Jared H Miller and Jerry Silver

Department of Neurosciences, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA Following injury to the adult central nervous system (CNS), injured axons are unable to regenerate past the lesion. Within the site of injury, referred to as the glial scar, reactive astrocytes produce chondroitin and keratan sulfate proteoglycans (CSPG KSPG). These molecules are among the major inhibitory extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules believed to play a role in regeneration failure. The...

Info

The glial scar 9 months after a spinal cord stab lesion (a) Sagittal section of the spinal cord illustrating astrocyte hypertrophy (gray) and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) upregulation (denoted by dashed lines). Note the longitudinal, thickened bands of reactive astrocytes forming an extremely dense wall of cells. (b) High magnification of the banded, reactive astrocytes, further demonstrating the extreme hypertrophy of astroglia at this late time point after the lesion....

References

Churchill, J.D., Arnald, L.L. and Garraghty, P.E. (2001). Somatotopic reorganization in the brainstem and thalamus following peripheral nerve inquiry in adult primates. Brain Res, 910, 142-152. Darian-Smith, C. and Brown, S. (2000). Functional changes at periphery and cortex following dorsal root lesions in adult monkeys. Nat Neurosci, 3, 476-481. Davis, K.D., Kiss, Z.H., Lou, L., Tasker, R.R., Lozano, A.M. and Dostrovsky, J.O. (1998). Phantom sensations generated by thalamic microstimulation....

Itzhak Fischer1 Angelo C Lepne1 Steve Sang Woo Han1 and Alan R Tessler12

Spinal Neural Repair

1 Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Drexel University College of Medicine and 2Department of Veterans Affairs Hospital, Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) results in devastating and often permanent disability for which no effective biologic therapies exist. The injury initiates a cascade of complex, interrelated pathologic processes leading not only to cell death at the injury site and in higher brain centers but also to the severing, demyelination and physiologic inactivation of axons...

Randolph J Nudo Ines Eisner Janowicz and Ann M Stowe

Middle Cerebral Artery Distribution

Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA Throughout this century, neuroscientists have attempted to understand the neurological bases for functional recovery after brain injury (Ogden and Franz, 1917). But until a few years ago neural models were based on poorly understood processes such as diaschisis and substitution (Bach-y-Rita, 1987). At least short-term recovery from cortical injury probably involves the resolution of...