Neuroanatomy Software

Flash Brain Anatomy

This course gives you access to a full online course and software to learn more about the brain than you ever thought possible in a short amount of time. This software contains detailed, 3D brain models, animations to display concepts, hundreds of educational courses, a neuroanatomy atlas, and compatibility with most web browsers. You will also have access to a full online suite of tutors. Neuroanatomy is one of the hardest parts of anatomy to learn, and learning the brain will really be a lot easier if you had a detailed model to base your knowledge off. This software makes the brain as simple as possible, while also giving you a way to learn it throughly. This model simplifies a very complex subject that most people struggle with Don't be one of the people that doesn't know what to do with the brain model! This course is designed to teach you everything about the brain while keeping the lessons manageable and learning at your own pace. More here...

Flash Brain Anatomy Summary


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Flash Brain Anatomy is a professionally made product. Professionally done by acknowledged experts in this area of expertise.

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Changes in Brain Anatomy

It is now well established that there are observable changes in brain anatomy associated with aging. Indeed it is common for radiologists to report that a computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the brain shows atrophy consistent with normal aging. Neuroanatomical studies indicate that by age 80, 15 percent of one's brain weight is lost overall, and there is an average 20 percent loss in the weight of temporal lobes, which are associated with memory functioning (Suhr, 2002). These data suggest that some changes in neurobehavioral functioning are likely in aging. However, the majority of elderly persons continue to manage their affairs competently.

Dispersion And Functions Of Fear Systems In The Brain Continuing Studies Of The Neuroanatomy Of Fear

Translation of growth-promoting oncogenes, such as c-fos, have allowed investigators to monitor the cerebral consequences of many fear-provoking stimuli, including foot shock (Beck and Fibiger, 1995), nonpainful threatening stimuli, such as environments that have been paired with aversive events (Silveira et al., 1993), as well as the effects of direct activation of FEAR circuits following brain stimulation (Silveira et al., 1995). Not only is there abundant arousal of brain areas from the PAG to the amygdala, there is typically massive cortical activation, especially if animals are tested while awake as opposed to anesthetized. Similar patterns of neuronal activation are evident in animals defeated during fighting (Kollack-Walker et al., 1997), during exposure to predators (Dielenberg et al., 2001), and even in animals simply exposed to the fearful 22-kHz distress squeals of conspecifics (Beckett et al., 1997). Such work is revealing neural details, both anatomical and neurochemical,...

Pharmacological Neuroanatomy

The major enzymes involved in the metabolic degradation of catecholamines are MAO and catechol- O-methyl transferase (COMT) (Fig. 3-2 (Figure Not Available) ). Monoamine oxidase converts catecholamines to their corresponding aldehydes, which are then rapidly metabolized, generally through oxidation by aldehyde dehydrogenase to the corresponding acid. Monoamine oxidase is predominantly located in the outer membrane of mitochondria with possible microsomal localization. Extraneuronal MAO exists however, it is predominantly an intraneuronal enzyme. In the human brain, at least two forms of MAO, type A and type B, have been identified. Certain agents have been shown to specifically inhibit these enzymes, including clorgyline, a specific type A inhibitor, and deprenyl, a selective type B inhibitor. Oxidation usually exceeds reduction, and vanillylmandelic acid is the major metabolite of norepinephrine and is detectable in the urine. In the CNS, reduction of the intermediate aldehyde formed...

Thinking and Reasoning

Morrison is president of Xunesis (, a not-for-profit company that encourages people to integrate science with their everyday lives through performance and media art that engages, entertains, and educates in both traditional and nontraditional educational settings. He received his Ph.D. in cognitive neuroscience from UCLA. His research involves understanding how the human brain implements and constrains higher cognition.

Network Emotional Regulatory Network Spatial Awareness Network Language Network Summary

The central (CNS) and peripheral (PNS) nervous system matrix is a rich resource for learning and for retraining. This chapter begins with the structural framework of interconnected neural components that contribute to motor control for walking, reaching, and grasping, and to cognition and mood. I then review what we know about cellular mechanisms that may be manipulated by physical, cognitive, and pharmacologic therapies to lessen impairments and disabilities. These discussions of functional neuroanatomy provide a map for mechanisms relevant to neural repair, functional neuroimaging, and theory-based practices for neurologic rehabilitation. Our understanding of functional neuroanatomy is a humbling work in progress. Although neuroanatomy and neuropathology may seem like old arts, studies of nonhuman primates and of man continue to reveal the connections and interactions of neurons. The brain's macrostructure is better understood than the microstructure of...

Pain and distress in animals

Scientists have established that animals possess a similar neuroanatomy to man but whether they feel pain with the same degree of intensity is a matter of speculation, since response to pain is both physical and emotional and the emotional response cannot be measured directly (Flecknell 2000). However, it can be assumed that an animal does feel pain and indication of this is shown in the changes of be-

Foundational Concepts

The background topics relevant to psychiatric disorders in biological terms is vast and typically includes neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and neurochemistry. Since such approaches are remarkably well represented in various recent handbooks, and typically all substantive neuroscience courses, one more redundant effort in that direction would not be all that useful. Accordingly, we have used the limited space available to focus on topics that are more intimately related to psychological issues the nature of emotionality, consciousness, stress, personality, and the brain imaging technologies that have changed the face of psychiatry in the past decade. The first half dozen chapters of this text attempt to bridge between the clinical and scientific issues. To do this, we have to blend the fine and abundant evidence that is being derived from rather indirect studies of the human brain mind and the detailed knowledge about brain functions we can cull from our fellow creatures, who also live...

Truth faith and the way things are

Much has been written about evolution and, surprisingly perhaps, of all modern scientific theories, it alone remains controversial with some, even though the evidence is overwhelming. Dismissing evolutionary theory is a little like dismissing atomic theory or the theory of relativity and while a few people may truly have the knowledge to do so, for many it is a matter of faith. The subject has been discussed many times before and rather than trying to justify it as the correct way of thinking about how we came to be, in this book we will simply accept the process of evolution as the driving force behind the development of the human brain. If you do not feel able to accept this, it will not affect the concepts in the rest of the book, but you will need to find your own explanation for why our brain is as it is.

Reciprocity Of Human Corticolimbic Activity

The studies reviewed above delineate potential mechanisms of limbic-cortical interactions that may be crucial to understand how the human brain accomplishes the business of normal and abnormal emotion regulation. Emotional arousal accompanying the experience of intense subjective feelings in healthy subjects (Liotti et al., 2000a Damasio et al., 2000) or active episodes of major depression (Mayberg et al., 1999) as well the emotional arousal in the presence of basic drives such as air hunger, thirst, or pain (Liotti et al., 2001) give rise to activation of subcortical, paleocerebel-lum, and limbic structures, as well as paralimbic cortex, and the concomitant, inverse sign, namely deactivation of neocortical regions known to subserve cognitive functions (Liotti and Mayberg, 2001). Conversely, cognitive processing and recovery from an acute episode of depression are accompanied by increased activation in neocortical networks subserving attentional processing, such as the DLPFC, inferior...

The evolution of the brain gradually achieving complexity

A similar process of continuous change and selection has gone on in all aspects of life on earth, including the human brain. Just as languages are the product of sounds and grammatical rules copied into the speech regions of an offspring's brain, organisms are the product of genes and the genetic code copied into an offspring cell, which, for our purposes, results not only in a full organism, but also in its brain. In brains, more complicated wiring schemes provided an advantage in some situations, so they were sometimes selected. The primitive nerve-like cell gave rise to more sophisticated versions and to organisms with nerve networks, then ganglia and finally the complex collection of billions of nerve cells that we call a brain. At no point did a parent give birth to a new species but the small differences slowly added up. Because we can only see a snapshot of a continuous process, we see different species with their particular brains. This is a little like taking a cross-section...

Generating Emotional Feelings Through Upper Brainstemlimbic And Cortical Interactions

The combined body of evidence reported above supports a complex hierarchical view of how emotions are elaborated in the brain. For instance, the reciprocal relations in limbic and cortical regions during the imaging of emotions and cognitions in the human brain has prompted the formulation of a model of emotional regulation in which activity in neocortical regions plays an important role in the regulation of emotional states, including emotion generation, maintenance, and suppression (see Figs. 2.6 to 2.8). Elaborating on the observations on decerebration and sham rage in cats and dogs, Reiman (1997) hypothesized that the cerebral cortex serves to inhibit unbridled expressions of emotion.

Cognitive Neuroscience Approach

Cognition in general) has been the development of the cognitive neuroscience approach. This research approach focuses on the brain anatomy and neural processing involved in human cognition. Originally, the neuropsychological study of autobiographical memory was restricted to detailed case studies of individuals who lost their ability to access autobiographical memories or form new memories because of brain damage. The famous case of HM is a classic example of this neuroscience approach. More recently, this approach has expanded to include new brain scanning technologies, such as EEG, PET, and fMRI. The cognitive neuroscience approach is heavily indebted to the cognitive psychology methods we have just described, because many of these tasks and measures have been incorporated into cognitive neuroscience experiments. However, many new methods have also been introduced, while other methods have been cleverly adapted to the physical constraints imposed on the participant by the brain...

Case Study 33 A Full Caudal Rostral Periaqueductal Gray PAG Lesion Akinetic Mutism and the Emptying Out of

Our taxonomy of disorders of consciousness emphasizes their graded, progressive nature and eschews an all-or-nothing conceptualization. While intuitively appealing, an all-or-nothing picture of consciousness provides a limited basis for heuristic empirical study of the underpinnings of consciousness from a neural systems point of view, as compared to a graded or hierarchical one that emphasizes the core functional envelopes of emotion, intention, and attention. From this vantage point, akinetic mutism is a deeply informative syndrome, as it provides clues to the neural minimums for motivated behavior and emotion in the human brain. Additionally, it bears emphasis that the syndrome of akinetic mutism potentially provides clues to psychiatry about neural substrates of other related, but lesser, apathy states, such as those seen in severe retarded depression, schizophrenia, catatonia, and the like.

Summary Heuristicsquestions For Future Research

Hierarchically organized phenomenon, with various core aspects interacting with extended cognitive aspects. Core aspects include wakefulness, attentional functions, sensory content, salience, affective motivation, and agency. These core components permit cognitive extensions in extended working memories, language, and a host of higher cognitive-cortical functions that allow us an extraordinary richness and vast differentiation of conscious content. Although we have modeled consciousness in terms of these complex functional envelopes (attentional function, intention or directed activity, emotion, basic sensory content), these are clearly interdependent and seamlessly integrated aspects of consciousness, slices of the consciousness pie. Each of these functional domains represents a formidable neuroscientific problem in itself, and each requires widely distributed neural networks that are hard to study empirically. Global neurodynamical perspectives are essential to this task of mapping...

Precursors In Adult Brains

Adult neurogenesis has also been conserved in primates in the hippocampus and subven-tricular zone. The progeny of neural stem cells may represent a programmed developmental strategy for homeostasis and repair.68 Adult human temporal lobe tissue removed during surgery for epilepsy has, in tissue culture, revealed neuronal progenitor cells derived from the periventricular subependymal zone and adjacent white matter.69 These precursors may produce one or more phenotype. At least some are self-renewing multipotential stem cells capable, given the right signals, of providing the CNS with specific types of neurons.70 Human brain tissue removed at surgery for epilepsy or trauma also reveals the presence of multipotent precursors for neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes in the amygdala and frontal and temporal cortices.71 Of interest, neurons, glia, and endothelial cells arise from the same niche in the subgranule zone of the hippocampus, suggesting that angiogenesis and neurogenesis...

Epidemiology Incidence Prevalence

Determinations of the incidence of oligodendroglial tumors, including oligodendroglioma and OA, vary, ranging from 5 to 18 of all primary human brain tumors.18 Other estimations for the occurrence of low-grade astrocytomas, including OAs, are approximately 15 of gliomas in adults and 25 of all gliomas of the cerebral hemispheres in children.10 Interestingly, patients with OAs of the temporal lobe (mean age 36 years) were younger (P .05, t test) than patients with nontemporal tumors (mean age 41 years). Within the temporal tumor group, patients with TP53 mutations (mean age 33 years) were younger than those without this alteration (mean age 38 years).18

Future Investigations

Zagorska-Swiezy K, Litwin JA, Gorczyca J, Pitynski K, Miodonski AJ (2008) The microvascular architecture of the choroid plexus in fetal human brain lateral ventricle a scanning electron microscopy study of corrosion casts. J Anat 213 259-265 104. Gomori E, Pal J, Abraham H, Vajda Z, Sulyok E, Seress L, Doczi T. (2006) Fetal development of membrane water channel proteins aquaporin-1 and aquaporin-4 in the human brain. Int J Dev Neurosci 24 295-305

The amnesic patient HM

A Position of the hippocampus, amygdala, and surrounding cortex in the human brain. B Sections through the human brain showing reconstructions of the area of medial temporal lobe removal in the patient H.M., based on MRI scans. Top A more anterior section showing the area of removal that involved the amygdala (left side) compared to the intact area (right side). Bottom A more posterior section showing the area of removal that involved the hippocampus (left side) as compared to the intact area on the right. In H.M. the lesions were bilateral (from Corkin et al., 1997).

Verbal Mathematical and Visual Thinking

Writers such as McKim,3 discussing ways in which the human brain manipulates information in order to reason, distinguish two rather different processes (3.2). The first, the domain of the left-hemisphere of the brain, utilizes verbal reasoning and mathematical procedures. It moves from the known to the unknown by analysis - an essentially linear, sequential path. The second,

Oscillatory Behavior In The Visual System

Also showed that the coherence information was independent of the change in power, implying that additional information can be gained by looking at coherence results. If one were to extend these methods by performing source analysis of the coherence data, these results suggest one could provide a macroscopic view of network activity and cortical synchrony within the human brain.

How the human cortex became so big

If we trace the evolution of the human brain, the greatest and most rapid growth has occurred in the frontal lobes of the cortex, which accounts for some 40 per cent of the structure. In our nearest living relatives, the chimpanzees, the frontal cortex accounts for about 17 per cent. The evolutionary lines leading to modern humans and Although there is no watertight explanation for the runaway pace of evolutionary change that human brain development would seem to require, one of the more imaginative ideas is that our frontal brain arBi is an ornament required for courtship display. According to this J idea, the human brain is the product of the mutual preference of men and women for mating with partners who display unusually creative intelligence in the rituals of courtship. This can result in a form of natural selection called sexual selection. It depends on creativity in courtship and the large brain that it requires being heritable traits. If the larger brained individuals were...

Imaging of Other Neurotransmitter Systems

Dillon KA, Gross-Isseroff R, Israeli M, Biegon A (1991). Autoradiographic analysis of serotonin 5-HTja receptor binding in the human brain postmortem Effects of age and alcohol. Brain Res 554 56-64. Fredrikson M, Wik G, Annas P, Ericson K, Stone-Elander S (1995). Functional neuroanatomy of visually elicited simple phobic fear Additional data and theoretical analysis. Psychophys-iology 32 43-48. Friston KJ, Holmes AP, Worsley KJ, Poline JP, Frith CD, Frackowiack RSJ (1995). Statistical parametric maps in functional imaging A general linear approach. Human Brain Mapping 2 189-210. Gjedde A, Wong DF (2001). Quantification of neuroreceptors in living human brain. V. Endogenous neurotransmitter inhibition of haloperidol binding in psychosis. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 21 982-994. Rauch SL, Savage CR, Brown HD (1995b). A PET investigation of implicit and explicit sequence learning. Human Brain Mapping 3 271-286. Soares JC, Mann JJ (1997). The functional neuroanatomy of mood disorders. J...

Left Brain Right Brain Split

To better understand this amazing Italian's creativity, we must take a short excursion and examine how the human brain processes information. All vertebrates from fish onward have a bilobed brain, that is, a right hemisphere and a left hemisphere. In all animals with this configuration, each side of the brain performs in a mirror image fashion the same tasks as its opposite side. Only humans have sharply diverged from this arrangement. While each side of the human brain is similar in appearance to each other and resembles the configuration of other animals, each lobe of a human's brain performs functionally different tasks. This specialization is called hemispheric lateralization. (Some other higher mammals and birds exhibit brain lateralization but none approach the extent to which this feature is present in humans.) The evolutionary reason for this arrangement is nature's decision to dedicate one hemisphere primarily for language. This then became the left hemisphere in right-handed...

Why Discoveries Are Made

Perhaps the most unexpected and yet common motivation for discovery is aesthetic. A very large number of scientists are drawn to science in the first place by the beauty of the experimental preparations they examine in the microscope or the sublimity of the intellectual constructs that we call theories. Santiago Ramon y Cajal, who won a Nobel prize for his work in neuroanatomy often waxed eloquently over the magnificent scenes that the architecture of the brain afforded, while Max Planck said forthrightly that he was drawn to physics by the beauty of the laws of thermodynamics. In some cases, the desire to recreate literal physical beauty has even led to discoveries. For example, C. T. R. Wilson became so enamored of the coronas and glories that he observed when climbing in the Scottish hills that he decided to recreate them in his physics laboratory. His success inventing cloud chambers not only allowed him to make these beautiful optical phenomena at will, they also allowed...

Electrophysiological Signs Of Human Executive Control

Gabriel, M., Burhans, L., and Scalf, P. (2002). Cingulate cortex. In Encyclopedia of the Human Brain (V. S. Ramachandran, ed.), Academic Press, New York. (In press.) Posner, M. I., Petersen, S. E., Fox, P. T., and Raichle, M. E. (1988). Localization of cognitive operations in the human brain. Science 240, 1627-1631.

Looking at the Drug Users Brain

Figure 7-1 Understanding brain images. Imaging machines look inside the head and brain and display slices of the brain. The schematic on the left shows three different ways or planes that the human brain can be sliced in. Sometimes structures of interest are better seen in one plane or another. Brain imaging instruments look at slices of the brain and reconstruct them so that the details of structure (or function) can be seen, as on the right. The images on the right were obtained using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although the schematic images on the left show only the brain, the actual brain images shown on the right include the skull, eyes, nose, and other tissues, which are more realistic. The PET images shown in Figures 7-2 and 7-3 are horizontal sections that reveal the distribution of radioactivity in slices of the brain. (Adapted from Figure 7-1 Understanding brain images. Imaging machines look inside the head and brain and display slices of the brain. The schematic on...

Combined Erp And Neuroimaging

Although obtained in a very different manner. This approach could also be combined with electrical modeling, as we are doing, in order to provide fully integrated spatiotemporal models of visual analysis. The individual variations in brain anatomy and physiology that plague group approaches actually turn out to be an important source of information when working in individual subjects, because anatomy can be used to constrain dipole models for each subject as defined by their anatomical organization.

Neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb

In the SVZ in rodents and in non-human primates have been found to undergo chain migration through RMS and into the olfactory bulb, recent evidence in humans has raised the possibility that despite the presence of progenitors in the SVZ, these cells may not undergo chain migration through the RMS in humans (Sanai et al., 2004). The complexity of the human brain is considerably greater than that of rodents, and the introduction of new neurons into such a complex pre-existing system may be a far more challenging feat in humans than in rodents or non-human primates. Understanding the factors that contribute to normal SVZ precursor migration could be important in developing approaches to induce such precursors to migrate to injured or degenerating regions of the brain.

Formation of Reactive Metabolites

No experimental data concerning cerebral mEH-promoted toxicity is available. The anticonvulsants phenytoin and carbamazepine, which possess aryl moieties, are metabolized in the human liver to epoxide intermediates responsible for hepatic necrosis (85). To our knowledge, however, no evidence of such deleterious effects either at the blood-brain barrier or to the brain has been presented. It should be of importance that the human brain displays a 40-fold higher mEH activity than the rat brain (43).

Psychobiology Background Neuroscience Issues

In order to understand how trauma affects psychobiological activity, it is useful to briefly revisit some basic tenets of neurobiology. Paul McLean (1990) defined the brain as a detecting, amplifying, and analyzing device for the maintenance of the internal and external environment. These functions range from the visceral regulation of oxygen intake and temperature balance to the categorization of incoming information necessary for making complex, long-term decisions affecting both individual and social systems. He proposed that, in the course of evolution, the human brain has developed roughly three interdependent subanalyzers, each with different anatomical and neurochemical substrates (1) the brainstem and hypothalamus, which are primarily associated with the regulation of internal homeostasis, (2) the limbic system, which maintains the balance between the internal world and external reality, and (3) the neocortex, which is responsible for analyzing and interacting with the...

Creativity Thought and the Brain

Gestalt-synthetic, holistic thought (in the adult, right-handed person) is usually associated with the functioning of the right cerebral hemisphere (RH) of the human brain, and logical-analytic thought with the left hemisphere (LH). Intentionality, along with planning, monitoring, editing, commanding, and controlling, is associated with the executive-level functioning of the frontal lobes of the brain. The frontal lobes evolved out of, and remain closely linked to, the limbic structures which provide emotional response to images and models, and which, in combination with memory and information about the body and environment, enable the frontal lobes to direct

Nineteenth Century Biology of the Brain

It should be no surprise that our knowledge of the way the human brain works is quite recent in the history of medical research. Less than 200 years ago, no one was sure that the various areas of the brain had isolable functions. The first person to suggest this was a German anatomist, Franz Gall, who did so early in the nineteenth century. His research led him to believe that speech is located in the frontal lobes, those sections of each hemisphere located toward the front of the head.

Conclusions and Future Directions

What is most striking about these models as a whole, however, is that they make use of the same set of mechanisms for learning and using knowledge across such a disparate set of tasks and that they use the same two kinds of knowledge representations -production rules and declarative chunks. Although each model emphasizes a somewhat different subset of mechanisms (compare Tables 17.4-17.7, 17.10, and 17.11), they all fit together in a unified architecture, just as the many processes of human cognition all must fit together in the human brain. Likewise, modern productions systems offer an

Neurosurgical history taking and examination

Routine neurosurgical examination in which all neurological signs and symptoms are tested for. Time constraints alone would preclude such an approach. In practice, neurosurgical history taking and examination is not routine or list based, but more heuristic, that is, goal directed, testing one hypothesis after another. For example, in a patient with a purulent middle ear infection and symptoms of intracranial infection (headaches, neck stiffness, disturbance of conscious level), history taking and examination should be directed initially at detecting signs of a lesion, such as cerebritis or abscess, in the area of brain most likely to be affected. Thus, a middle ear infection can spread superiorly to the temporal lobe, giving rise to a contralateral hemiparesis, visual field defect and, in the dominant hemisphere, dysphasia or infection can spread posteriorly into the posterior fossa, producing cerebellar signs such as ataxia, nystagmus and ipsilateral incoordination. Therefore these...

Pharmacokinetic Aspects of Intracerebroventricular and Intracerebral Drug Administration

Restricted diffusion also limits tissue distribution after intraparenchymal drug administration. Distribution has been measured in the rat brain after implantation of polymer discs containing NGF (18, 19). Drug concentrations decreased to less than 10 of the values measured on the disc surface within a distance of 2-3 mm, even after prolonged periods (several days). Therefore, applying this approach in the large human brain would require the repetitive stereotaxic placement of multiple intraparenchymal depots. The same pharma-cokinetic limitation is true in principle for the implantation of encapsulated genetically engineered cells (20), which synthesize and release neurotrophic factors.

Evolutionary Perspectives on the Agentic Self Its Neural Networks and Parkinson s Disease

The PFC constitutes approximately one third of the human cortex and is the last part of the human brain to become fully myelinated in ontogeny, with maturation occurring in late childhood early adolescence (Huttenlocher & Dabholkar, 1997). In humans, the frontal lobes mediate what are believed to be distinctively human mental capacities such as language generativity (Corballis, 2002 ), autobiographical memory retrieval (Wheeler, Stuss, & Tulving, 1997), ToM (Saxe & Baron-Cohen, 2006), empathy (Adolphs, Tranel, Damasio, & Damasio, 1994), working memory (Goldman-Rakic, 1987), executive functions (Delis, Kaplan, & Kramer, 2001), impulse control (Ray & Strafella, 2010), volition (Passingham, 1993), and possibly, as I have been arguing in this book, even the agentic sense of self (Vogeley et al., 2004). PFC evolution must be seen against the background of neocortical evolution. Variation in neocortical size and structure is best exemplified among the primates. Anthropoid primates typically...

Investigating the brain discovering the diagnosis

Until the twentieth century, investigating the workings of the living human brain was an unsatisfactory (and frankly dicey) undertaking. In the late nineteenth century, physicians made great strides in microscopic examination of the brain but this had the disadvantage of only being possible after death. Still, enormous advances were made in the understanding and classification of brain diseases. In the centuries before, investigation of brain function was limited to the effects of various types of head trauma from various types of weapons and the occasional attempt to drill a hole in the skull to release some of the badness .

The Development of Recollection

M., Turtle, M., Khan, Y., & Farol, P. (1994). Myelination of a key relay zone in the hippocampal formation occurs in the human brain during childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 477-484. Caviness, V. S., Kennedy, D. N., Richelme, C., Rademacher, J., & Filipek, P. A. (1996). The human brain age 7-11 years A volumetric analysis based on magnetic resonance images. Cerebral Cortex, 6, 726-736. Kennedy, D. N., Makris, N., Herbert, M. R., Takahashi, T., & Caviness, V. S. (2002). Basic principles of MRI and morphometry studies of human brain development. Developmental Science, 5, 268-278. Markowitsch, H.J. (2000). Neuroanatomy of memory. InE. Tulving & F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of memory (pp. 465-484) New York Oxford University Press. Piefke, M., Weiss, P., Markowitsch, H., & Fink, G. (2005). Gender differences in the functional neuroanatomy of emotional episodic autobiographical memory. Human Brain Mapping, 24, 313-324.

Exploring the Williams syndrome faceprocessing debate the importance of building developmental trajectories

Imaging experiments have shown that young infants' brains initially process upright human faces, inverted human faces, monkey faces and objects all in a relatively similar way across both hemispheres (Johnson & de Haan, 2001 de Haan, 2001). However, with development, brain processing of human upright faces becomes increasingly specialised and localised to the fusiform gyrus in the right hemisphere (Passarotti et al., 2003). Despite these developmental data pointing to very progressive specialization and localization of face processing, some theorists claim that the human brain is pre-specified with an independently-functioning face-processing module. Such claims are based on the fact that adult patients can present with prosopagnosia, i.e., a selective inability to recognize familiar faces, despite showing no obvious impairments elsewhere (Bruyer et al., 1983 de Renzi, 1986 Farah, Levinston, & Klein, 1995 Temple, 1997). So, there is still a debate concerning the extent to which face...

Outlook And Possible Applications Of Topographical Brain Mapping

Practical applications are twofold much is to be learned from studies on functional states of the human brain, information processing, and motor planning in healthy volunteers, and clinical questions may be answered on the functionality and intact-ness of the central nervous system of patients suspected of central nervous system or psychiatric disease. Noninvasive experimental investigations are part of addressing contemporary neurophysio-logical questions on how global states affect brain functions such as processing of sensory or psychological information, movement planning and execution, or internal states related to cognition and emotion. In healthy people as well as in patients, such processes can be studied and characterized by spatiotemporal patterns of electrical brain activity.

Relevant Evolutionary Concepts

The human brain evolved from precursor animals as the Darwin machine drove nervous system evolution and formation. Yet most of the human brain's sociophysi-ological functions cannot be completely preprogrammed as there are too few genes. Rather, structures are built from a phylogenetic template that ontogenically reorganizes itself via growth factors and pruning processes in responding constantly to use patterns. Apoptosis (pruning) is cell shrinkage and disappearance without inflammation. Both Calvin and Gerald Edelman (1987) have suggested that selection pressures operate in neuron formation in a process Edelman called neural Darwinism. McGlashan and Hoffman (2000) noted that cell parts or neurites (e.g., dendrites and synapses) might also require pruning to increase cognitive capacity, accuracy, efficiency, and speed of learning at the expense of flexibility. They suggest schizophrenia might in part result from insufficient pruning (of course, many other variables also likely...

Generation of large numbers of DA neurons in standardized and qualitycontrolled preparations

Neurons with dopaminergic phenotype surviving transplantation in animal models of PD have been generated in culture from mouse and monkey embryonic stem (ES) cells, and from NSCs derived from the embryonic rodent and human brain (for review, see Lindvall, 2003 Lindvall et al., 2004). Currently, there is little evidence that DA neurons for grafting can be made from NSCs isolated from the adult brain, or from stem cells in other tissues. In most cases, it is unclear whether the stem cell-derived cells after transplantation to animal models can substantially reinnervate the striatum, restore DA release, and markedly improve deficits resembling the symptoms of the human disease

LUSTSexuality Systems

The neuropeptide that has received the most attention is leutenizing hormone release hormone (LHRH). However, despite very promising animal results, human trials have been largely disappointing (Moss and Dudley, 1984). Whether this is simply due to the fact that this molecule does not penetrate to the right parts of the human brain or whether it requires the support of other psychosocial stimuli is unknown. However, nonpeptide congeners for this peptide receptor system could be developed and evaluated more systematically in psychological contexts that support erotic urges, perhaps in combination with mild facilitation of other systems such as the opioids, which figure heavily in various forms of pleasure as well as social confidence (Panksepp et al., 1985 van den Berg et al., 2000).

Developmental Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

Developmental pharmacokinetics focuses on the measurable physical and chemical properties of medications as they are absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and eliminated by the human body at different ages (Robinson and Owen 2005). Pharmaco-dynamics outlines the mechanisms and clinical manifestations of a drug's pharmacological effects as exerted via drug-receptor binding and receptor function signaling at the intracellular and intercellular levels. Developmental pharmacodynamic research is needed to learn how the ontology of brain anatomy, neural circuits, hormones, receptors, and neurotransmitters interacts with and influences responses to psychotropic drugs across the life span (Carrey and Dursun 1997).

How shall cell therapy be developed in stroke

To repair the human brain after stroke may seem unrealistic because of atrophy and loss of many cell types. However, even reestablishment of only a fraction of damaged neuronal circuitries could have The optimum strategy for neuronal replacement in stroke will probably be to combine transplantation of NSCs close to the damaged area with stimulation of neurogenesis from endogenous NSCs. This strategy requires that the largely unknown developmental mechanisms, instructing stem cells to differentiate into specific cell types, will work also in the patient's brain. Newly generated neurons are able to migrate towards the damage (Arvidsson et al., 2002 Parent et al., 2002) and, at least to some extent, adopt the phenotype of those cells which have died (Arvidsson et al., 2002 Modo et al., 2002 Parent et al., 2002). Available data provide evidence for a neurogenic potential also in the human brain. Neurogenesis from precursors in the SVZ has been demonstrated in vivo in humans (Eriksson et...

Neuropsychological Tests

In the period from the 1940s through the 1980s, projective testing and research flourished. But, currently, interest has shifted to the study and assessment of the human brain. Corresponding to neuroimaging studies, neuropsychological testing has grown in sophistication and popularity. It is a subspecialty that requires postdoctoral specialization. The focus of neu-ropsychological testing is assessment of brain and nerve impairment identified through behavioral assessment as well as the provision of prognostic and practical information about recovery.

The prefrontal cortex is activated in humans performing working memory tasks

The emergence of brain imaging techniques has allowed investigators to examine the areas of cortex activated during working memory performance in human subjects. Among the first of these studies, John Jonides, Edward Smith, and their colleagues characterized areas of the human brain activated during a variant of the spatial delayed response task. In this task subjects fixated a central point on a computer monitor and were presented with three dots as target sample stimuli. Following a 3-second delay period, a circle marked one location on the screen where one of the targets had appeared, or another location. Thus, subjects had to remember a set of target locations and later identify a choice item as one of the set. The control task was similar, except that the three dots were presented only during the end of the delay then during the choice period when one of them was circled, so that responses were guided by perception not memory. The brain areas prominently activated by positron...

Improving Intelligence

Although designers of artificial intelligence have made great strides in creating programs that simulate knowledge and skill acquisition, no existing program even approaches the ability of the human brain to enhance its own intelligence. Human intelligence is highly malleable and can be shaped and even increased through various kinds of interventions (Detterman & Sternberg, 1982 Grotzer & Perkins, 2000 Perkins & Grotzer, 1997 Sternberg et al., 1996 Sternberg et al., 1 997 see Ritchhart & Perkins, Chap. 32, for a review of work on teaching thinking skills). Moreover, the malleability of intelligence has nothing to do with the extent to which intelligence has a genetic basis (Sternberg, 1997). An attribute (such as height) can be partly or even largely genetically based and yet be environmentally malleable.

Progressive Diseases of Infancy and Childhood

Although phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) is a liver enzyme, the clinical manifestations of classic phenylketonuria (PKU) relate to the CNS. There are no abnormal metabolites formed in classic PKU but only excessive amounts of normal compounds. Therefore, it is logical to assume that elevated levels of blood phenylalanine are responsible for the toxicity. Both animal models and magnetic spectroscopic studies in human brain indicate that phenylalanine levels exceeding 1.3 mM affect the brain metabolism adversely and account for acute phenylalanine toxicity. The threshold for chronic toxicity may be much lower. Acute and chronic adverse effects of high blood phenylalanine on brain can be prevented by high doses of BCAAs. Because both phenylalanine and BCAA share the same transport system, it is conceivable that mutual competition of neutral amino acids at the L-transport system may account for some of these toxic effects. Some patients diagnosed to have...

Vagus Nerve Stimulation

The vagus nerve is classically described as the wandering nerve. It sends signals from the central nervous system to control the peripheral cardiovascular, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems. However 80 percent of its fibers are afferent, carrying information from the viscera back to the brain (Foley et al., 1937). The fibers first enter the midbrain at the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) level. From the midbrain, they either loop back out to the periphery in a reflex arc, connect to the reticular activating system, or reach the parabrachial nucleus (PB) and its connections to the NTS, raphe nucleus (RN), locus ceruleus (LC), the thalamus, paralimbic, limbic, and cortical regions. It is through this route that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) modulates brain function. In this context it is noteworthy that yoga and deep breathing (primarily regulated by the 10th cranial nerve) are clearly associated with CNS effects (Loo et al., 1999). This neuroanatomy may be important in...

Psychiatric Neurosurgery

Of all the somatic therapies in psychiatric practice today, psychiatric neurosurgery requires the most knowledge about functional neuroanatomy since it is the most radical and irreversible of all interventions. It was only in the last years of the 19th century that rational approaches to psychosurgery were first tried, pursuant to well-publicized

Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection

The most consistent long-term sequela of RPLND is the loss of ejaculation, which in turn can compromise fertility. The postganglionic sympathetic fibers from T12-L3 mediate the neuro-muscular events that are responsible for antegrade ejaculation. These fibers form the hypogastric plexus near the takeoff of the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) just above the aortic bifurcation. Based on the improved understanding of the neuroanatomy of ejaculation, the pattern and distribution of retroperitoneal lymph node metastases for right- and left-sided tumors, and surgical mapping studies, modified RPLND templates were developed initially to minimize intraoperative injury to these structures and ejaculatory rates of 51 to 88 are reported 25,35 . In general, these modified templates attempted to minimize contralateral dissection, particularly below the level of the IMA. More recently, nerve-sparing techniques have been developed whereby the sympathetic chains, the postganglionic sympathetic...

The neurophysiology of pain

Simple Gate Control Theory

But filtering at the first synapse in the dorsal horn is only the start of a continuous process of selection and modulation of information. It was previously thought that different parts of the CNS might serve different aspects of the pain experience. For example, the spinothalamic tract might process information about the location and sensory qualities of the pain. The brainstem, reticular formation, and limbic system might be more concerned with the emotional or affective qualities of the pain. Fast dorsal column pathways and central control mechanisms at a cortical level might evaluate the sensory information, and relate it to other sensory information and past experience. That might then produce feedback to influence how all the other parts of the system deal with the incoming information. Now, we think instead that it all works as a complex, integrated, neural network or neuromatrix (Melzack 1999). It is genetically determined, but modified by earlier learning. It allows multiple...

Computers and Creativity

In the opinion of Apple Macintosh computer manufacturers, the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) is endeavoring to make computers emulate the human brain. AI may shed more light on how the brain works, but the view of using computers in thinking is that the computer is the tool and not the creator. The pioneers of AI see that computers might possibly go beyond arithmetic, and may imitate the processes that go on inside human brains. Marvin Minsky states that today, with robots everywhere in industry and movie films, most people think AI has gone much further than it has. Yet still, 'computer experts' say machines will never really think. If so, how could they be so smart, and yet so dumb

Surgical complications

One of the most troubling long-term morbidities following RPLND is the loss of antegrade ejaculation secondary to intraoperative damage to crucial autonomic nerve fibers. Sympathetic fibers from the thoracolumbar outflow tract decussating around the aortic bifurcation are responsible for seminal emission into the posterior urethra. Ejaculation depends on both autonomic and somatic sacral and lumbar nerves that tighten the bladder neck, relax the external sphincter, and contract the bulbourethral and perineal muscles. Damage to these structures may result in loss of seminal emission or retrograde ejaculation. This loss of antegrade ejaculation is particularly morbid for this young patient population with its associated potential infertility and patients are counseled to consider sperm banking before RPLND. As our understanding of the neuroanatomy associated with ejaculatory dysfunction has evolved, modifications in the techniques used for RPLND have likewise advanced. Current...

Life Course Milestones and Turning Points

Obvious social risk factors (e.g., SES, demographic characteristics) have been controlled in the studies cited above, but those risk factors were measured at a single point. It is possible that more fine-grained patterns of change and stability would partially explain the pathways from early to subsequent mental health problems. Other scholars hypothesize that both early onset psychiatric problems and other adversities experienced early in life change brain anatomy and chemistry in ways that sustain vulnerability to mental health problems over time (e.g., Schulenberg, Sameroff, & Cicchetti, 2004).

Association Studies from Molecular Genetics

In 2006 the first molecular genetic study on creativity was published by Reuter and colleagues. We investigated three polymorphisms on candidate genes for cognitive functioning, the COMT VAL158MET, the DRD2 TAQ IA, and the TPH1 A779C SNPs with respect to creativity. The COMT gene had especially been successfully related to cognitive functioning before. There is mounting evidence from the literature that unequivocally relates the MET allele or the homozygous MET MET genotype of the COMT VAL158MET polymorphism to higher performance in prefrontal executive functions like working memory and executive control as measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Functional studies have demonstrated that the MET allele of the COMT gene is characterized by a three- to four-fold reduction in COMT enzyme activity. The COMT enzyme's primary function in the human brain is the degradation of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the

The brain as a computer

The human brain is organized in cell layers up to six deep, each with thousands of different inputs and sending its output to huge numbers of other neurons connected in a complicated three dimensional pattern. The different networks are themselves connected to each other in complicated patterns and the outputs are affected by global changes in the general chemistry of the brain. It is a neural network fantastically organized and far more complex than any we have yet conceived. a neural net. For a computer, there is no training involved, only a program. Given the same input a million times, a computer will normally produce the same output a million times, unless it has been programmed not to. Give a neural network the same input a million times and you may never receive exactly the same output. Computers are not very good at recognizing patterns and have to use statistical techniques to mimic this. Neural networks are superb at recognizing, but they cannot be programmed, only trained....

Eight Potential Pitfalls of Animal Models

Is the brain and spinal cord of a rat or mouse simply a thimble-sized version of the human brain The surface area of the brain of a mouse is 1 1000th that of the human brain. Studies of axonal regeneration in rats and mice consider an extension of axons for a few millimeters to a centimeter as exuberant growth. Clinicians may not realize how small the rodent brain and spinal cord are compared to the human CNS (Fig. 2-7). Axons in human brain or spinal cord may have to grow from several centimeters to over a meter to reach targets. Neural progenitors may need to migrate 10 cm or more to repopulate gray or white matter. Signaling molecules that fashioned the CNS during embryogenesis and development never had to manage such long distance tours. Figure 2-7. The photograph shows an axial view of a human brain compared to a whole brain and spinal cord from a rat and the even smaller CNS of a mouse. The differences in size carry over to the magnitudes of difference in the distance a...

Basic Principles and Techniques

The advent of CT was one of the most exciting developments in the history of neuroimaging. For the first time, direct visualization of the brain became possible. Although MRI has surpassed CT in displaying neuroanatomy and pathology, CT remains a mainstay for several reasons. Wider availability and lower costs of CT are considerations in today's managed care environment. CT is easier to perform in the setting of acute trauma and in the ventilated patient. Owing to the speed with which CT images can be obtained, high-quality studies are more feasible in the patient unable to cooperate for examination. Patients with implanted devices such as cardiac pacemakers, spinal stimulators,

The evolution of the brain from hominids to Homo sapiens

Considerable insight into the human brain comes from observing it during its pre- and postnatal development. The brain centers that serve the most basic functions, such as breathing, suckling, and reacting to pain, develop first in the individual (ontogeny) and in the species (phylogeny), whereas the more recently evolved parts of the brain take longer to mature. Thus, even though teenagers look fully developed, their brains are not mature until their early or mid-twenties. Therefore, it is not surprising that most countries recruit soldiers before they reach maturity and could question the wisdom of war, or become conscientious objectors. The prefrontal area of the modern human brain (Figs. 3.2 and 4.1) constitutes about 29 of the cerebral cortex, whereas this region comprises only 17 in the chimpanzee, 11.5 in the gibbon, 7 in the dog, and only 3 in the cat 10 . In addition, the human brain cortex has much more complex neural networks and its brain cells are fully packed and heavily...

Lower Motor Neuron Pool

Figure 15-3 (Figure Not Available) The parallel organization of the alpha and gamma lower motor neurons (black cell bodies). The alpha motor neurons innervate extrafusal skeletal muscle, the gamma motor neuron innervates the intrafusal muscle fibers to ensure proper sensory feedback from the muscle spindle. The activity of both motor neurons is modulated by multiple segmental and suprasegmental ir(From Snell RS Clinical Neuroanatomy for Medical Students. Boston, Little, Brown & Co., Inc., 1987.) Figure 15-4 Functional organization of the lower motor neurons in the spinal cor(From Bossy Atlas of Neuroanatomy and Special Sense Organs. Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders, 1970.)

Roughand Tumble PLAYJoy System

Among the genetically ingrained emotive systems of the mammalian brain, perhaps the most ignored has been the one that mediates playfulness. We can now be certain that certain mammals possess PLAY systems, largely subcortically situated, that encourage them to indulge in vigorous social engagements that probably promote socialization and the relevant forms of brain development (Panksepp, 1998a). It would be perplexing if the human brain did not contain psychobiological processes homologous to those found in other mammals that facilitate such joyful, emotionally positive behaviors and feelings of social exhilaration. Such systems are especially active in young animals, helping to weave them into their surrounding social structures, promoting many skills, including winning and losing gracefully. As animals mature, these systems may promote social competition and dominance urges, although the database on such developmental transitions remains modest.

Approaches to Intelligence

Although the human brain is clearly the organ responsible for human intelligence, early studies (e.g., those by Karl Lashley and others) seeking to find biological indices of intelligence and other aspects of mental processes were a resounding failure despite great efforts. As tools for studying the brain have become more sophisticated, however, we are beginning to see the possibility of finding physiological indicators of intelligence. Some investigators (e.g., Matarazzo, 1992) believe that we will have clinically useful psychophysiological indices

The Role of Brain Extracellular Fluid Production and Efflux Mechanisms in Drug Transport to the Brain

There is a more complex set of reasons to explain why the brain ECF levels of a tracer remain higher than the CSF levels. The CSF compartment turns over more rapidly than the ISF compartment, thus having a greater effect on the reduction in solute concentration in the compartment. Table 1 shows calculated CSF turnover times for several species. If the rate of brain ECF formation is approximately 0.17 nl per gram of brain per minute (7), then a human brain weighing some 1200 g will produce 200 il of ECF per minute, or 12 ml an hour. For extracellular space of brain tissue of 20 , this would represent approximately 240 ml of ECF for the human brain, giving a turnover

From spinal cord to cerebral cortex

Disproportionate Body Parts

The hypothalamus is usually included among a series of interrelated structures collectively called the limbic system. The term limbic refers to the parts of the forebrain that form a rim (limbus in Latin) around the bridge between the two cerebral hemispheres, the corpus callosum. This system includes the amygdala and the hippocampus that are, in an evolutionary sense, the oldest parts of the forebrain. The functions of these structures however changed in the course of evolution. In the lower vertebrates, reptiles for example, the amygdala is concerned with the sense of smell (olfaction), whereas in the human brain olfactory function is minimal and the area is thought to be mainly concerned with the emotions. Another example of evolutionary change of function is provided by the hippocampus. This structure in reptiles probably organizes behavioural responses to olfactory stimuli (such as either to flee or mate), but in mammals and man the hippocampus has a major role in the formation...

Contingent Negative Variation

Subsequently, CNV recordings have been used by a number of researchers on a variety of EOs and fragrances to establish effects of odors on the human brain along the activation-relaxation continuum. For instance, Sugano (1992) in the aforementioned study demonstrated that a-pinene (1), sandalwood, and lavender odor increased the magnitude of the CNV in healthy young adults, whereas eucalyptus reduced it. It is interesting to note, however, that all of these odors despite their differential influence on the CNV increased spontaneous a activity in the same experiment. An increase of CNV magnitude was also observed with the EO from pine needles (Manley, 1993), which was interpreted as having a stimulating effect. Aoki (1996) investigated the influence of odors from several coniferous woods, that is, hinoki Chamaecyparis obtusa (Siebold & Zucc.) Endl. (Cupressaceae) , sugi Cryptomeria japonica D.Don (Cupressaceae) , akamatsu Pinus den-siflora Siebold & Zucc. (Pinaceae) , hiba Thujopsis...

The Brain And Addictive Behaviors

New studies of the brain's reward system, using PET brain scan technology, dramatically show that drugs of addiction and behaviors that stimulate pleasure and elation (e.g., compulsive gambling) affect brain functions (Coombs, 2004). The human brain processes all positive rewards similarly, whether the reward comes from a chemical or a behavior such as gambling, shopping, sex, or work. Hence, those who become addicted do not necessarily crave a specific drug per se, but the rush of dopamine these drugs produce.

Morphology and Anatomic Distribution

Astrocyte Morphology

Protoplasmic astrocytes are the most abundant type in human cortex, being present in cortical layers 2-6. Human protoplasmic astrocytes are larger and more elaborate than their rodent counterparts (22). Although the cell body of human astrocytes is only 10 mm in diameter, their processes span 100-200 mm, giving them a 27-fold greater volume than their rodent counterparts (17). The synaptic density in the rat cortex has been estimated to be 1,397 million synapses mm3, while that of human cortex is 1,100 million synapses mm3 (23). This suggests that synaptic density alone does not account for the increased capacity of human brain. The majority of the GFAP-positive processes of protoplasmic astrocytes do not overlap indicating a domain organization. Blood-Brain Barrier these cells may have a role in maintaining the barrier properties of cerebral endothelium. The first study to demonstrate the inductive influence of astrocytes and the neural microenvironment on barrier features in brain...

Neurologic Sources of Weakness

A thorough understanding of the cervical spine neurologic examination is a baseline requirement for any shoulder examiner. Since cervical spine pathology can present as pain, paresthesias, or weakness about the shoulder, it is therefore a part of the shoulder workup. Although provocative maneuvers for reproduction of radiculopathy were presented in the section on pain, the specific neuroanatomy pertinent to the sensory and motor examination of the cervical spine is listed in Table 16-4.

Extent of surgery after chemotherapy

In summary, retroperitoneal surgery for testis tumor has evolved over the past 3 decades with increasing knowledge of neuroanatomy and tumor distributions. Some authors have advocated more limited dissections to limit the morbidities of the procedure, whereas others cite the inadequate resections of potentially harmful histologies. As surgical series of limited dissections continue to mature, the extent of post-chemotherapy RPLND still remains controversial.

Finding our way through the white and the grey

Motor Strip The Frontal Lobe

The adult human brain weighs, on average, about 1.35 kilograms (about three pounds). To understand the broad functions of the various parts of the brain it is helpful to divide it up into manageable chunks, starting with the largest part the cerebrum. The cerebrum is a highly folded structure in two hemispheres, which looks a little like a walnut. The folds are termed gyri and the grooves in between them sulci. The two halves are joined in the centre by a band of nerve fibres, the corpus callosum, allowing communication.

Structural Abnormalities

Macroscopic anatomical findings in patients with primary affective disorders have been less consistent than those of depressed patients with neurological disorders (reviewed in Harrison, 2002 Soars and Mann, 1997). Brain anatomy is grossly normal, and focal neocortical abnormalities have not been identified using standard structural neuroimaging methods. Focal volume loss has been described using MRI in subgenual medial frontal cortex (Drevets et al., 1997). Also described are small hippocampi in patients with recurrent major depression (Sheline et al., 1999), with a postulated mechanism of glucocorticoid neurotoxicity, consistent with both animal models and studies of patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (Bremner and Narayan, 1998). Nonspecific changes in ventricular size, and T2-weighted MRI changes in subcortical gray and periventricular white matter have also been reported in some patient subgroups, most notably, elderly depressed patients...

Physiological Transport Mechanisms for Peptides and Proteins at the Blood Brain Barrier

The binding of insulin at the BBB is mediated by the insulin receptor a-subunit as demonstrated by affinity cross-linking of 125I insulin to isolated human brain capillaries. Gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of the solubilized receptor revealed a band corresponding to the 130-135 kDa molecular weight expected for the glycosylated a-subunit (61). This finding fits the results of radioligand binding assays with isolated cerebral microvessels from different species including man (61-64), which showed specific binding and internal-ization of insulin. Endocytosis could be verified by the demonstration that a nonsaturable fraction of approximately 75 of the capillary binding at 37 C was resistant to a mild acid wash (61). Very similar data were obtained in primary cultures of bovine brain microvascular endothelial cells (65). These Following the demonstration of high levels of transferrin receptor expression on rat brain microvessels with a specific monoclonal antibody (70), transferrin...

Peripheral Neurolysis

Peripheral neurolytic procedures are technically performed similarly to regional anesthetic blocks.W J Neurolytic blockade is often preceded by a diagnostic nerve block with a local anesthetic only. This diagnostic block can help predict the potential analgesic benefit of neurolytic blockade, the tolerability of any side effects, and the lack of significant or unacceptable neurologic deficits. Chemical neurolytic agents have less tissue diffusion than local anesthetics. Therefore, accurate needle placement is important, which may be assisted with electrical nerve stimulation or radiographic guidance. J Peripheral neurolysis may be most effective in the earlier stages of disease, before the tumor, surgery, or radiation distorts the neuroanatomy. The variable distribution of sensory nerves and the extent of tumor infiltration may require blockade of multiple peripheral nerves to achieve adequate pain relief. Currently, peripheral neurolysis is most commonly used in the management of...

Field Block Anesthesia

The drugs used and the concentrations and doses recommended are the same as for infiltration anesthesia. The advantage of field block anesthesia is that less drug can be used to provide a greater area of anesthesia than when infiltration anesthesia is used. Knowledge of the relevant neuroanatomy obviously is essential for successful field block anesthesia.

Microprocessorcontrolled displays

Digital signal processing has revolutionized clinical measurement. However, digital information in the form of a list of numbers is extremely difficult to interpret quickly and easily. Digital records are appropriate for discrete measurements such as drug concentrations or blood gas tensions, but a digital time series of a continuously varying signal, such as pressure in the form of a list of numbers, would be incomprehensible. The human brain is accustomed to continuous analogue sensory input and modern microprocessor-controlled measuring instruments convert the discrete digital record back into the continuous analogue waveforms for display on a monitor in a manner familiar to anaesthetists.

Neurologic Examination

Knowledge of the foot and ankle neuroanatomy is helpful in combining physical examination findings to make a diagnosis. Initial evaluation begins with testing patients for sensation to light touch. If further investigation is indicated, a 5.07 Semmes-Weinstein monofilament should be used to test sensation.6 Diabetics and others with distal neuropathies unable to feel this monofilament are thought to be below the threshold for protective sensation and at high risk of neuropathic ulceration. Occasionally, an isolated decrease in sensation may be present in the plantar aspect of toe web spaces with corresponding interdigital neuromas. This finding is highly specific when present.4 To distinguish diffuse distal neuropathy from a superficial peroneal nerve palsy, note that in the latter, the foot dorsum will be numb except for first web space sparing (innervated by branches of the deep peroneal nerve). In patients with previous foot surgery, signs of peripheral nerve injury should be...

Role of functional imaging in stroke patients

Tissue damage recovery depends on the adaptive plasticity of the undamaged brain, especially the cerebral cortex, and of the non-affected elements of the functional network. Since destroyed tissue usually cannot be replaced in the adult human brain, improvement or recovery of neurological deficits can be achieved only by reactivation of functionally disturbed but morphologically preserved areas or by recruitment of alternative pathways within the functional network. This activation of alternative pathways may be accompanied by the development of different strategies to deal with the new functional-anatomical situation at the behavioral level. Additionally, the sprouting of fibers from surviving neurons and the formation of new synapses could play a role in long-term recovery. These compensatory mechanisms are expressed in altered patterns of blood flow or metabolism at rest and during activation within the functional network involved in a special task, and therefore functional imaging...

Upper Motor Neuron Pool

Figure 15-15 (Figure Not Available) The corticospinal tracA, The course of the corticospinal tract from primary motor cortex in Brodmann, area 4 to the spinal coB, The fibers destined for the limbs decussate at the cervical medullary junction and become the lateral corticospinal tract. The fiber destined for axial musculature continues uncrossed in the anterior corticospinal trfFcom Snell RS Clinical Neuroanatomy for Medical Students. Boston, Little, Brown & Co. Inc, 1987.)

Reviews And Selected Updates

Tatu L, Moulin T, Bogousslavsky J, Duvernoy H Arterial territories of human brain Brain stem and cerebellum. Neurology 1996 47 1125-1135. Trouillas P, Xie J, Adeleine P, et al Buspirone, a 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A agonist, is active in cerebellar ataxia. Arch Neurol 1997 54 749-752.

Memory Related Anatomical Changes

Memories are presumably formed by experience-induced changes in the operating characteristics of single cells, local circuits, and large-scale systems. Little is known directly about how these changes occur in the human brain. A great deal is known about some memory-related phenomena at cellular levels in in vitro and invertebrate models, such as the marine snail Aplysia. These findings offer suggestions about the cellular bases of human memories.

History And Definitions

The glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves have been described since antiquity. Galen of Pergamus (131 to 201 AD) included them in his descriptions of neuroanatomy, grouping together cranial nerves IX, X, and XI as a single nerve. '1 Centuries later the anatomy of the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves was elucidated in greater detail by the Prussian anatomist Samuel Thomas von Soemmering (1755-1830) in his treatise on the 12 cranial nerves. Although study of the glossopharyngeal nerve in isolation is impractical, the vagus nerve, with its numerous thoracic and abdominal visceral innervations, has long held the attention of physiologists, including the Russian Nobel Laureate Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849-1936), who, with E.O. Schumov-Simanovskaja, published in 1895 their prominent paper describing vagus nerve innervation for gastric secretion in dogs. The clinical consequences of pathology, particularly trauma and tumors, upon the glossopharyngeal or vagus nerves have been described by a...

Average brain weights

Marine Mammals. Evolutionary Biology. San Diego Academic Press Blinkov, S.M. and Glezer, I.I. 1968. The Human Brain in Figures and Tables A Quantitative Handbook. New York Plenum Press Demski, L.S. and Northcutt, R.G. 1996. The brain and cranial nerves of the white shark an evolutionary perspective in Great White Sharks. The Biology of Carcharodon carchar as. San Diego Academic Press Mink, J.W.,Blumenschine, R.J. and Adams, D.B. 1981. Ratio of central nervous system to body metabolism in vertebrates its constancy and functional basis . Am. J.Physiology, 241 R203 R212 Nieuwenhuys, R., Ten Donkelaar, H.J. and Nicholson, C. 1998. The Central Nervous System of Vertebrates 3, Berlin Springer Rehkamper, G., Frahm, H.D. and Zilles, K. 1991. Quantitative development of brain and brain structures in birds (Galliformes and Passeriformes) compared to that in mammals (Insectivores and Primates) . Brain Beh. Evol., 37 125 143 Ridgway, S.H. and Harrison, S. 1985....


Chapter contributions were overall editing for style, AAC introduction AAC chapter 1, The history of the human brain MRT chapter 2, The evolution of the brain AAC chapter 3, Nerves AAC chapter 4, The development of the brain AAC chapter 5, The anatomy of the brain MRT chapter 6, The supporting structures of the brain MRT chapter 7, The development of behaviour and reasoning AAC chapter 8, Consciousness AAC chapter 9, Memory RSD and AAC chapter 10, Sleep RSD and AAC chapter 11, The motor system AAC chapter 12, The sensory system AAC and RSD, chapter 13, The visuospatial system MRT chapter 14, Language, hearing and music AAC chapter 15, Emotions and the limbic system AAC and RSD chapter 16, Investigating the brain MRT chapter 17, Living for ever AAC chapter 18, The end AAC.


Localization of Pg-P in brain endothelium still appears to be controversial with some groups reporting abluminal localization of this protein, while others reporting luminal localization of this protein (170). Although a physiological role for P-gp has yet to be determined, it is believed that the main function of this efflux transporter is to protect the body against harmful xenobiotics from accumulating in cells. The mammalian MRP family (humans MRP rodents Mrp), which includes MRP1 Mrp1, Mrp2, MRP4 Mrp4, Mrp5, and Mrp6, have been identified in mammalian cerebral endothelial cells (171-173). The breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) has been localized at the luminal plasma membrane of endothelial cells (174, 175) and in primary cultures of human brain microvessel endothelial cells (176, 177).

Impersonal Level

The second level of asynchrony involves the domain of knowledge, the impersonal level, where creative individuals need to interact. Knowing about the domain is a necessity for making a contribution to or challenging it. There was no cubism, psychoanalysis, or physics of special relativity before Picasso, Freud, and Einstein learned about, influenced, mastered, and evolved the domains, and eventually created their own domains. If they had been in complete agreement with their domains, they would not have revolutionized those domains and shaken the earth. Therefore, discontent or dissatisfaction with the domain is often fruitful and can initiate epistemological changes in that field. A good example of this is Freud, who began with philosophy and switched to scientific medicine. Going through neurology, neuroanatomy, and psychiatry, he came up with a new domain, psychoanalysis, which influenced many other domains from visual arts to political science.

Eventrelated Fields

A. (1995). Identification of early visual evoked potential generators by retino-topic and topographic analyses. Human Brain Mapping 2, 170-187. De Munck, J. C., Van Dijk, B. W., and Spekreijse, H. (1988). Mathematical dipoles are adequate to describe realistic generators of human brain activity. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 11, 960-966.

Other Addictions

Before embarking on a study of the addicted brain, it is necessary to be aware of the brain and its organization. Different parts of the brain have different functions. Seventy-five percent of the human brain is made up of the wrinkled outer covering referred to as the cerebral cortex, which has different functional areas. Strokes or lesions of the motor cortex result in paralysis, the extent of which is dependent on the extent of the motor area involved. Patients with strokes in the association cortex have deficits of perception and attention. When the temporal lobe is damaged, the ability to recognize or name objects is impaired. Lesions or strokes of the frontal lobe result in personality changes, planning deficits, and inabilities to carry out complex behaviors. Strokes or tumors in other parts of the brain have many other effects as well (see Figure 1-3).

Are Used

Penfield42 observed in 1939 that the ictal state in human beings is accompanied by an increase in CBF. Many years later, studies using animals demonstrated that seizures led to an increase in CBF. PET studies revealed for the first time that metabolism and blood flow in the human brain were reduced in a region related to the EEG focus. An epileptic seizure was associated with a focal metabolic


Have a deep-rooted need to use their brains. Yet some have argued that, by nature, we want to exercise our brains in meaningful ways and to remain mentally alive. As evidence for this, neurological and behavioral research indicates that the human brain wants to be engaged intellectually. We also know that nothing is more cruel than to deny a human being mental stimulation. If obstructed completely in this regard, such as in stimulus-deprivation research studies, the person will quickly deteriorate mentally, even to the extent of becoming psychotic. Among forms of punishment, one of the most dreaded is solitary confinement, again because it takes away all sources of stimulation. A culture that did not respond to our need for intellectual growth or, even worse, one that served to inhibit intellectual activity, would be expected to contain members who were frustrated as a result of stunted intellectual growth. Today social analysts are pointing to a worrying consensus of stupidity that...


System, as is also evident from the clinical applications of auditory brain stem potentials, electroretinography, and visual evoked brain activity. On the other hand, it is important to keep in mind that direct interpretations of electrical brain activity in terms of absolute anatomical localization of neuronal generator populations are not warranted. Careful experimental planning as well as profound knowledge on the anatomical and neurophysiological bases of perceptual processes are mandatory in order to arrive at a meaningful interpretation of the recorded data. Thus, a combination of psychophysical and elec-trophysiological methods in controlled experiments holds the promise for further insight into the mechanisms of sensory information processing in the human brain in the future. Frackowiak, R. S. J., Friston, K. J., Frith, C. D., Dolan, R. J., and Mazziotta, J. C. (1997). Human Brain Function. Academic Press, San Diego. George, J. S., Aine, C. J., Mosher, J. C., Schmidt, D. M.,...

Cell Implants

Both fetal and adult-derived neural stem cells from rodents and from human brain tissue can survive when implanted in intact and damaged brain and spinal cord (see Color Fig. 2-5 in separate color insert and Fig. 2-6). Their activity and usefulness for transplantation will be determined especially by their intrinsic genetic differentiation programs and by the availability of external cues such as the diffusible neu-rotrophins in the milieu and the cell contacts they make. The milieu at the time of implantation can destroy the graft. The release of cy-tokines near the time of an acute injury, for

Final Comments

Okada's group recently demonstrated in swine that MEG is capable of monitoring the synchronized population spikes of the thala-mocortical axonal terminals and cortical neurons from outside the skull (Ikeda et al., 2002), thereby providing the most compelling evidence yet that MEG is capable of directly examining population spike activity. Our own personal experiences indicate that MEG is capable of showing much more detail about brain functions than originally imagined, and MEG has much better spatial resolution than originally postulated, given that appropriate models are applied to the data. Once appropriate head models become available to EEG studies, many of the MEG analysis tools can be applied to EEG data as well, which will enable us to examine the complementary nature of these two methods. We look forward to a meaningful integration of MEG, EEG, fMRI, and PET results to help elucidate the functional organization of the human brain. Berman, R. A., Colby, C. L., Genovese, C. R.,...


Remyelination may also be accomplished by implanting glial precursor cells derived from adult human brains. Up to 3 of the cells taken from excised temporal lobe tissue during surgery for epilepsy have, in tissue culture, differentiated into oligodendrocytes and type II astrocytes.69,273 These progenitor cells extend their processes and encircle axons in culture, but need additional signals to myelinate the axons. Induction of myelination using cell transplants is making rapid progress. For example, neurospheres were induced from stem cells of the subventricular zone of human brain tissue that was removed during surgery. The cells differentiated into neuronal and oligodendrocyte Schwann cell precursors.274 When transplanted into demyelinated spinal cord of rats, the latter cells wrapped axons in a manner similar to the actions of Schwann cells. The re-myelinated axons recovered normal conduction velocities.

Combined Methods

In the near future, the anatomic, cytologic, neurochemical, physiologic, and functional architecture of the brain will be correlated into multidimensional atlases built upon data from thousands of subjects who were studied in depth. In addition, information about changes in structure and function and statistical correlations will be incorporated to account for age, gender, race, pertinent genetic data about populations, and types of diseases and lesions. A clinician may be able to warp an individual patient's brain after MRI and standardized fMRI studies onto this multilevel statistical map and predict the best approaches to enhance recovery, based on the experience of similar patients in the database. The Human Brain Mapping Project intends to create this database.2 The effort is as important for neu-rorehabilitation as the Human Genome Project is to medicine.

Bharathi Jagadeesh

Directed outside the receptive field, the dark line the response when attention is directed within the receptive field. The response, to identical visual stimuli, is enhanced, when attention is directed within the cell's receptive field (Figure modified from Reynolds et al. (2000)). This pattern of activity supported the proposal that attention modifies the sensory signal. Human brain imaging studies have found similar affects on the activity in visual areas following the instruction to attend to particular locations or features of a visual image (Corbetta et al., 1990 1991a,b 2000 O'Craven et al., 1997 1999 Kastner et al., 1998). Attentional modulation of the sensory system depends on both the visual area - it increases in strength as one moves downstream in the visual system, and on the number of elements or objects competing for visual processing (Kastner et al., 1998). In addition, the degree of attentional modulation might depend on overall task demands, stronger modulation with...


Human brain development. Fundamental neuroscience (M. Posner and L. Ungerleider, eds.). Academic Press, New York. Sergent, J., Ohta, S., and MacDonald, B. (1992). Functional neuroanatomy of face and object processing A positron emission tomography study. Brain 115, 15-36. Ungerleider, L. G., and Haxby, J. V. (1994). What and where in the human brain. Cur. Opin. Neurobiol. 4, 157-165. Vaughan, H. G., and Kurtzberg, D. (1992). Electro-physiologic indices of human brain maturation and cognitive development. In Developmental Behavioral Neuroscience The Minnesota

Loss of Asymmetry

Many structures are normally lateralized in the human brain with area or volume being consistently larger in one hemisphere or the other. Some asymmetries are related to lateralized functions such as language. Abnormal cerebral asymmetry in schizophrenia has been studied since its first observation in 1879 by Crichton-Browne. Many studies of schizophrenia have shown an absence or reversal of the normal cerebral asymmetries found in controls. These disruptions in normal asymmetry are thought to reflect abnormalities during development. The main regions where this asymmetry has been noted in neuropathological studies are the left superior temporal gyrus, a reversal of the normally larger left planum temporali, and loss of the normally larger left Sylvian fissure. Moreover, certain abnormalities in the brains of patients with schizophrenia are restricted to or worse in one hemisphere (usually the left) over the other. To site a few examples, schizophrenia subjects show thinning of the...


I assessed that Carole was intelligent, articulate and psychologically minded. Accordingly, although this would not usually be done so soon in therapy, and in view of her dangerous response to the voices, I thought it worth while to spend a little time in this first session trying to introduce doubt into the validity of the voices. I tried to summarise what we had discussed, and in summarising the information about the voices I encouraged a bit of guided discovery. This was intended to enhance the possibility that she would doubt the voices' validity and thus not act upon them in a self-injurious manner. Carole was asked how many times she had been threatened by the voices over the past years. She estimated that this would be in excess of 500 instances. She was asked if the voices themselves had ever actually harmed her. Carole realised that, despite over 500 threats, there had not been a single instance of actual threat from the voices, other than as a consequence of her acting on...

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