Cns

Target, rehabilitation 290 cortical plasticity 194, 248 attention and plasticity 198-202 cross-modal plasticity non-visual perception 180-2, 182-6 sensory systems 180 visual deprivation 182, 186 evidence 360-3 mechanisms 250-1 in injured spinal cord 209 metaplasticity 72 neural pathways swallowing 356 neural plasticity 238-42 neurons anatomical and biochemical plasticity 5 short-term plasticity 44 quantal mechanisms 46-8 synapse-specificity 45-6 somatosensory systems complexity 97-100 thalamic...

Inhibitors of axon regeneration

Although many neurons in the adult CNS have the capacity to regenerate a severed axon (David and Aguayo, 1981), maturation, and in particular myeli-nation, in the mammalian CNS coincides with a dramatic decrease in the ability of injured axons to regenerate (Volume I, Chapter 24). CNS white matter contains multiple myelin-associated inhibitors of axon outgrowth and regeneration (Volume I, Chapter 21). Identified inhibitors include myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), oligodendrocyte-myelin...

Demyelination and Wallerianlike degeneration

Progressive and extensive axonal loss occurs in multiple sclerosis (MS) and other demyelinating diseases, and contributes to the neurologic deficits (Trapp et al., 1998) (see Volume II, Chapter 38). In MS and other human and experimental settings with inflammatory demyelination, axonal degeneration and loss can result from focal axonal interruption consequent to the presence of nearby inflammatory cells and inflammatory mediators. Acute intralesional axonal damage correlates with the degree of...

Catherine L Ojakangas and John P Donoghue

Department of Neuroscience, Brown University, RI, USA Neurobiologists have only recently been discovering the extent to which injured, adult nervous systems can undergo remarkable functional and structural rearrangement, commonly termed neural plasticity. Neuronal processes, including axons, dendrites, and the synaptic contacts between them are capable of reorganization (see Volume I, Chapter 1) and evidence of neurogenesis has been uncovered in adult primate brains (see Volume I, Chapter 18)....

Kurt Haas1 and Hollis T Cline2

'Department of Cellular and Physiological Sciences, Brain Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada 2Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, USA One of the leading challenges facing neuroscience research today is how to promote functional regeneration after neuronal damage within the human central nervous system (CNS). Unlike neurons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), or CNS neurons in lower vertebrates, damaged mammalian CNS axons fail to...

Jared H Miller and Jerry Silver

Department of Neurosciences, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA Following injury to the adult central nervous system (CNS), injured axons are unable to regenerate past the lesion. Within the site of injury, referred to as the glial scar, reactive astrocytes produce chondroitin and keratan sulfate proteoglycans (CSPG KSPG). These molecules are among the major inhibitory extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules believed to play a role in regeneration failure. The...

Info

The glial scar 9 months after a spinal cord stab lesion (a) Sagittal section of the spinal cord illustrating astrocyte hypertrophy (gray) and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) upregulation (denoted by dashed lines). Note the longitudinal, thickened bands of reactive astrocytes forming an extremely dense wall of cells. (b) High magnification of the banded, reactive astrocytes, further demonstrating the extreme hypertrophy of astroglia at this late time point after the lesion....

References

Churchill, J.D., Arnald, L.L. and Garraghty, P.E. (2001). Somatotopic reorganization in the brainstem and thalamus following peripheral nerve inquiry in adult primates. Brain Res, 910, 142-152. Darian-Smith, C. and Brown, S. (2000). Functional changes at periphery and cortex following dorsal root lesions in adult monkeys. Nat Neurosci, 3, 476-481. Davis, K.D., Kiss, Z.H., Lou, L., Tasker, R.R., Lozano, A.M. and Dostrovsky, J.O. (1998). Phantom sensations generated by thalamic microstimulation....

Itzhak Fischer1 Angelo C Lepne1 Steve Sang Woo Han1 and Alan R Tessler12

Spinal Neural Repair

1 Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Drexel University College of Medicine and 2Department of Veterans Affairs Hospital, Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) results in devastating and often permanent disability for which no effective biologic therapies exist. The injury initiates a cascade of complex, interrelated pathologic processes leading not only to cell death at the injury site and in higher brain centers but also to the severing, demyelination and physiologic inactivation of axons...

Randolph J Nudo Ines Eisner Janowicz and Ann M Stowe

Middle Cerebral Artery Distribution

Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA Throughout this century, neuroscientists have attempted to understand the neurological bases for functional recovery after brain injury (Ogden and Franz, 1917). But until a few years ago neural models were based on poorly understood processes such as diaschisis and substitution (Bach-y-Rita, 1987). At least short-term recovery from cortical injury probably involves the resolution of...