do not reflect a malicious desire to harm those from other groups. As we have discussed, the conscious motivations of most White individuals is to treat Black individuals fairly Polls and surveys about prejudice and intent to discriminate have shown consistent declines to low levels (Schuman et al., 1997). Instead, discrimination may arise out of unconscious psychological processes, making much of the discrimination that occurs unintentional. Because individuals also internalize egalitarian norms and principles but continue to harbor negative feelings and beliefs, often unconsciously (Gaertner & Dovidio, 1986), discrimination is frequently manifested in subtle and indirect ways, for example in how people interpret the actions of others and how they interact with them, which is not readily recognizable as discrimination. In conclusion, understanding the dynamics of individual-level discrimination,...

Getting to the Most Distressing Ideas The Questionand Answer Technique

So far you have learned to use the Daily Thought Record to identify and replace distorted ATs. While replacing distorted ATs can greatly reduce distressing emotions, uprooting core beliefs provides even greater relief.6 Core beliefs are deeply held beliefs that lead to many present distortions. Because they are usually learned early in life, they are rarely challenged. We discover core beliefs by starting with an AT and using the question-and-answer technique. In this approach, you take an AT and keep asking the following questions until you reach the core belief Core beliefs usually relate to some condition that we consider important for our happiness, such as being lovable or in control or powerful (this one tends to be more important for men).

Conceptualizing the Therapeutic Process

A third major focus of the sociology of mental health is mental health care services. While the range of issues with which sociologists who study mental health care services are concerned are more numerous and diverse than what will be considered here, one major issue to which contemporary social theorists may provide insight is with the question of the sociocultural functions, meanings, and implications of mental health care. This issue is closely related to the discussion of the values implicit in definitions of mental health and illness in the last section. Psychotherapists themselves have called for recognition of the social, cultural, and ideological meanings implicit in various forms of mental health care (Fancher, 1995 Frank & Frank, 1991). In Cultures of Healing, for example, psychotherapist Robert Fancher (1995) evaluates the implicit cultural and political assumptions of four major cultures of healing psychoanalysis, behaviorism, cognitive therapy, and biological...

Additional Resources

Based on the observation that relapse is the most frequent outcome of any treatment for substance abuse, Alan Marlatt and Judith Gordon developed this relapse model rooted in social learning theory and cognitive psychology. Marlatt's earlier research asked (1978) clients to describe the situation(s) that precipitated their relapse. Marlatt and Gordon (1980) classified these high-risk situations into categories the three named most frequently accounted for nearly three-fourths of the relapses (1) negative emotional states, (2) social pressure, and (3) interpersonal conflict.

Decide Whether to Accept the Case

Forensic evaluators bring their individual perspectives and biases to the task, and the sources of potential bias are many (Gutheil and Simon 2004). The evaluator should not be so biased regarding the psychiatric or forensic issues of the case that an objective and fair evaluation cannot be performed. In Case Vignette 3, Dr. C was aware of intense negative feelings toward the defendant and the alleged crime, and he may have had difficulty putting those feelings aside. Similarly, previous contact or work with the retaining or opposing attorney, especially if extensive, should be considered a potential source of conflict and a barrier to objectivity in conducting the evaluation. The evaluator should be alert to such influences and be able to decide

Similarity dissimilarity and kind hierarchies

Categories to which they could otherwise mistakenly have been assigned (Figure 3). The dissimilarity relation that Kuhn introduced here is not a relation between the instances of arbitrary pairs of concepts, but a relation between instances of concepts in a contrast set, that is, a set of nonoverlapping concepts that are all subordinates to the same immediate superordinate (see Kuhn 1983a 682 1991 4 1993 3l7ff.). For example, the concepts 'duck', 'goose', and 'swan' are all subordinates to the superordinate concept 'waterfowl'. This concept is also a family resemblance concept whose instances resemble each other more than they resemble members of contrasting categories such as 'songbird' and 'game bird'. Kuhn's emphasis on the importance of dissimilarity relations therefore serves to avoid the problem that instances of different but highly similar categories might be mistaken for each other and leads to the view that contrasting concepts must always be learned together Establishing...

Features Context And Approach To Therapy

This example is therefore, perhaps, untypical and my approach to CBT for psychosis is also non-standard. I belong to a small, but growing, band of therapists who see great potential in the Interacting Cognitive Subsystems model as applied to therapy for psychosis. The theory was first applied clinically to depression (Teasdale & Barnard, 1993). Barnard (in press) has more recently developed the theory to embrace psychosis. The first published work that applies ICS to psychosis comes from Andrew Gumley's team in Stirling (Gumley, White & Power 1999). They report on having used it to good effect in their trial of relapse prevention, and are currently developing it for early intervention. My own approach is slightly different, and I have outlined it in an extended comment on Gumley's paper in the same journal (Clarke, 2002). In a more detailed paper, I have illustrated with a clinical example the application of this theory to cognitive therapy for personality disorders (Clarke,...

Dance Creativity and Research

Research that specifically examines creativity in dance remains scant, although this is gradually changing. One of the challenges in studying creativity is determining the criteria that constitute a creative product and a creative individual. One way to manage this dilemma is to select artists or scientists that have been designated as creative on the basis of their level of achievement and success and then to compare them to individuals who have not worked or trained in these domains and who have not demonstrated any creative productivity. This approach has provided rich information about creative personalities, findings that can be generalized to some degree. What makes dance a challenge to investigate is that it is both an individual and group process. Hence, creativity in dance must be examined through a model that includes individual and contextual factors. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi and Howard Gardner proposed such a model, an interactive model on creativity, in which three...

What Seizure Variables May Affect The Patients Psychosocial Adjustment

The patient's emotional behavior may be affected if temporolimbic structures are involved during or between seizures. These structures are important to functions such as motivation, basic drives and instincts, and the generation and expression of feelings, memory, and learning. Memory disturbances in people with partial seizures may be related to epileptiform discharges or to the adverse effects of medications. Negative feelings, such as anxiety, fear, or a sense of impending doom, or even positive emotions can be manifestations of a seizure.

Therapeutic Approaches

In response, a form of psychotherapy called Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT) has been developed and has been shown to effectively address social and academic problems related to low emotional competence in adolescents. Using this therapeutic approach, child psychologists and counselors seek to illuminate the negative beliefs and habits of mind that often accompany poor self-esteem and unhealthy emotions. Their goal is to help the adolescents with these problems and reframe their thoughts with positive beliefs about themselves and their abilities. The most common course of treatment is a series of 12 weekly group counseling sessions. Among the coping strategies participants learn are changing their thinking, getting exercise, and getting emotional support.

Identity Based Conflicts

In the workplace, conflict between social identity groups may become salient, intense, and perhaps intractable when the organization experiences shifts in minority majority group representation, power, and status. Such shifts are likely to result in perceived or actual threats to scarce organizational resources such as decision-making authority, opportunities for advancement, access to information, and even survival. Viewing resistance to diversity from the perspective of group conflict theory may help to explain employee attitudes, reactions, and backlash to diversity initiatives discussed in other chapters throughout this book. For example, some researchers suggest that negative attitudes toward affirmative action on the part of Whites may be the result not of negative feelings toward minority group members, but rather the result of an exaggerated belief that one's existence in the organization is at risk or a fear of losing status and power within the organization (Crosby, 2004).

Psychiatric Diagnostic Categories1

A psychotic disorder involving significant dysfunctions in a person's thought processes, speech patterns, behavior, mood, affect, motivation, and social and occupational functioning, symptoms may include delusions (cognitive distortions such as false beliefs and misinterpretations of experience that can be bizarre or highly unlikely) and hallucinations (perceptual distortions that are usually auditory in nature). Other symptoms may include disorganized speech, restriction and flattened affect, deterioration in self-care, and reduced ability to set and implement goal-directed behavior. Schizophrenia's subtypes include

Brief History of Motivated Thinking

This chapter provides an overview of this second generation of research on motivated thinking and discusses some of the larger principles that have emerged from the study of the motivation cognition interface. We consider two general classes of motivational influences the first involves people's desires for reaching certain types of outcomes in their judgments, and the second involves people's desires to use certain types of strategies while forming their judgments. In so doing, we adopt a rather broad focus and discuss several different varieties of motivated thinking. Given space constraints, this broad focus necessitates being selective in the phenomena to be described. We have chosen those programs of research that we believe are representative of the larger literature and are especially relevant not only to the study of reasoning but also to other areas in cognitive psychology.1 After reviewing the separate influences on thinking of outcome-and strategy-based motivations, we...

Individual Psychodynamic Therapy

Manifest ego deficits and confuse control with biological needs. Anorexia nervosa represents a disruption in normal ego development. To recover, patients must develop sufficient self-efficacy to successfully separate and individuate from their family of origin. To develop better self-efficacy, patients must first learn to identify and define their emotions, and later to tolerate negative emotions.

Research Evidence to Date

Many studies have documented the correlation between meditation and the reduction of stress, anxiety, and panic states. Research documents the relaxation response produced by meditation and prayer, a response involving decreased heart and respiration rates and eased muscle tension. Meditation has been shown also to help control negative thinking and assist people in managing potentially stressful situations in a calm fashion.

General Conclusions and Future Directions

One final way in which investigating the cognitive effects of interacting motivational forces could be fruitfully expanded is by synthesizing work on how motivation influences reasoning with work on how affect influences reasoning (see Forgas, 2000 Martin & Clore, 2001). Great strides have been made in determining the mechanisms by which affective and emotional states can alter people's judgments. Many of the changes in the quality and quantity of information processing found in this research bear a striking resemblance to the motivational effects reviewed here. For example, positive moods have generally been found to support less thorough and complex information processing, similar to closure motivation, whereas negative moods have generally been found to support more thorough and complex information processing, similar to accuracy motivation (for a review, see Schwarz & Clore, 1996). This is not to say, however, that the effects reviewed here are actually just due to changes...

Cognitive Affective Models

In a recent meta-analysis of 25 years of mood-creativity research, Baas, DeDreu, and Nijstad concluded that a number of variables are involved in this complex area of mood and creativity. Specific mood types (not just positive and negative) and aspects of those moods must be considered. They concluded that positive moods do produce more creativity than neutral moods. But this is true for positive moods like happiness that are activating and associated with approach motivation. It is not true for positive but deactivating mood states like relaxation. They point out that an interesting practical implication of this finding is that relaxing in a bathtub or on the beach may not be conducive to creative thinking. How the task is framed is also important. Positive moods lead to more creativity when the task is framed as enjoyable and intrinsically rewarding and to less creativity when the task is framed as serious and extrinsically rewarding. As for negative affect, in general, deactivating...

Brain Lateralization and Mood

These findings and others (for reviews, see Davidson, 1984 Leventhal & Tomarken, 1986 Tucker, 1981 cf. Gage & Safer, 1985) have generated theories that the brain is organized not only with regional mediation of affect, but also with reciprocal or balancing affective reactions. For example, Fox and Davidson (1984) have argued that the two hemispheres of the brain mediate approach and avoidance reactions, and that these tendencies are represented in positive and negative emotions. In a model similar to that of Pribram and McGuinness (1975), Tucker and Williamson (1984) recently proposed a different theory, in which the right hemisphere and its lateraiized noradrenergic substrate mediates an arousal system that responds to input from the external environment. Balancing this is the acti vation system of the left hemisphere, which, with its dopaminergic substrate, mediates vigilance and motor readiness. Anxiety and related states are associated with activation of the left hemisphere,...

Autonomy Informed Consent And Nondirectiveness

The eagerness of clinical geneticists to escape from the aura of negative emotions surrounding their past involvement in the eugenic movements in Germany, the USA, Britain, and other countries has led us to reject any suggestion that we might encourage, persuade, or lead our clients to make specific reproductive decisions. As a professional group, genetic counselors have accordingly espoused ''nondirectiveness.'' It is our task to

Constituents of dynamic frames

The recursive nature of frames deflects the seeming paradox that the frame, as a whole, represents a concept, but its elements, or nodes, are themselves concepts. This is not an atomistic form of analysis there may be no ground floor or ultimate conceptual repertoire at which the chain of frames terminates. Similarly, there may be no single, unique way of drawing a frame for any given concept there may be several equally defensible representations of a given concept or conceptual structure. A particular frame representation should be judged by its empirical adequacy as a representation of the behavior of a linguistic community, and beyond that it should be judged by its effectiveness as a problem-solving tool. Philosophers who expect the universe to divide into a single unique set of natural kinds may be displeased with this. However, to the extent that their belief in such natural kinds is alleged to be based on the actual use of language by nonphilosophers, including scientists, it...

Confiding Hidden Wounds

Writing about all the feelings surrounding an event overcomes avoidance. Remember that accepting the full range of feelings is a way to wholesomely accept who you are and to heal. Once we set the healing process in motion, the mind has a greater chance to heal itself. Rather than being permanently overwhelmed by negative emotions, we learn ways to handle them, and thereby become stronger.

Wrestling with your voice of judgment

Negative emotions associated with solving problems or expressing new ideas can be debilitating. In this exercise, from The Creative Spirit, by Daniel Goleman, Michael L. Ray, and Paul Kaufman, one is instructed to close one's eyes and imagine hearing a negative statement, such as You've never had an original idea. Then one amplifies and enlarges it using laser lights, screaming rockets, full symphony orchestras, and choruses of disapproval, until the message is so big that it looks ridiculous. The exercise derives from a powerful technique used by clinical psychologists called 'flooding.' Michalko teaches a simpler exercise called Tick-Tock' that also aims to eliminate harmful thinking on the tick of an imaginary clock, one writes one's fear on the tock, one writes a positive thought that overcomes the fear.

Phase I Identifying and Exploring Perpetrators Own Childhood Victimization

Sheridan 2004 Parnell and Day 1998 Schreier et al. 2009). The first phase of treatment for maternal perpetrators following acknowledgment is typically identification and exploration of their own victimization and its relationship to their attitudes and actions toward their children. Victimization during childhood has been a focal component of the treatment of mothers. Central to progress in treatment of a mother is helping her to understand her own victimization in the context of the patterns of victimization of her child and to bring these two traumatic series of events into consciousness so that they can become connected. This integrative process also serves to reduce isolation and to diminish the cognitive distortions that these mothers tend to develop about others. Mothers learn to trust others with whom they can check their impressions about others. This integration of emotion, cognition, and action and the reduction of cognitive distortion not only are the basis for treatment of...

Aaron Becks Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Based on the premise that most of a client's negative thinking derives from automatic faulty thinking, Beck (1976) suggests that the client's present difficulties (e.g., depression) result from thinking errors and negative thinking. The therapist's goal is to help the client become aware of negative thought patterns and change them. Beck authored four popular clinical scales Beck Depression, Beck Anxiety, Beck Hopelessness, and Beck Suicide (see Part III).

Methods with the Creative Process

In 1928, Graham Wallas defined four stages of the creative process preparation, incubation, illumination, and verification. These stages are vital to all growth and healing. The expressive arts therapist's understanding of the stages of the creative process can aid in supporting the client when negative feelings arise. C. G. Jung hypothesized there can be negative emotional experiences that are part of the creative process the void, the abyss, chaos, and alienation. Understanding these negative affects can prevent a premature cessation of the creative process. The incubation stage, which is a quiet stage of consciously turning away from the task at hand and allowing the unconscious to lead, can be enhanced by use of other modalities or de-centered play.

Preschool and schoolAge children

Young children (typically ages 0-3 years) are dependent on their parents for administering medications and for following medical recommendations. For these children, nonadherence is related to the caretaker's inability to follow recommendations. As children grow older, it is increasingly important for clinicians to take into account the interaction between caretaker and child, childrearing practices, patient temperament, and the role of any existing disability when responding to nonadherence to treatment regimens (Garrison et al. 1990). As children become increasingly autonomous, child and caretaker conflicts can emerge that lead to nonadherent behaviors. Cognitive-behavioral strategies for children and their caretakers become useful in approaching these difficulties with school-age children.

Anxiety sensitivity research in panic

An additional factor that has been put forward to try to explain individual differences in the vulnerability to panic is anxiety sensitivity. The research on anxiety sensitivity revolves around the issue that not everybody is equally likely to misinterpret bodily sensations as catastrophic (see Taylor, 1999, for a review). The central thesis of much of this work is the suggestion that a set of pre-existing beliefs about the harmfulness of certain bodily sensations predisposes individuals to misinterpret those sensations in a catastrophic manner, thus leading to panic experiences. This has been termed the

State Dependent and Congruent Memory Processes

Moods as depression include nol only components of strong emotion (e.g., sadness) but also thoughts about self and the future that appear to reinforce and continue the debilitating condition (e.g., Beck, 1967). Furthermore, this association is not just limited to depressive mood states. Moods of elation, and quite possibly other moods as well, are often associated with a consistent tone of thought. Thus, when we are depressed we appear to have negative thoughts, and when we are elated, the tone of our thoughts is positive.

Research into informationprocessing biases associated with panic

In recent years, psychologists with an interest in clinical issues have applied the ideas and experimental paradigms of cognitive psychology in an attempt to understand any information-processing biases that might underpin the clinical phenomenology of anxiety and depressive disorders (see Dalgleish & Watts, 1990 Eysenck, 1997 Harvey et al., 2004 Mathews & MacLeod, 2005, for reviews). This experimental approach enables the researcher to side-step a number of the methodological problems involved in the more traditional self-report studies for example, self-report studies reveal primarily conscious, verbally accessible aspects of mental processes (Lang's verbal data). In addition, self-report studies are subject to the intentions, limitations, and whims of the individual involved (Nisbett & Wilson, 1977). In contrast, information-processing paradigms, at their best, are potentially able to shed some light on the nature of non-conscious, non-verbalisable psychological processing...

Coping Adaptation and Traumatic Stress

For developing symptoms of distress (Costello 2000 Tunick and English 2008) these findings are consistent with those from earlier studies (Corbo 1985 Corbo and Abu-Saad 1984), which reported that in-tubated children and adolescents associate communication limitations with negative feelings and attitudes. Finally, Rennick et al. (2004) reported an association between high numbers of invasive procedures and the development and persistence of psychological sequelae. The traumatic stress that accompanies critical care hospitalization is also associated with acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology. The rates of both diagnoses and subthreshold symptoms are at least comparable to those observed in children hospitalized on general medical wards (e.g., Rennick et al. 2002), although some studies have found higher rates of disorder and symptomatology in PICU patients. For example, Rees et al. (2004) found clinically significant symptoms of PTSD,...

Therapy offers a structured setting in which you can safety and comfortably allow yourself to grow and change in

Though trust is lacking at any stage, Withou t it, you can't work through the intense emotions and tough discussions that inevitably occur, and you're apt to distort a therapist's responses and reactions to you. (In Chapter 12, Sustaining Recovery '' you'll find a discussion about these cognitive distortions and you'll learn how to catch yourself when you're in that mode of thinking.)

Integrity of an Intervention

Pharmacologic interventions are often proposed for a rehabilitation trial. Should drugs be expected to stand alone as rehabilitative interventions for disabled persons In one scenario, a drug is combined with a physical or cognitive therapy and then compared to the therapy without the drug. The combined intervention aims to affect activity-induced plasticity. A

The Debate over Associationist and Gestalt Views

As is often the case in scientific inquiry, the disagreements between the advocates of the associationist and Gestalt positions still produce wonderful new insights into the process even today. In many ways, the current field of cognitive psychology represents an amalgam of these two positions. Co-existing with the struggle to understand the workings of genius was the zealous effort to reveal the workings of the brain itself. This endeavor also contributed to a new, more scientific understanding of the creative act.

Weather Geophysical Phenomena and Mood

Once while visiting Sweden, I was told by one person at a lively dinner party that if I came again at midwinter 1 would be unlikely to encounter the same high-spirited atmosphere. This observation seemed to corroborate anecdotal reports that people in northern climates experience negative moods during the weather extremes, and it suggests weather has some kind of biophysical effect on mood. But such conclusions may be incorrect, because even if weather-mood correlations are observed, inconveniences or social advantages associated with the climate changes may be the reason for mood variations, not direct geophysical effects on bodily processes. For example, in climates with lots of snow and ice there are considerable problems connected with clothing, vehicle maintenance, and so forth. And in humid weather there are also difficulties with clothing and other aspects of self-maintenance (cf. Persinger, 1983).

Informationprocessing biases in PTSD

There have been a number of studies of PTSD using information-processing methodologies derived from the cognitive psychology literature. Again, as with panic and generalised anxiety, we can only consider a selection of this research here. Finally, Dalgleish (1993) examined judgemental bias in survivors of a major disaster with and without PTSD. It was shown that only those survivors with PTSD generated elevated judgements of the probability of a range of negative events happening in the future. Engelhard, Macklin, McNally, van den Hout, and Arntz (2001) reported that internal states such as intrusive thoughts were interpreted in a more dangerous manner than were similar thoughts in a control group.

The Social Antecedents of Emotion

Along with their social science colleagues in anthropology, history, and psychology (e.g., Brody, 1999 Corrigan, 2002 Kleinman, 1986 Kleinman & Good, 1985 Lazarus & Folkman, 1984 Lutz, 1988 Lutz & White, 1986 McMahon, 2006 Rosaldo, 1980, 1984 Schachter & Singer, 1962 Scherer, et al., 1986 Seligman, 2004 Shields, 2002 Stearns & Stearns, 1986), emotions scholars in sociology argue that there is a strong social basis of emotion, and that social situations influence people's feelings and expressive behavior (e.g., Gordon, 1981 Hochschild, 1975, 1979,1983 Lively & Heise, 2004 Shott, 1979 Simon & Nath, 2004 Smith-Lovin, 1995 Thoits 1985, 1989). Most, if not all, sociological theories about the social antecedents of emotion assert that social situations are crucial for individuals to have an emotional experience and influence whether they experience positive or negative feelings. As a case in point, Kemper's (1978,1990) social interactional theory about emotion argues...

Cognitive Behavioral Therapies to Enhance Coping Skills

Behavioral interventions are important adjunct approaches to SCD treatment to address both pain and illness-related concerns. Many behavioral interventions have been developed based on the empirical finding that active coping strategies are associated with decreased pain and more positive psychosocial outcomes, whereas negative thinking and passive coping are associated with more pain and higher levels of psychological distress (Gil et al. 1989, 1991, 1993). Therefore, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) interventions have been developed to target the thoughts and behaviors associated with an active, positive approach to coping. Many programs focus on teaching specific coping strategies, including relaxation techniques, imagery, problem-solving skills, and positive self-talk (Gil et al. 1997b Powers et al. 2002 Thomas et al. 1998). Based on results from randomized, controlled studies, Gil and colleagues reported that a one-session group coping skills intervention was associated with...

Other Mood Related Topic Areas

A large number of papers have been published on mood as related to helping behavior. In general, this research shows that both positive and negative moods affect tendencies to help in a variety of circumstances (e.g., Isen, Clark, & Schwartz, 1976). However, at least one early analysis suggested that these effects of mood are weak and that the evidence for a relationship is meager (Wispe, 1980). Nonetheless, reliable relationships have been reported in a large number of studies (see reviews by Carlson & Miller, 1987 Isen, 1984), and recent research continues to suggest an association between mood and helping (e.g., Berkowitz, 1987 Cramer et al., 1986 Manucia, Baumann, & Cialdini, 1984).

Conclusions The Complementarity of the Sociologies of Mental Health Emotion

The development and persistence of emotional problems among individuals in the general population. Emotions scholars should draw on this useful typology in order to assess whether everyday negative feelings can be traced to undesirable life events and on-going strains, and if so, whether these events and social situations are stressful because they decrease people's status in social relationships or disconfirm their social identities as Kemper and Heise argue, respectively. At the same time, sociologists of mental health should make greater use of these and other theories about emotion in order to elaborate the social psychological mechanisms that underlie people's emotional reactions to acute and chronic stressors. This would enhance their understanding of why these social experiences are emotionally distressing. With regard to the social regulation of emotion, sociologists of mental health have developed an exhaustive inventory of coping and social support resources and strategies...

Antisocial Impulsive And Borderlinenarcissistic Trends

Psychological symptoms tended historically to mirror cultural prohibitions that were propounded by mainstream social institutions. For example, obsessive and compulsive symptoms were almost exclusively religious in nature, such as intrusive negative thoughts about God or unstoppable urges to commit some type of sin. Hypervirtuous symptoms, in which the patient symbolically enacted social contrition, were also a feature of premodern madness techniques. When religion faded as the moral purveyor, obsessive-compulsive symptoms still had a distinctly other-related aspect, as when a woman feared that she might hurt her husband or children. Although drawing on more localized themes for pathological structure, they nonetheless continued to echo the inclination of individuals to transcend themselves and to locate meaning in a larger social framework. However, these patterns of symptom formation are becoming less common as cultural wrongs become less salient, fewer in number, and more...

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Cognitive-behavioral therapy for OCD encompasses three treatment types (1) exposure and response prevention (ERP), (2) cognitive therapy, and (3) relaxation training. Of the three, only ERP has been shown to be consistently effective in reducing OCD symptom severity (Shafron, 1998 Baer and Greist, 1997 Marks, 1997). Cognitive therapy is the changing of false beliefs regarding risk and responsibility, thereby challenging the reality of obsessions and the necessity for compulsions (Emmelkamp and Beens, 1991). It is generally viewed as ineffective if used as the sole treatment for OCD (Neziroglu et al., 2000) but may be helpful in facilitating participation in ERP (Shafron and Somers, 1998). Relaxation therapy is used mainly to manage anxiety during exposure but has not been shown to have direct benefits for the obsessive-compulsive symptoms (March, 1995).

Different Styles of Coping with Depression

A third strategy, cognitive coping, involves learning to combat and challenge negative thinking patterns about specific situations or events (for example, self-blaming thoughts) and considering alternative ways to view these situations or events. As you'll see, these strategies are not mutually exclusive. In fact, the people who do best with bipolar depressions seem able to sample from all three, using different strategies at different times.

Grammatical Categories

There were, from the outset, two orientations that prototype research could take. The direction of cognitive psychology (cf. Smith and Medin 1981) was to study the way concepts are structured and represented in the mind. Alternatively, research on categorization could be channelled into linguistics. Here the emphasis comes to be placed, not on concepts per se, but on the structure of the semantic pole of the linguistic sign, i.e. on the meanings of linguistic forms. The two orientations are closely intertwined. As we saw in the discussion of hedges (section 4.4), linguistic data and the psychologist's experimental findings mutually complement each other. Indeed, one of the main sources of evidence for conceptual structure is linguistic conversely, any reasonable account of linguistic behaviour needs to make reference to the conceptual structures which linguistic forms conventionally symbolize.

Do People Think Logically

Evidence that is relevant to beliefs, they are more likely to seek, and give more credence to, evidence that supports existing beliefs than evidence that tells against them. Similarly, they are more likely to judge an argument to be valid if it yields a conclusion they prefer than if it yields one they dislike. They are likely to believe they foresaw the outcome of uncertain events, when there is little evidence that they did so in fact. These and similar proclivities are often discussed under such rubrics as confirmation bias, myside bias, and hindsight bias, among others.

Cohens andBravers Model

Additionally, future discussion of contextual information, as defined by Cohen, Braver, and colleagues, might benefit from consideration of how this particular construct relates to definitions of context in other fields of research within cognitive psychology and neuroscience. Borrowing an example from the study of conditioning in nonhuman animals, investigators predictably define context as the aspects of the physical setting in which a particular conditioning trial takes place that are immediately observable by the animal (e.g., Fanselow, 2000 Goddard, 2001 Rudy & O'Reilly, 2001). This definition of context is relatively consistent and uniform across studies, facilitating the construct's incorporation into behavioral models and the subsequent generalization of those models to analogous, ecologically valid situations for which the model can generate behavioral predictions (such as the behavior of a recovered drug addict in a physical setting with which drug use is associated e.g.,...

Studies of Information Processing Deficits Related to Formal Thought Disorder

Disorder, it is important to consider the allocation of working memory capacity, a process shown to involve activation of dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex as well as more modality-specific regions of posterior cortex (e.g., Garavan et al., 2000), as well as availability of free capacity, which appears to be reflected in the activity of dorso- (Cal-licott et al., 1999) and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (Rypma, Berger, & D'Espasito 2002). Numerous studies (e.g., Docherty & Gordinier, 1999 Harvey & Pedley, 1989 Nuechterlein et al., 1986) have found correlational evidence of a relationship between working-memory capacity and aspects of formal thought disorder. Attempting to clarify the direction of this relationship, Barch and Berenbaum (1 994) report that, among nonill subjects, reduction in overall processing capacity (achieved through a dual-task manipulation) is associated with decreases in verbosity and syntactic complexity, which are verbal phenomena included in formal...

Harm Reduction Programs

Dead addicts don't recover is the clarion call of HR activists who avoid setting the threshold for addiction treatment too high. Respecting people's choices, HR offers such low threshold treatment as helping addicts obtain childcare and overcoming obstacles like requiring abstinence prior to entering treatment (Denning, 2005).

Additional Questions Reflections and Future Directions

A. (2001). Sampling the process of autobiographical memory construction. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 13, 529-547. Kvavilashvili, L., & Mandler, G. (2004). Out of one's mind A study of involuntary semantic memories. Cognitive Psychology, 48, 47-94. Mace, J. H. (2004). Involuntary autobiographical memories are highly dependent on abstract cuing The Proustian view is incorrect. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 18, 893-899. Reisser, B. J., Black, J. B., & Abelson, R. P. (1985). Knowledge structures in the organization and retrieval of autobiographical memories. Cognitive Psychology, 17, 89-137.

Main Process Considerations for Mentoring Programs in Education

From the beginning, general and specific goals should be discussed, documented, and shared with other mentors and mentees in order to evaluate progress. Examples of goals include improving time management, balancing different priorities, building an academic or career identity, overcoming fears and other negative emotions in making progress, and being able to refuse to take on additional work.

Metacognitive Research

Research on metacognition has its roots in two distinct areas of research developmental psychology and cognitive psychology. Metacognitive research in the area of developmental psychology can be traced back to the theory proposed by Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky. However, metacognitive research in a pure form did not emerge until the 1970s, when Flavell and colleagues investigated children's knowledge of their own cognitions. They were interested in finding out if the improvement in children's memory abilities was a function of greater conscious understanding of the rules that govern memory and cognition. Thus, the studies trace the development of metacog-nitive thinking, that is, the ability to reflect on one's own cognitive processes. In the area of cognitive psychology, work on metacognition was initiated by the investigation on feeling of knowing experiences (FOKs). First, people were given a recall test, of either newly learned information or general knowledge. For example,...

The Psychological Challenge Of Religious Surrogacy

The media have become an important vehicle by which the world can be reenchanted and replenished with spiritual drama.22 This goes far beyond the way in which the media and religion have forged a closer union in the cultural transmission of relatively traditional modes of spirituality. Television, for example, has become the display vehicle for the secular myths and melodramas of the contemporary age. It has the potential to infuse consciousness with a sense of magic that is amplified by visual spectacle and vicarious ritual involvement. Sporting events are among the most potent media-based sources of compensatory ritual and transcendent cognitive bias.

Emotion and Retrieval Inhibition

In RIF, the first question has recently been addressed by Bauml and Kuhbandner (2007). They examined how affective states experienced during retrieval modulate RIF by inducing positive, negative, and neutral moods immediately before the retrieval-practice phase. Their results showed that repeated retrieval did not cause forgetting of nonretrieved items when participants were in negative moods, whereas when subjects were in positive or neutral moods, reliable RIF was found. The absence of RIF in negative moods is consistent with the view that negative moods induce predominantly item-specific processing, i.e., processing of items by their features and distinctive qualities (e.g., Clore & Huntsinger, 2007). Because item-specific processing reduces interference from related information, retrieval inhibition should be reduced and RIF be eliminated, which is exactly what the data showed. In LM-DF, Bauml and Kuhbandner (2009) examined how affective states modulate intentional forgetting....

Psychological Reactions To Rapeposttraumatic Stress Disorder And Other Symptoms

Pies were consistently the most effective in treating PTSD. The two most effective therapies for PTSD are cognitive therapy and exposure therapy. A form of each will be described in detail in the remainder of this chapter. Briefly, the cognitive therapies help the person change or modify negative thoughts beliefs that occur as the result of a rape in order to improve emotions exposure therapies help the woman safely revisit the memory of the trauma repeatedly in her mind with the goal of processing the painful emotions associated with a rape. It is important to note that other therapies have also been found to be helpful in reducing PTSD symptoms, such as relaxation therapy, assertiveness training, and stress inoculation therapy. Also, other approaches not considered psychotherapy, such as yoga, meditation, and spirituality, target the overall well-being of the individual and are also important in creating a balance within the individual and her recovery. Other chapters will provide...

Multiple Intelligences Defined

In the 1970s and 1980s, with revisions continuing today, Gardner devised Multiple Intelligences theory by synthesizing findings from research in psychometrics, neuroscience, anthropology, developmental psychology, evolutionary psychology, experimental psychology, and cognitive psychology. Not all cognitive capacities qualify as intelligences. MI takes a 'middle road' the senses, and fundamental perceptual or motor abilities, are too fine a grain to be useful for the ends to which intelligences are put, whereas one general intelligence or broad personality traits are too diffuse. To be named an intelligence, a cognitive capacity must satisfy eight criteria

Analyses of Underlying Processes

Analyses of underlying processes using methods from general cognitive psychology and cognitive science can help bring order and clarity to the field. There are many examples of tasks that are superficially similar (such as transitive inference and transitivity of choice) yet entail fundamentally different processes, and it only creates confusion to categorize them together. Correspondingly, there are tasks that are superficially very different, yet may entail underlying cognitive processes with important common properties. An example would be the corresponding difficulties of the dimensional change card sort task, and ternary relational tasks such as transitivity, class inclusion, and the concept of mind. We cannot order tasks for difficulty, nor discover important equivalences, unless we look beneath surface properties. Cognitive psychology has progressed to the point at which we can do this with reasonable confidence.

Day 3 Coping and identification of harder emotions

This day's theme focused on the darker feelings of grief - stress and anger. These emotions play an integral role in a bereaved child's life and therefore need to be acknowledged and accepted. Moreover, a child must learn the correct coping tools so that he can learn how to live effectively with these emotions. Thus, day 3 was devoted to stress and anger. Activities and discussions were designed to allow the campers to acknowledge and cope with these negative emotions.

Emotional Overexcitability

Feelings and emotions are frequently at a higher pitch, and the person has a keen awareness and sensitivity to nuances of feeling in oneself and in others. Because the vehicle for emotion is the body, blushing, getting flushed with color, perspiring, trembling, feeling tension in different parts of the body, feeling hot or cold, present psychosomatic signs of overexcitability. Positive as well as negative feelings are experienced with great intensity, openly by extroverts and inwardly by introverts. We live in a culture in which being emotional is criticized and tampered with. Children are often told what they should or should not feel rather than accepting what they do feel. When this happens children with high overexcitability are intensely miserable and confused. Consequently, emotional individuals have a tendency toward depression, suicidal thoughts, feeling of being out of place and not belonging. Feelings of profound alienation, even suicide, are often the result. Ways of...

Treating the Depressed Child

The most successful treatments for depression have involved cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). CBT focuses on changing the faulty thinking that produces or reinforces negative moods and self-defeating behaviors. For example, the thoughts of a depressed child that contain a nearly constant channel of negative self-talk including ideas like I am worthless, Nothing will ever get better in my life, or I don't deserve to be happy will reinforce a child's feeling of despair and hopelessness. The therapist then gently challenges these thoughts and helps the child change her negative thoughts to positive ones. Substituting a new stream of self-talk containing ideas like I am okay the way I am and I can make friends can dramatically improve a child's mood.

Be aware of your thinking processes

If you sometimes misinterpret what people were actually saying to you, chances are it is because you are making one or more cognitive errors (also called cognitive distortions), which are mistakes in the way you think. Some common goofs are A more complete discussion of cognitive distortions can be found in Self Esteem by McKay and Fanning (pp. 65-66). If you can't completely avoid the habit of reacting based on these errors, at least be alert to them and give yourself permission to change your mind (and response) when you do. That's a start. For instance, you'll be able to stop the recurrence of prior problems or issues that might suck you back into the old ways of thinking and doing ' You'll know how to communicate your positions and interpret others' viewpoints without making the kinds of cognitive errors that used to trip you up. You'll be willing to challenge your eating disordered scripts so inappropriate and negative thinking won't resurface and ambush you. Finally, you'll know...

Im still feeling emotionally drained Can I wait until Im feeling stronger to get treatment services for my child

One cognitive technique that psychologists recommend to relieve emotional stress is called compartmentalizing. This involves putting your thoughts or feelings into a separate compartment in your mind so that you can focus on what needs to be done in the present moment. For example, if you're feeling emotionally overwhelmed about your child with an ASD, visualize placing your feelings into a box and putting it on a shelf. This can help you focus on making those phone calls for services or taking care of other business without feeling distracted by your emotional state. By removing the emotional

Obstacles To Recovery

The first requirement is that the physical capacity of the worker must match the physical demands of his or her job. However, this often leads to negative thinking about limitations and restrictions and incapacity. A few patients with back pain have severe physical restrictions and a few jobs have very heavy physical demands. But most people with back pain do not have any absolute physical limitation for most jobs in modern society. For many patients, that way of thinking may actually create an obstacle to return to work. Do you remember the discussion about ability and performance in Chapter 9 It may be more helpful to think about the patient's current activity level compared with the physical requirements of the job. We might overcome any imbalance either by improving the patient's activity level or reducing the demands by modified work, or sometimes both. But for most patients this should not be an insurmountable obstacle. This may be a much more positive approach that leads...

Minimisation And Poor Insight Into Risk

Cognitive distortions minimising risk and overconfidence about their ability to survive without symptom, social functioning or offence relapses are common among this population. These distortions need to be addressed in order that they may be taught to recognize risky situations and that a concrete plan for dealing with those situations be devised (Bloom, Mueser & Muller-Isberner, 2000). Patients may have difficulty reconciling their actions while ill with their usual self. One patient told me, It was me who killed him, but it wasn't me, if you see what I mean. These attitudes are similar to cognitive distortions blaming alcohol, drug abuse, and anger rage for offending. The oversimplified rationale, I killed because I was ill, cannot be accepted as evidence of adequate understanding of the relationship between the patients' mental health problems and offending. Such explanations omit key variables and factors linking the mental illness or symptoms with the offence. Interventions...

Psychosocial Adjustment

Because of their depressive symptoms, youth with SLE are at particular risk for cognitive distortions that are linked to physical appearance. More importantly, there has been a line of research to suggest that physical appearance is associated with adjustment in youth with chronic physical illness (Pendley et al. 1997 E.J. Varni et al. 1995). In fact, among adolescents with rheumatological disorders, body image was found to predict both social anxiety and loneliness even when severity of illness, objective ratings of attractiveness, and self-esteem were controlled (Pendley et al. 1997). Taylor et al. (1987) reported that problems with peer relationships and self-concept were endorsed as being the most frequently school-related problem, specifically for children with rheumatological disorders including those with SLE, even when compared with health-related concerns (e.g., activities of daily living, general physical health).

Evidence Based Treatments

Cents with SLE and the specific physical and psychological sequelae that are unique to this disease. Although cognitive therapy was employed previously, primarily for pain management (Gil et al. 1996), the intervention was extended to other domains of functioning (e.g., negative affectivity, body image, social competence). The specific ingredients of the treatment package included coping skills training and cognitive restructuring techniques (Jensen et al. 1994). Efforts to teach active coping skills included training in relaxation, distraction, and problem-solving skills. Goals of the treatment included 1) developing skills for managing SLE, 2) reducing disability and perceptions of pain, 3) improving mood, 4) increasing self-efficacy expectations and perceptions of locus of control, and 5) delineating distortions associated with perceptions of physical appearance and social competence. Findings of the investigation revealed no significant differences in outcomes for the intervention...

Comprehension Experiments

One active area of research has been on testing syntactic modularity, which is the notion that the initial syntactic analysis of a sentence proceeds independent of semantic, contextual, and pragmatic knowledge. One early influential theory by Lynne Frazier adopts a modular perspective in which people adopt two strategies in comprehending syntax late closure (the tendency to attach each word to the clause or phrase being processed) and, minimal attachment (the tendency to add that word to build the simplest possible syntactic structure). Tests of this theory have tended to employed so-called garden path sentences such as ' The lady sent the flowers was very pleased' and have employed online measures, such as the monitoring of eye movements while reading such sentences. The assumption is that one can get insights on how a sentence is parsed, assuming word by word processing In the sample sentence above, minimal attachment would place the words 'sent the flowers' as the verb phrase which...

Subcortical FEAR System and Feelings of Anxiety

So, once again, which areas of the brain are most important for elaboration of the affective urgency of fearfulness Although we cannot monitor animal or human affective experiences directly using any measurement procedure, potentially useful behavioral indices, including sensitive place avoidance measures, strongly suggest that an intensely negative internal state has been produced by artificial activation of the FEAR system. If given the chance, rats avoid environments in which they have received such ESB (Panksepp, 1996) if no opportunity for escape is provided, the animals freeze for long periods, as if they had been exposed to a frightful predator (Brandao et al., 1999 Panksepp et al., 1991). The ability of peptides such as substance P to evoke conditioned place aversion when placed into the PAG (Aguiar and Brandao, 1994) suggests the importance of very low level brain areas in the generation of affect. The future use of sensitive vocal expressions of negative emotions may be...

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