Parenthood Ebook

Confident Kids

Confident Kids

Although nobody gets a parenting manual or bible in the delivery room, it is our duty as parents to try to make our kids as well rounded, happy and confident as possible. It is a lot easier to bring up great kids than it is to try and fix problems caused by bad parenting, when our kids have become adults. Our children are all individuals - they are not our property but people in their own right.

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Smart Parenting Guide

This ebook from Daniel Dwase gives you the very best tips and information about how to raise your children in such a way as to get smart, responsible, caring, and loving children. If you have problems disciplining your children, this is the book for you. You don't have to be concerned about your children running amok; Dwase gives you the insight that you need to make sure that your children turn out well in the end. This ebook lets you give your child the best gift that you ever could: a loving, nurturing, healthy and loving childhood. By building a quality relationship with them, you will be able to raise a child that continues that relationship into adulthood. Building a quality relationship is the best way to give your child a healthy future and a loving family. You will both empower your child to succeed and reduces behavioral problems Start building your child's future today!

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Author: Daniel Dwase
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Highly Recommended

This is one of the best books I have read on this field. The writing style was simple and engaging. Content included was worth reading spending my precious time.

Purchasing this e-book was one of the best decisions I have made, since it is worth every penny I invested on it. I highly recommend this to everyone out there.

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If Your Child Is Younger Than Three Years Early Intervention and the IFSP

The IDEA provides federal grants to states that provide special education services to children with disabilities, beginning at the age of three. The act also provides federal grants to states that institute programs to provide early intervention services for children with disabilities, including ASDs. Any child younger than three years of age who has a developmental delay or a physical or mental condition likely to result in a developmental delay is eligible to receive early intervention services. If your child is determined to be eligible, these early intervention services must be provided to you at no cost. Early intervention services may be directed either toward your child or your entire family, and services for your child may include special instruction such as ABA, speech and language instruction, occupational therapy, physical therapy, and psychological evaluation. Early intervention services for families may include training to help the family reinforce or generalize a child's...

If Your Child Is Age Three to Twentyone Special Education and the IEP

The IDEA requires that states provide special education services to children with disabilities beginning at the age of three. Special education services are provided by local school districts. Therefore, if your child has been receiving early intervention services through the state early intervention office, you will stop working with this office, and you will begin to work with the special education department within your local school district. If your child is three years old or older and you have not received early intervention services through the state, your first contact will be with the district's special education department. If your child is between the ages of three and five, you will work with the district (in some cases regional) Committee for Preschool Special Education (CPSE). If your child is older than five, you will work with the district Committee for Special Education (CSE). These committees may be known by different names in your state. For example, in some states...

Issues in Child Psychology

As the field of child psychology acquires more tools and amasses expanding volumes of research, the issues it tackles grow in number and complexity. In this part, we cover some of the issues that have arisen in recent decades that reflect the increasing complexity of our world and the challenges faced by today's children. Among the topics we cover in Part 6 are children's mental and learning disorders, child maltreatment and abuse, and the digital revolution in children's learning and play.

Cook with Your Kids Not for Them

Introduce your kids to healthy eating and the kitchen I've found that children are more interested and willing to eat unfamiliar foods when they participate in the preparation. Try some of the following suggestions Select a few nights each week and involve your kids with dinner planning and preparation. Designate different jobs for each child.

Parenthood Certification

Jack Westman and the advocacy organization Wisconsin Cares, Inc., have proposed a parenthood pledge as a step toward ensuring that all children have competent parents. This pledge would be made by mothers and fathers who, in order to be eligible, must not be under the legal and physical custody or guardianship of other persons or the state. Minors and developmentally disabled or incarcerated adults and their families would receive Parenthood Planning Counseling when their pregnancies are diagnosed in order to help them make decisions and choices regarding guardianship. If willing and able, the mother and or father's custodians or guardians would assume legal and physical custody of the newborn babies until the mother and or father become self-sufficient. Newborns without legal and physical custodians would come under the custody of the state, and an adoption plan would be made effective at childbirth. A modified birth certificate would become a parenthood certificate as well....

Your Childs Rights

The first major federal legislation entitling children with disabilities to an appropriate education was passed in 1975 under the title the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. It is this act that establishes the rights to which your child with an ASD is entitled. As a monetary appropriations law, this statute has to be reauthorized by Congress every few years. In 1990, it was renamed the IDEA. In 1997 and 2004, it was amended substantially during the reauthorization. You don't need to read the IDEA word for word, but as a parent who will be advocating for your child, you do need to understand the meaning of certain key phrases contained in it to understand exactly what your child is and is not guaranteed. The concepts embodied in the law that are really important for you to understand are eligibility, free and appropriate public education (FAPE), and least restrictive environment.

Communicating with Your Baby

I feel that it is very important to learn to listen to your children. Yon can learn to listen to your baby even at its very early age. Listening means focusing your attention, not in a worried way, but in an observing manner. You want to learn what your baby wants and needs. You can

Choosing1 a Doctor for Your Baby

It may turn out that you, the parent, will consult your child's doctor more than any other physician during your own life. Therefore, it's important to choose the kind of person who will suit you or if you find that you've made an unsatisfactory choice, that you'll be able to improve the existing relationship with a frank discussion or, if that doesn't work either, that you'll be able to change doctors with some success this time. Pediatrician or family doctor A pediatrician is trained to care for the special needs of children and teenagers. The medical education of a pediatrician focuses on child development, the prevention of illness and the physical and emotional problems that are unique to children. In a majority of communities, especially if you live in a small town, there are no pediatricians. But this doesn't mean that the baby can't have expert care. A family doctor who regularly takes care of children can do an entirely satisfactory job treating a great majority of children's...

Arranging Help for

There should be help for the mother for at least a couple of weeks, preferably a month, if it can be arranged. In many cases the most appropriate person is the mother's mother. They know each other's wishes and quirks. The grandmother is usually delighted to be that close to the baby from the beginning. On the other hand, there are many mothers who prefer not to call on their mothers they are generally women who have felt belittled by their mothers all throughout childhood. They're afraid that their mothers will try to take over, and will make them feel inadequate. They may express this as an assumption that the grandmother, being of a previous generation, won't be up-to-date in her knowledge of child care.

When a Mother Thinks About Going Back to Work

Whether the mother takes full care for one, three, six, nine, or twelve months, the shift to the substitute child care person should be gradual so that the baby will feel familiar and secure with the substitute before the mother begins absenting herself. Though it may seem like an extravagance, it is vitally important, from

Separation Anxiety Six Months to Six Years

I think something should be mentioned here about a child's separation anxiety with relation to sleep. If a child is fearful of separation, or has other stresses going on in her life, such as a newborn baby in the family, an illness or death of a family member, a move, or a divorce of the parents, then you can certainly expect these anxieties to disturb her sleep. She may wake more often, begin wetting the bed after being dry for some time, or begin having nightmares. If these are disturbing enough, then you may want to consult your child's doctor, a developmental-behavioral pediatrician, or a child psychologist in order to understand the situation and best help you as your child goes through this stressful period.

If I Have a Baby Boy Should He Be Circumcised

What I recommended about circumcision in early editions of Baby and Child Care and what I recommend now are quite different. When I wrote the first edition of Baby and Child Care, ten years after starting practice, I explained that there are three possible ways of dealing with the foreskin. I favored circumcision within a few days of birth because there would be no chance of a physician recommending the operation later in childhood and scaring the bejeebers out of a little boy. I also leaned toward circumcision right after birth because of the universal belief in medical circles at that time that women mar- The American Academy of Pediatrics came to the conclusion that there is no good medical reason to recommend routine circumcision. I made the same recommendation in the 1976 revision of Baby and Child Care. I came out more emphatically against retraction, as ineffective, potentially distorting to the penis, and distressing to parent and baby. I advised leaving the foreskin alone.

Parents Biggest Newborn Concerns

Since the first edition of Baby and Child Care, many parents have written to me about specific concerns during the newborn period. This is an unsettling time for all families, especially after the birth of a first newborn. With fewer parents of young children now living near their own parents or other relatives, many of the physical and emotional aspects of caring for a baby are no longer taught to new parents. It is for these reasons that 1 try to answer each question in clear and practical terms. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is a rare condition where a baby, usually under six months of life and healthy, is found dead in a crib. The cause is not known but we think that it is a result of poor coordination between the brain's control center for breathing and the baby's lungs. The good news is that we know a few things that will decrease your baby's risk for SIDS. Freeing the home of smoking, feeding the baby breast milk, and placing the infant on her back when in the crib have...

Sleep Problems

If this is the first cry of the night, and if this is a baby who usually sleeps through the night, then you would want to go in and see about the baby. Maybe he needs his diaper changed or is unhappy about something else. He may be teething and even be running a low-grade fever. A lot would depend on the age and circumstances. It's not likely that you are spoiling your child unless it develops into a habit where he is continuously demanding your attention all during the night, and no one is getting any sleep.

Toilet Training1

As I recount the various kinds of toilet training advice that I gave to my New York patients when I was in pediatric practice and that I wrote into different editions of Baby and Child Care, I stniggled to find the best, the most surefire method, over a period of about forty years. It will illustrate the common hurdles to training young children to use the toilet successfully and that most babies are nut ready to toilet train until after two years of age. ers about other problems who said incidentally that they had stumbled on a perfect solution for toilet training. With their older children they had struggled long and hard to overcome vigorous resistance to training. When a third child came along they dreaded a repetition, and procrastinated. Rut by about two or two and one-fourth years these children, after observing their older siblings using the toilet, decided all by themselves to do the same and became trained not only for BMs but for bladder control I enthusiastically passed...

About The Executive Advisory Board

CROPLEY spent several years as a school teacher before obtaining his Ph.D. in Educational Psychology at the University of Alberta (Canada) in 1965, and subsequently worked as a university teacher in Australia, Canada, Germany and Latvia. He retired in 1998. He is the author or editor of 25 books on creativity, lifelong learning, adaptation of migrants, and research methodology. These have appeared in English, German, Italian, Latvian, Spanish, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Hungarian, Korean, and Chinese. From 1989-1996 he was editor of the European Journal for High Ability (now known as High Ability Studies), published by the European Council for High Ability. He received the 1997 Creativity Award of the World Council for Gifted and Talented Children, and was elected Visiting Fellow of the British Psychological Society in 2004. In 2004 he received an honorary doctorate from the University of Latvia, and in 2008 he was made an Officer of the Order of the Three Stars by the...

Theoretical Perspectives Related to Adaptation

In his seminal book, Beyond Universals in Cognitive Development, Feldman described a Universal-Unique continuum that portrays both how individuals move through levels of development in a given domain and how their creative products affect the world. There are five levels in this continuum universal, cultural, domain specific, idiosyncratic, and unique. Universal development is the type of cognitive growth that emerges without instruction and across all cultures, such as learning to conserve number and substance. Cultural development is the result of growing up in a given context, such as celebrating Thanksgiving in the United States. Subcultural experiences, such as specific manners, dress, or habits of speech also fit here. Adults in the environment teach children this information by offering them encounters with cultural events, values, or practices, but without formal instruction. Domain-specific development requires instruction by skilled teachers whose pedagogical skills and...

Discovering Childhood

The pioneers Freud, Erikson, Piaget, and Skinner gave us a variety of perspectives on the most essential aspects of a child's development. After a hundred years, theirs are still the primary schools of thought that govern research and practice in child psychology. When can an association between any two variables be labeled cause and effect For this relatively new science, methodologies and standards for new studies and experiments have emerged to pave the way to the future.

Professional Organizations and Journals

For psychiatrists, the major professional organization is the Royal College of Psychiatrists. This organization has a liaison section, referred to in the United Kingdom as a special interest group, which provides peer support, disseminates professional information, and organizes an annual conference. For clinical psychologists, the major professional organization is the British Psychological Society. Comparable organizations are the Association for Child Psychotherapy for child psychotherapists and the General Social Work Council for social workers. Journals that publish in the field include the Archives of General Pediatrics, British Journal of Psychiatry, Child and Adolescent Mental Health, and Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry.

Do I Need an Anesthesia Specialist for My Child

If your managed-care health plan sends your child for surgery to a facility that is ill-equipped to care for infants and children, that is staffed by individuals who are not adequately trained in the care of pediatric patients, and employs surgeons and anesthesiologists who are only occasionally taking care of pediatric patients all for financial reasons please inform the health plan that the scientific literature suggests that this may not be the best medical care for your child and they may be placing your child at added risk.

Publisher S Acknowledgements

Hughes, C., Oksanen, H., Taylor, A., Jackson, J., Murray, L., Caspi, A., et al. (2002). 'I'm gonna beat you ' SNAP an observational paradigm for assessing young children's disruptive behaviour in competitive play. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43(4), 507-516. Karmiloff-Smith, A., Thomas, M., Annaz, D., Humphreys, K., Ewing, S., Brace, N., et al. (2004). Exploring the Williams syndrome face-processing debate the importance of building developmental trajectories. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(7), 1258-1274. Meins, E., Fernyhough, C., Wainwright, R., Das Gupta, M., Fradley, E., & Tuckey, M. (2002a). Maternal mind-mindedness and attachment security as predictors of Theory of Mind understanding. Child Development, 73, 1715-1726. Savage, R., & Carless, S. (2005). Phoneme manipulation not onset-rime manipulation ability is a unique predictor of early reading. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(4), 1297-1308. Woolfe, T., Want, S. C., &...

The First Child Psychologists

The first scientists studying childhood did not necessarily treat children. Still, they each wanted to identify when and how children develop the ability to think, speak, learn, and love. For the most part, these theorists were also reformers. They wanted to make children's lives better by applying their insights to contemporary child-raising practices and education. Three general perspectives on child development emerged in the first half of the twentieth century. They are listed here separately, although ideas and results of studies from one often impacted the others, sometimes significantly.

Why Study Artistic Creativity

Research on artistic creativity can be done for non-utilitarian purposes, as an intellectual exercise, and also for practical reasons selecting creative people, usually through tests improving the educational curriculum training leadership in businesses and organizations determining the kinds of audiences attracted to the arts contributing to an understanding of the relationship between creativity and psychopathol-ogy and using drama, paintings, and literature in art therapy. Furthermore, whatever is learned about artists of renown and works of art that revolutionized the field (Picasso and Cubism, the Impressionists and the use of light) - so-called big-C creativity - is applicable to ordinary people in everyday circumstances, like raising children, or small-c creativity. Big-C creativity reflects the highest and most obvious instances, though, which makes it clearer and easier to specify than little-c creativity in developing theories and doing research.

The Nature Of Development

Child psychology today is surprisingly free of interest in building models of general development. The discipline is filled with hyperactive attempts to accumulate data, but attempts to make sense of the data, in terms of models of basic developmental processes, are relatively rare. (Valisner, 1998 189)

Long Term Adaptation to

Perrin (1985) defined psychosocial adjustment as encompassing psychological adjustment, social adjustment, and school performance. Studies have shown that children and their families are remarkably resilient in adapting to the challenges presented by a physical illness. The majority of chronically ill children and their parents do not have identifiable mental health, behavioral, or educational difficulties (Wallander and Thompson 1995). However, research has shown that children with chronic physical illnesses have an increased risk of subthreshold or subclinical mental health problems (Wallander and Thompson 1995). The rate of emotional disorders in children under age 18 with physical illnesses has been found to be approximately 25 , compared with 18 -20 in medically healthy children (Wallander and Thompson 1995).

Medical Play Observation

To assess the parent-child relationship, the consultant should ask to observe parents interacting as they usually would at home for approximately 1520 minutes of unstructured parent-child or family play. The consultant might introduce this request by saying, It can be a real challenge to parent a child who's not feeling well. I would like to see how it goes for you, and then we can brainstorm together about any suggestions I might have. Specific issues to observe during the session include the parents' ability to engage their child and read their child's cues, both verbally and nonverbally their level of affection expressed toward their child and their ability to address their child from a developmentally appropriate perspective. The parents' abilities to regulate their child's emotional responses, to set appropriate limits, and to handle separations are important to observe. Observation of the child should include capacity to relate, amount and extent of physical and eye contact,...

Counseling and Anticipatory Guidance

Bright Futures (http web) is a well-known, frequently implemented example of a program that includes health supervision and anticipatory guidance dedicated to well-child care and prevention. The Bright Futures program was begun by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) of the federal government and is endorsed by the AAFP and AAP.

Foundations of Personality

The many ways that a consistent bond of warmth and affection positively impact a child's growth will fill in the nurture side of the child development equation in this part. The research on attachment chemistry will amaze along with the negative effects on a child's developing brain when a secure attachment is missing from his early life.

How Plastic Is a Childs Brain

The neuroscience of child development does not say that the case is closed for a child's emotional and cognitive brain growth by age 3, 6, or late adolescence. In fact, research increasingly provides more and more evidence that the brain never stops growing and changing, throughout adolescence and well into adulthood and

Ethical issues in developmental psychology research

Over the past few years, there has been an increasing emphasis on ethical issues in psychological research. Needless to say, research with children calls for scrupulous consideration of these issues. The most detailed guidelines for the ethical treatment of children in psychological investigations are provided by the Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD). Full details of the guidelines can be read on the SRCD website at

Alternative Family Structures

One alternative family form consists of two adults of the same sex, sometimes raising children. About 2.4 of men and 1.3 of women in the U.S. identify themselves as homosexual or bisexual and have same-gender partners (Laumann et al. 1994). Although information on the number and characteristics of gay and lesbian couples has not generally been available, in the U.S., one estimate suggests that in 1990 fewer than 1 of adult men lived with a male partner and about the same percentage of adult women lived with a lesbian partner (Black et al. 2000). These estimates are based on responses to the unmarried partner'' question in the U.S. census and are thus thought to be conservative estimates of the numbers of same-sex cohabitors. This is the case because some of those living in gay and lesbian couples do not identify as such in survey and other data. Legal and social recognition of these unions as marriages is generally not available in the United States.

Early Life and Family

In 1881, Louis-Prosper established his family in a home in Paris while he continued to live in the country. There is some dispute as to why Camille's family split at this time. One theory is that Louis-Prosper wanted his growing children to receive the kind of education that they could not get in the more provincial schools. But, Paul wrote that it was Camille who forced the family to move to Paris so that she could pursue her career in sculpting. It is likely that both are true Camille was ambitious, and Louis-Prosper wished to afford his talented children the opportunities to follow their ambitions Camille in art, Louise in music, and Paul in writing.

How Early To Begin Treatment

There are two key words that you need to know when it comes to getting your child treatment early intervention. Early intervention means that you must step in and begin treatment for your child as soon as possible after he or she is diagnosed with an ASD The earlier the better. Why so early Studies show that a child's neural plasticity or the brain's ability to be shaped is at its maximum when the child is very young. Have you ever wondered how it's possible for some typical children to learn a foreign language at such a young age It's because their brains are especially receptive to taking in new information and can form new connections. In essence, a brain can be rewired. How early should you begin an intervention program with your child Treatment can begin as early as twelve or fourteen months of age, but in most cases, treatment begins later. Dr. Sally Ozonoff, associate professor of psychiatry at the University of California Davis M.I.N.D. Institute states, It's been shown pretty...

What Intensive Intervention Means

What does this 25-hour-per-week recommendation mean The amount of hours per week refers to comprehensive programs that provide a foundation for your child's intervention program, including treatments such as ABA or TEACCH (to be described in the next few pages), which are supplemented with services such as speech therapy and or occupational therapy. Twenty-five hours of treatment services may be conducted at home, in a school setting, or both, depending on your child's age and needs. But just because a specific treatment is well established doesn't mean that it requires 25 hours per week. For example, speech therapy and occupational therapy are usually incorporated into a comprehensive program or given in addition to a comprehensive Keep in mind, however, that 25 hours of treatment per week does not mean trying 1 hour of a certain kind of therapy, 1 hour of a different kind of therapy, and continuing on up to 25 different treatments. A hodgepodge of too many different treatments has...

What You Need To Know Before Beginning Your Search For Treatments

Speaking with other parents of children with ASDs who've experienced what you're going through can be extremely helpful they can be both empa-thetic when sharing their own personal experiences and rational when getting you in the right mindset to find treatments. One mother suggested that instead of thinking of myself as Jake's Mom during my research, I should think of myself as a researcher for another child. This helped me become less emotional and more objective in making an intelligent decision for our son. Choose whatever method helps you focus and motivates you. Just don't delay in getting your child treatment. The best way to begin the process of deciding what treatment is right for your child is to consider the treatment recommendations made by the doctor or professional who diagnosed and evaluated your child. Recommendations usually include more than one treatment based on your child's needs, but because intensive treatment is recommended, usually one treatment is used as the...

The Computer as Productivity Tools

Spender appraises that as we move from book culture to digital culture, we are on the brink of being able to rethink the entire process of teaching and learning. Adler strongly believes that the challenge is in helping children learn to use a home computer to bring out their imagination and curiosity - and learn when to turn it off in favor of more traditional playthings. 6. And, as an entertainment tool, computers and various game software keep children involved for hours and just like Monopoly, many entertainment programs help children develop important skills.

Risk of Anesthesia and Surgery and the Importance of Location

The pediatric patient is at special risk during anesthesia and surgery. I would bring my child only to a facility that regularly cares for children and has a staff trained in pediatric care. The problems of children are entirely different than adults, and the way these problems are managed in children are different. This applies equally to inpatient and outpatient pediatric surgery and anesthesia. If your insurance plan sends you to a facility that only occasionally cares for pediatric patients, I would inform the company that the literature suggests this may not be the best care for your child.

Consent of Minors as a Legal Issue

As noted above, legally, in the school setting, informed consent for psychological services rests with the parent of a minor child. Legislators and the courts generally have presumed that minors are not developmentally competent to consent to (or refuse) psychological assessment or treatment on their own. The courts have viewed parents as typically acting in their children's best interests and have reasoned that allowing minors a right to consent to (or refuse) services or treatment independent of parental wishes might be disruptive to the parent-child relationship and interfere with effective treatment programs (Parham v. J.R1979).

Your Surgeon and Risk

The experience of the surgeon doing your operation or your child's operation does make a big difference in your outcome. There are studies that show that complication rates for the occasional pediatric surgeon are higher than the pediatric surgeon specialist, even for operations as simple as a hernia repair.10 This becomes more significant as the child becomes younger and the surgery more invasive.11 Based on my observations as a pediatric and cardiac anesthesiologist for more than twenty years and based on the scientific literature, I would only allow a pediatric surgeon specialist to operate on my child.

Gender Change Out of Demographic Change

In all of these cases of resistance, we can see another way of viewing the relationship between gender and demographic behavior the way that the direction of influence can vary. In Kenya, increased access to contraceptives has given women new space to negotiate their relationships to men. In Japan, lower fertility and delayed marriage may lead to changes in women's and men's lives that will result in increased opportunities for women outside the home and or more shared responsibility by men for home and child care tasks. In China, lower fertility has come with high sex ratios at birth and new dangers to girls and women living under two competing pressures from the state and the family. While there are many ways that demographic change could influence gender relations and hierarchies in a society, this is not an area that has received a lot of attention. The work above speaks to the importance of this aspect of demographic change. Perhaps the bulk of research in this area has been done...

Child Is Part Part of a Family

No child grows up alone. So in Chapter 5 we define parental competency in light of child development research. There's surprising new information to share about the impact of siblings and being the only child. Then, because more than half of children younger than 18 in the United States live with a single parent for at least five years, we look at the short- and long-term psychological impact of single parenthood and divorce on children. Within every family there is a unique culture and rules that shape a child's sense of self, as well as her morality, and the degrees of self-discipline and emotional resilience she carries into young adulthood. Different avenues of research in child psychology provide important new perspectives on these topics in Chapter 6.

What Is the Intensity of the Treatment

The intensity of the treatment can depend on the philosophy of the treatment itself and or your child's needs. In the case of ABA, studies show that the treatment's effectiveness depends in large part on its intensity in most cases, between 25 and 40 hours per week of one-to-one ABA treatment is recommended. Most ABA sessions are 1.5 to 2 hours long a child may have several ABA sessions in a day that amount to a total of 6 to 8 hours. But this is not the case with other treatments such as speech and occupational therapy. Typical speech and occupational therapy sessions are 30, 45, or 60 minutes long. The frequency and intensity of speech and occupational therapy sessions depend upon the specific needs of the child. For example, some children require five 45-minute sessions of speech therapy per week, while others require only two 45-minute sessions per week. Some children need one-on-one treatment, which means that a teacher or therapist works with your child individually. Other...

Is There Real Science to Support This Treatment

This is not to say you should never try a treatment that does not have concrete scientific basis. We ventured outside of the scientific box with Jake and tried some alternative and nonstandard treatments for ASDs, but the foundation of Jake's treatment was ABA, which has its foundation in sound science. Just because a treatment hasn't been proven scientifically doesn't mean that it isn't good, but science can provide that extra dose of confidence when choosing a treatment for your child.

The Good Enough Parent

British pediatric psychiatrist Donald Winnicott (1896-1971) recognized that, because all parents are imperfect, they should strive to be good-enough parents. In simple terms, good-enough parents are adults committed to parenthood. Their behavior shows they care about what happens to their children. They can restrain themselves from harming them. They do not neglect or abuse their children in a legal sense. This definition of good-enough parents flows from our cultural expectations of parents. Good-enough parents are parents who

Gastrointestinal Disorders

Structural, infectious, inflammatory, or biochemical etiology) have been found to have elevated levels of anxiety that, although similar to anxiety levels reported by children with organic gastrointestinal diagnoses, are significantly higher than those of healthy children (Banez and Cunningham 2003 Scharff 1997 Walker et al. 1993). Patients with a history of functional abdominal pain are at increased risk of having irritable bowel syndrome and higher levels of psychosocial distress, disability, and health service use over time (Walker et al. 1998). Considerable clinical and scientific progress has been made in understanding the etiologies of, diagnosing, and treating functional gastrointestinal disorders in children (Li 2009).

Will This Treatment Complement the Rest of My Childs Treatments

When choosing different treatments for your child, make sure all of the treatment providers are on the same page. When Franklin and I decided to choose ABA as the foundation for Jake's treatment, we also spoke with potential speech and occupational therapists and told them of our decision. The first occupational therapist we spoke with was completely on board with the principles of ABA in fact, she abided by many of the behavioral tenets, including rewarding Jake's behaviors with lots of positive reinforcement in her sessions. It's important to find out upfront whether or not the providers working with your child follow the same basic philosophies of treating ASDs. If they are conflicting, your child will become confused, and the treatments will be ineffective or counterproductive. In fact, they may even cancel each other out. For example, while one of your treatment providers may be trying to reduce or eliminate your child's hand flapping and other stimming behaviors, another...

How Am I Involved in Supporting My Childs Treatment

Make sure the treatment can offer ways for you to help your child. Be cautious of any treatments in which there aren't ways to support your child outside of the session. Find out what you, your child's siblings, other family members, and babysitters can do at home to help reinforce the new skills and behaviors that your child is learning. Often, these suggestions can be great ways to bond with your child and aid in the overall treatment progress. For example, to help Jake develop his upper body strength, his occupational therapist taught us to pick up his legs while his hands were on the floor and run around the house with him as if in a wheelbarrow race. We also had that special plastic brush that we used on his arms and legs to help him overcome his hypersensitivity to touch. Jake liked to be brushed and eventually began to brush us, too. The speech therapist cut out pictures of dinosaur feet and placed them all over the floor, so we could play a game when Jake was having trouble...

Population Aging and Kinship Structure

The demographic forces responsible for population aging (declining fertility and declining mortality at older ages) have significant implications for the structure of kinship networks. Particularly relevant for the well-being of both older and younger people are changes in the structure of intergenerational relationships associated with an aging society. The basic relationship among fertility, mortality, and supply of intergenera-tional kin can be seen by thinking about extreme situations. In a society where everyone has a large number of children and few people survive to very old ages, grandparents would be in short supply for children, but individuals who survive to old age would tend to have many grandchildren. Similarly, most middle-aged adults would not have surviving parents, but individuals who survive to old age would typically have multiple children. This type of kinship structure is quite similar to the one existing in China before 1900. At the opposite extreme is the ideal...

How Will My Childs Progress Be Measured

How often will your child be assessed and by whom You do not have to wait for an official assessment to find out how your child is doing. Often parents call weekly, bimonthly, or monthly team meetings, where all of the treatment providers join together to give feedback, brainstorm, and discuss the child's progress. You should also be able to set up private meetings or phone conferences with your child's treatment providers. Sometimes, over the course of treatment, your child's progress will be obvious to you Your child can now form words, no longer throws tantrums, or has stopped engaging in self-injurious head banging. At other times, progress will be more subtle Your child is just beginning to make sounds or has fewer and shorter outbursts. In all cases, your child's progress should be continually monitored, measured, and updated so that the treatment continues to meet your child's specific needs. For example, ABA therapy maintains comprehensive...

Children in Nontraditional Families

A review of the psychological literature published in the Journal of Marriage and Family in February 2010 compared the impact on children of being reared in single-parent versus two-parent families. Using 33 studies of two-parent families and 48 of single-parent families, they found that, other things being equal, two compatible parents provide advantages for children over single parents. This appears to be true irrespective of parental gender, marital status, or sexual identity. When comparing heterosexual two-parent families to lesbian two-parent families, scholars have achieved a rare degree of consensus that unmarried lesbian parents are raising children who develop at least as well as their counterparts with married heterosexual parents. In lesbian two-parent families the style of parenting was best described as a double dose of mothering. (There were not a sufficient number of male-male households represented in the studies to draw any equivalent or divergent conclusions.) They...

Epidemiology and Risk Factors

Human cases of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) are now understood to be caused by Pneumocystis jiroveci. Most healthy children have been infected asymptomatically with P jiroveci by age 4 years (Pifer et al., 1978), allowing cases in HIV patients to occur either by reactivation or by new exposure. Without antiretroviral therapy or PCP prophylaxis, more than 70 of HIV-infected patients could be expected to experience PCP, with 20 to 40 mortality (Phair et al., 1990).

What To Ask If Youre Considering A Special School Or Centerbased Program

If you are thinking of enrolling your child in a special school or center-based program for ASDs, make sure to evaluate the environment, staff credentials, scheduling, and philosophy or mission of the programs. How long has the school been in existence What is the school's philosophy Has it changed over the years Is it consistent with your values Has the school or program been consistent in its use and application of certain treatment interventions Watch out for schools that change their treatments based on the latest trends. Walk through the school setting and imagine seeing it through your child's eyes. Is it free of distractions that may trigger an outburst from your child The environment should be positive, highly supportive, and conducive to meeting your child's specific needs. Will your child receive one-on-one treatment, group treatment, or a combination of both How is progress measured and how often Be sure there are standard assessments in place to measure your child's...

Basis of Parental Power

Westman goes on to explain that the foundation of successful parenthood is mutual respect between parent and child. It is not based on a reward-punishment paradigm. Knowledge of child development is helpful in engendering parental respect for the needs of children. A child's respect for a parent depends upon a parent's ability to convey to the child that she means what is said (of course, the parent has the responsibility to mean what is said as well).

Treatments And Schools That Sound Too Good To Be True

Now that you're armed with all of the questions you need to ask about your child's treatments and schools, there are a few other things to consider. Parents who feel vulnerable after their child is diagnosed with an ASD often become targets for treatments that sound too good to be true. Rule of thumb If a treatment or school sounds too good to be true, it probably is. When considering a treatment, ask yourself the following questions and pick up on the early warning signs. All of us have fantasies about that magic pill that will make our children better, but be careful that your decisions about your child's treatments are based on facts rather than emotions. Establish a foundation for your child's treatment, then add on a few other treatments that will enhance the foundation. But don't make the mistake of trying too many conflicting treatments that may cause undue stress on your child. And remember to be careful about constantly changing treatments because you don't see immediate...

How Children Affect Parents Behaviors

Other researchers point out that two children in the same family can elicit different authority styles. And they say this is often an appropriate adaptation on the part of the parents. In response to the question of which direction of effects is most influential in setting a parent's authority style, the transactional model of understanding parent-child relationships settles it with a draw. Using this perspective, parenting is seen as a two-way street. Many variables affect a child's temperament and individual behaviors. Just as many variables shape the authority style used by a parent with that child. By examining these variables, it may be easier to see why one parent's authority style may differ when applied to her two different children

Romania Ana Stoica Constantin

Creativity has been openly declared an education goal, and steps have been taken toward this aim despite problems in terms of incoherent legislation, poor endowment of schools and low motivation amongst some teachers. Generally, Romanian people tend to be individualistic - they hardly work in groups one reason for this could be the competitive nature of education. Presently, courses in creativity are held in at least four universities, creative groups of students are trained, and a large movement for promoting talented children is sustained by the association RO-talent.

Gender work and nursing

Davies (1995) has highlighted the failure of UK health service managers to rise to the challenge of managing a predominantly female work force. Historically the management of nursing labour has been based on a high recruitment high waste model of womanpower in contrast to the low intake low waste model of conventional manpower planning. Support for post-basic courses and continuing education is not treated in the same way as medicine because of the assumption that nurses will leave. Davies argues that a more woman-friendly approach to the management of the nursing workforce would work with a notion of lifetime participation and manage career breaks to enhance this. It would carry out cost-benefit studies of different forms of child-care that took into account the real costs of turnover and failures to return. It would look at flexible hours and consider reorganizing work schedules and individualizing hours.

Theoretical Considerations

An important area of theorizing has been why some women and not others pursue paid work in the labor force. Structural characteristics of the economy help to shape the general demand for women's labor (Cotter et al. 1998). Women's family responsibilities, both as wives and as mothers, have often been seen as intervening variables between their human capital endowment and their eventual labor force participation. The relationships vary by generation, ethnicity and immigrant status (Stier and Tienda 1992), and religion. More recently, analysts have examined characteristics of jobs that facilitate or impede women's labor force participation. The availability of child care, or the ability of husbands and wives to work different shifts so that they can care for their children themselves, are currently important areas of research for understanding the circumstances under which mothers can participate in the labor force.

School Based Emotional Learning

Goleman advocates that parents and teachers teach children emotional expressivity, along with emotional knowledge and self-regulation. He co-founded a center at the University of Illinois in Chicago to develop a curriculum and train teachers to accomplish this goal. The resulting program is called SEL, for social and emotional learning. After a decade of implementation of SEL programs in American schools, a meta-analysis (a study of all the studies done to date) compared students who had experienced the SEL program to those who had not. The data showed significant differences between the two groups. Not only had the SEL students gained mastery of abilities such as calming down under stress, they also benefited

Therapeutic Approaches

Although human beings are wired to form close ties with their peers, the research presented in this chapter points to the importance of helping children learn the skills that make strong emotional relationships possible. Children can learn self-regulation and relationship skills the building blocks of emotional resilience at home and at school.

Pivotal Response Training

Pivotal response techniques include positive reinforcement, changing and correcting behaviors, and child choice (where the child expresses a preference). Because children with ASDs have communication and behavioral challenges (they may be self-absorbed or have difficulty forming reciprocal relationships), PRT focuses on teaching children how to engage in effective social interactions. Learning how to ask questions and initiate social contact not only opens the door to relationships, but also can fundamentally change how others perceive children with ASDs. PRT draws upon the natural motivations and individual interests of each child to make learning engaging and fun. This treatment provides guidelines to improve pivotal behaviors such as motivation and the ability to respond to multiple cues and stimuli. Emphasizing functional communication and skill development, PRT has been successful in helping children with ASDs expand their communication and language skills, reduce interfering and...

Cross Section Of The

Is the pain much worse when you gently pull on your child's ear lobe action Your doctor will examine your child's ears. If there is an outer ear canal infection, he or she may prescribe ear drops containing an antifungal drug and or a corticosteroid drug. You should also follow the self-help advice for relieving earache (below). Possible cause and action An infection of the middle ear may have caused your child's eardrum to rupture. This relieves the pressure built up within the ear. Your doctor will examine your child and may prescribe antibiotics. Self-help measures for relieving earache (below) may relieve your child's pain. The eardrum will heal within a few days. There will be no lasting effect on your child's hearing. action Your doctor will examine your child's ears and skin. If a skin disorder is diagnosed, he or she may prescribe corticosteroid ear drops. Try to stop your child scratching the ear or the surrounding skin, which could prolong the condition and cause infection....

See Your Doctor Within 24 Hours

Possible cause and action Inflammation of the throat (pharyngitis) and or tonsils (tonsillitis) is likely. The inflammation is due to a bacterial or viral infection. Your doctor will examine your child and may prescribe antibiotics. In addition, try self-help measures for soothing your child's sore throat (below). SELF-HELP Soothing your child's sore throat If your child has a sore throat, the following Give your child as many cold, non-acidic drinks, such as milk, as he or she wants. Using a straw may make drinking easier. Offer your child throat lozenges if he or she is old enough to suck them safely without choking or swallowing them whole. If your child is old enough, teach him or her to gargle with warm, salty water. Has your child been sneezing, and or does he or she have a runny nose Possible cause Inflammation of the throat as a result of a minor viral infection or irritation is the likely cause of your child's sore throat. action Follow the self-help measures for soothing...

Teaching Prosocial Behavior

Eisenberg and later researchers studying child morality found that parents who have a warm emotional tone, parents who communicate expectations of mature behavior, and parents who provide explanations for rules raise children who exhibit the highest levels of prosocial reasoning and behaviors.

Social Skills Training

The social skills facilitator uses role-playing, discussions, games, and activities to develop social understanding, teamwork, empathy, and improved interpersonal relationships. One technique used to enhance social skills is called Social Stories, developed by Carol Gray. Social Stories are short narratives that parents use to teach children how to respond appropriately in typical situations. For example, a story teaches children when to say thank you, when to wash their hands, how to share toys, or how to follow mealtime or classroom routines. Social Stories are usually written in the first person by a therapist, teacher, or parent and can include pictures, photographs, or music. Video modeling works in much the same way as Social Stories to demonstrate appropriate social skills. Another social skills technique called peer modeling places children with ASDs in play situations with typical same-age children who model appropriate play behavior. A therapist facilitates the interaction....

The Anesthesia Caregiver

Although trained anesthesia specialists are generally competent to administer virtually every type of anesthesia, there are two areas that deserve special mention as areas of substantially higher risk where specialty training and experience may influence how well you or your child does. If you are having open-heart surgery (cardiac anesthesia), or if your child is having surgery (pediatric anesthesia), it would be preferable to have an anesthesiologist who has had specialty training in this area and is performing this kind of anesthesia on a regular basis. Anesthesiologists who are only doing an occasional heart case or occasional pediatric case may not If you or your child will receive anesthesia by anyone other than a trained anesthesia specialist, please reread Chapters 1, 25, and 28. You have every right to ask the qualifications and training they have received to perform this function and what type of anesthesia you will receive. Be aware that the term twilight anesthesia may be...

Speech And Language Therapy

In a speech therapy session, children are taught in individual and or small group sessions, depending on their skill level. Sessions usually last 30 to 45 minutes and are run by an SLP in the office, your home, or your child's school. Sessions may incorporate language-based exercises, games, and activities. For nonverbal children, the therapist may use prompted speech therapy or augmentative treatments such as American Sign Language, communication boards, Voice Output Communication Devices, or PECS (Picture Exchange Communication Systems). A common misconception is that the application of these augmentative treatments means you have to give up on spoken language for your child. In fact, studies indicate that the opposite is true augmentative communication techniques can often help speech and language emerge.

The Complex Nature of Creativity Within Education

Despite these concerns, literally hundreds of techniques have been developed to teach creativity. Indeed, in both the early 1970s and later 1980s, Torrance classified over a hundred creativity enhancement studies into nine categories of strategies for teaching children creativity. In approximate order of effectiveness, they included Creative Problem Solving (CPS) programs based on the Osborn-Parnes model other

Social Cultural Perspective

The original proponent of the social-cultural view of cognitive development was the Russian child psychologist Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) who was a contemporary of Piaget. He held the view that cognitive development was not universal instead, that children develop those cognitive skills that are demanded by the values and needs of their unique culture. The aspect of Vygotsky's theory that holds the most interest for psychologists today is his emphasis on socio-historical development. This is the study of how changes in culture, values, norms, and technologies shape how children think and learn. For example, they ask how the seismic shift in the communications systems of industrialized countries (radio, TV, computers) in the last 50 years has changed children's thinking.

Diagnosing a Congenital Heart Defect

If a defect in a newborn is suspected, your child's pediatrician will recommend an electrocardiogram and probably an echocardiogram, which do not require any needle sticks. Other tests used to diagnose congenital heart defects include cardiac catheterization and magnetic resonance imaging. After the heart defect is diagnosed and analyzed, your pediatrician and pediatric cardiologist will develop a treatment plan. This may require nothing more than yearly checkups or perhaps medications. Occasionally, a catheter can be used to dilate a heart valve or to insert a plug to close a hole. Heart surgery may be recommended and, in rare cases, heart transplantation is the best option.

Now That You Know About Some Of The Treatments

You will most likely want to do more research on your own and collect further information to make an informed decision about what's best for your child. There is a list of recommended websites in Appendix F and a list of recommended reading in Appendix G that will give you further information. Remember to consider what would work in terms of your lifestyle. A home ABA program is not for everyone some parents prefer a center-based program. When you research, also keep in mind that most alternative and complementary approaches have little scientific backing, so you'll have to make a judgment call based on your child's specific needs, your level of comfort, and how well the treatment fits your lifestyle. For example, a restrictive gluten-free casein-free diet works well for some families but can cause stress in others. It's important to educate yourself when it comes to treatment approaches. Talk to other parents with children with ASDs and professionals in the field they can be...

How Language Is Learned

Different psychological perspectives emphasize nature or nurture as the key driver in language development. Learning theorists view a child's verbal interactions with others as all important. This consists of adults using child-directed speech in the first two to three years, and babies imitating what they hear. Those that favor a biological or nature perspective on child development believe that a baby is born with special wiring for language acquisition. This device then triggers the young child's speech comprehension when he hears adults and older children speaking.

Pediatric Condition Falsification With No Factitious Disorder by Proxy

Parents keep children home from school with illness excuses because they need to keep the children dependent and at home, but not necessarily ill. In these situations, the child is not an object to help project the appearance of a nurturing role but rather the primary object of an enmeshed parent-child relationship in which the child is parentified. Parents do not go to lengths to have the child appear ill at home or use the child's condition as a means of attention-getting from other adults.

Least Restrictive Environment

As noted earlier in the chapter, prior to 1975, children with moderate or severe impairments were often routinely excluded from school. Children with mild disabilities frequently were segregated in special classes with few opportunities to interact with their nonhandicapped peers. In some cases, these classes were located in a separate corridor of the school. At times, the less capable teachers were assigned to teach children with disabilities, and typically the classroom facilities and equipment were less adequate than for nondisabled children (Turnbull & Turnbull, 2000). Few special class children ever returned to the mainstream.

The Law And Your Power As A Parent

As a parent, you hold more power than you may imagine when it comes to helping your child get services. This is due in large measure to the provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Actually, as of 2004, the name was changed to Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA), but most people still refer to it as IDEA. It applies to children with various disabilities, including ASDs. This law provides the states with federal funding for special education programs, but only if the state programs meet criteria specified in the act. All fifty states have opted to comply with the requirements of the IDEA to qualify for the federal funding. Two of the criteria specified in the act are crucial to you as a parent because they give you the ability to become a powerful advocate for your child within the educational system. First, the IDEA requires that the state provide your child with a free and appropriate public education that meets his or her...

Guidelines for Clinical Assessment

Although individual children develop at their own rate, with great variability in the normal range, general rules for neu-rodevelopmental maturation can serve as guidelines to help practitioners formulate a developmental trajectory for each child (Sturner and Howard, 1997). The developmental trajectory can be envisioned as an individualized growth chart of anticipated developmental progress based on normal neurodevelopmental milestones and moderated by child, parent, and environmental factors such as temperament, parental mental health, and exposure to lead. Table 23-5 Summary of Developmental Theories of Child Development Table 23-5 Summary of Developmental Theories of Child Development along with past history, parental concerns, clinical observations, and developmental screening in the ongoing surveillance of child development. Until chronologic age 2 years, the development of a premature infant should be judged on corrected age, that is, the chronologic age minus the number of...

Phase II Reworking of the Child Family Relationship

The second phase of the therapeutic process is the reworking of the relationship of the child to the family, with the mother-child relationship as a central component of this process. The elements to be addressed during this part of the process include maternal identification of the child as a unique individual rather than the object of maternal need gratification, followed by a significant period of redefinition of the attachment relationships within the family and a re-framing of the child's identity from that encompassing illness to one embracing wellness. Safety issues for parent and child should be addressed continually along the way. Some mothers, for example, do not

Conjugate Pneumococcal Vaccine

Stimulates effective antibodies to all 13 serotypes in over 90 of recipients after three doses and is given to infants at 2, 4, 6, and 12 to 15 months of age. Children 7 to 11 months old require 2 doses 2 months apart, followed by a third dose at 12 to 15 months of age (2 or more months later). Children 12 to 23 months old require 2 doses 2 months apart. Only 1 dose is required for all healthy children 24 to 59 months of age. Children age 24 to 71 months at high risk for invasive pneumococcal disease should receive 2 doses of vaccine at least 8 weeks apart if they have not been previously immunized (CDC, 2010).

Treatment for Custodial Fathers or Family Members

Treatment for fathers is also a central component to the success of intervention with mothers, especially if the couple is intact. Fathers who continue to support the denial of MBP significantly reduce the odds for successful treatment of mothers. In addition, treatment requires that fathers maintain an active presence in their families, a role that they have often abdicated. Through treatment, they are given the extended role of being an active parent with clear responsibility for protecting and nurturing the children. Some fathers have difficulty considering participation in therapy. They may avoid or deny that they had a role in their spouse's actions, even when they are able to acknowledge the abuse of their children. While in treatment, fathers also explore the meaning of anger and control issues growth in developing a more psychological mode of thinking is one sign of progress in treatment. A number of fathers need help with basic parenting skills. All of these strategies are...

National Childhood Vaccine Injury

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developmental screening for health care providers excellent information about child development and screening with helpful links and patient material. Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics wealth of information about developmental screening and other topics related to child development and behavior.

Expert Performance and Creative Achievements

Claims of qualitatively different mechanisms in talented children. In music, and also in other artistic domains, researchers have found that the higher achieving children tended to practice more on a daily basis than the lower achievers. This higher involvement along with motivational differences, for which Ellen Winner has argued convincingly, may account for the faster progress of some children over others.

Free and Appropriate Public Education FAPE

The IDEA specifies that children who are determined to be eligible should be provided, at public expense, free and appropriate public education that meets their individual needs. The free part of this phrase is pretty clear. All the treatment services and any educational placements that are deemed necessary must be provided by the state or by the school district, free to the parents of the child. This is obviously a tremendous benefit to all but the wealthiest parents, since treatment interventions and special education programming for children with ASDs can be extremely costly. However, the free part of the IDEA requirement is meaningful only if agreement can be reached on what is appropriate for your child, and the determination of what is appropriate to the needs of your child is not always straightforward. Again, you will naturally want the very best for your child. And you will no doubt be well informed regarding the latest interventions that have been reported to be highly...

The Persisting Effects of Early Traumas and Adversities

It should be noted that appropriate resources can short-circuit the relationships between early adversities and later mental health problems. The potential negative effects of parental divorce, for example, can be prevented if parent-child relationships remain good after the divorce, if the child receives adequate parental supervision, and if the custodial parent is not severely economically deprived (e.g., Harris et al, 1990 Landerman et al., 1991).

Ella Fitzgerald The Life

In 1932, when Ella was 15, her mother died of a heart attack at the young age of 38, and Ella's stepfather began to mistreat her so much that her aunt Virginia, who lived in Harlem, took her out of the da Silva home and into her own home. She lived with her aunt for two years, during which time she dropped out of school and began to engage in illegal numbers running. She also got some money by being a lookout for a brothel. The truant officers caught her and she was sent to Hudson, upstate, near Albany, to the New York State Training School for Girls. The place was brutal, and she experienced beatings, deprivations, and racism. She ran away in the fall of 1934, when she was 16, and went to Harlem, where she lived on the streets. She joined a crowd of street performers, dancing on the street for pennies, staying where she could. (Later on, in 1947, she would begin her lifelong charity work for abused and neglected children, working with war orphans. She founded the Ella Fitzgerald...

Therapeutic Interventions

Verbalize an acceptance of responsibility for own role in parent-child relationship problems, and in choosing addictive behavior as a means of coping with relationship conflicts. (6, 7, 8) 5. Ask the client to list instances when addictive behavior led to parent-child relationship conflicts. 8. Identify five positive and five negative aspects of the current parent-child relationship. (12) Ask the client to list five positive and five negative aspects of the parent-child relationship.

Window to Babys Brain

Psychological researchers have developed a number of studies using temperament as a window into an infant's brain. The focus of much of this research is to determine neural pathways for different aspects of temperament. The characteristic of slow to warm up which early child development theorists associated with a difficult baby continues to be a focal point of psychological research today, although the term inhibition is now preferred.

Cardiovascular Intensive Care Unit

Ized in a CICU typically present as newborns with congenital heart disease (diagnosed either prena-tally or postnatally), children and adolescents with a history of congenital heart disease who are manifesting ongoing or recurring cardiac symptomatology or require further interventions, patients with a history of congenital heart disease who are hospitalized for noncardiac concerns, or previously healthy children and adolescents with acquired heart disease. Representing a broad age range, CICU patients, including those awaiting or recovering from heart transplantation, undergo a variety of specialized diagnostic and medical procedures (e.g., echocardiogram, cardiac catheterization) and surgical interventions.

When the IFSP or IEP Meeting Doesnt Produce the Results You Want

Unfortunately, there are times when your best efforts as a parent and advocate do not produce a proposed IFSP or IEP that you feel is adequate for your child's needs. If this happens to you and you are unable to secure what your child requires in subsequent informal negotiation with the committee chairperson, you have the legal right to seek mediation and or a due process hearing. If you cannot resolve your differences with the early intervention or special education professionals through mediation, you have the right to request a fair hearing before a neutral administrative judge, who will have the power to decide on the services to be included in your child's IFSP or IEP. In the event of a due process hearing, both you and the state (or school district) will present testimony and evidence regarding the disputed areas of your child's IFSP or IEP. Most cases are resolved in a hearing. Yet in the off chance that yours is not, you have the right to appeal to a federal or state court or...

Coping Adaptation and Traumatic Stress

In pediatric critical care settings, as in other medical settings, individual factors that include coping style, developmental level, temperament, and past medical experiences may contribute to acute medical distress (Shaw and DeMaso 2006) and are important to consider in assessment and treatment planning. Several additional risk factors in PICU populations have been identified, including postex-tubation distress, prolonged or repeated admissions, and premorbid mood and anxiety disorders (Jones et al. 1992). Similarly, referral data from our institution suggest that previously healthy children with new-onset medical diagnoses or traumatic injuries, those with unanticipated critical care hospitaliza-tions, and patients with substantially longer than average PICU stays tend to be referred for psychological services at rates higher than those of the overall PICU population (Tunick et al. 2007). Anecdotal evidence from work at Children's Hospital Boston indicates that children with new or...

Lessons from Parents Who Learned the Hard

Don't try to fight for things you cannot win. While you may firmly believe in alternative treatments or that your child should get 50 hours of treatment a week, these are unrealistic goals. Try to set yourself up for success. On a final note, if you are in the process of asserting your due process rights, your child has the right to stay put in her present educational placement until a resolution has been achieved. This legal rule is called pendency. Your child's placement according to the last agreed IEP cannot be changed prior to an adjudication of the dispute, unless you and the district mutually agree on a new placement.

Concerns Regarding Parents and Families

Parents of a child in the NICU are faced with unique stressors related to the child's prematurity and the parents' unexpectedly early entry into parenthood of a medically fragile infant. Other common parental NICU experiences include postpartum depression, inability to hold or care for one's newborn child who has been farmed out of one's care for an indefinite period (Aisenstein 1987), stressors related to multiple births, residual matters involving assis-tive reproduction technology (e.g., in vitro fertilization), themes of loss from missing the typical rejoic Brothers and sisters of children requiring critical care hospitalization have unique needs and can benefit from psychosocial assessment and emotional support. Often, parents seek help about ways to talk to and support their other children at home, particularly advice about visiting the PICU and balancing the demands of child care and family life when one child requires hospitalization (DeMaso et al. 1997). At Children's...

Anticipatory Bereavement and End of Life

Parents can differ widely in their capacity, approaches, and preferences when faced with news that their child has not responded to treatment and that death is likely. Parents identify several priorities for pediatric end-of-life care, including honest and complete information, ready access to staff, communication and care coordination, support and emotional expression by staff, preservation of the integrity of the parent-child relationship, and faith (Meyer et al. 2006). The psychiatric consultant can be of help in raising and sorting through these important issues and facilitating family-provider meetings and decision making.

Nutritional Support Awful Dophilus and More

I also recommend bland food selections of cooked or warmed foods. Eliminate cold and frozen foods or liquids and cut back on raw foods that can tax a struggling digestive system. Chinese herbs prescribed by a qualified herbalist can also be used successfully to stop the frequent flow. I also recommend a nutritional supplement called acidophilus, which replaces the healthy bacteria that are frequently lost in diarrhea. These good guys will aid absorption in your child's bowels and help stop persistent diarrhea. One of the children I treat whose front tooth was taken by the tooth fairy said she liked taking the awful-dophilus because it made her feel good Watch your child with care if he or she suffers from diarrhea. Abdominal bloating, cramping, thin or watery stools, urgency, and occasional nausea characterize mild diarrhea. If you notice blood or mucus in the stools, sudden vomiting, weight loss, and fever, this suggests dysentery or infectious diarrhea. This is a more serious...

Pathways to Nonmonotonic Change

We tested the reality of this transfer of concrete schema process in a virtual reality-based scenario for teaching children that the Earth is round (Johnson et al., 1999, 2001 Ohlsson et al., 2000). We created a virtual planet that was small enough so the consequences of sphericality were immediately perceivable. For example, even minor

Add Just a Pinch Pediatric Back Massage

Lay your child, tummy down, on a blanket or across your lap. Gently pinch and lift the loose skin over the spine. Work your way from the bottom to the top, loosely lifting the skin, talking, singing, and loving your child. This stimulates the acu-points along the spine, which leads to all the major organs. The pinch and lift is soft and gentle and will relax and soothe your child. I've yet to meet a parent who doesn't dread the feverish, ear-tugging terrors that ear infections can bring to an otherwise happy baby. Otitis media (middle ear infection) is the most common form of ear infection. There were 30 million doctor visits for otitis media in 1997, which is up three-fold since 1975. Your conventional physician monitors your child's ears for any sign of fluid, redness, or inflammation, which could signal an increase in harmful bacteria. Antibiotics are usually the standard treatment in these situations. Unfortunately, the cycle of antibiotic use for recurrent ear infections can be...

Will my child be entitled to treatment services through early intervention or the school district over the summer

The treatment services granted through your child's IEP are provided during your school district's public school calendar year. In some cases, parents can negotiate in an IEP meeting for what is called an extended school year (ESY). The only way children are entitled to an ESY is if it can be proven that they will experience substantial regression without services between the end of the school year and the beginning of the next. While every child with an ASD may experience some level of regression over the summer, parents must prove that their child will regress to the point that it would take him until the following November to catch up to where he left off in June. This is often difficult to prove because, in essence, you are trying to predict your child's future but it can be done. Make sure you keep good records of your child's progress, including written progress reports, results of standardized tests, and doctors' recommendations. Be prepared for a battle, but go into the IEP...

We have an IEP in place where we live now but we are moving Do we use the same IEP in our new school district

If you do move, you will need to contact your county or district as soon as possible to request an IEP meeting. Make sure to send in advance or bring with you a copy of your current IEP, as well as all the documentation necessary to support your child's current service needs, such as referrals from doctors and specialists. Also bring in the results of all evaluations, including those conducted prior to the initial IEP meeting and current teacher and or therapist evaluations. At the new IEP meeting, make a case for why your child should continue to keep these services or express your concerns about why you think your child's current IEP should be changed. Often, your new county or district will be amenable to honoring your child's current IEP. In some cases, you may hear, We don't offer that service in this district. If this occurs and you feel that this particular service is crucial for your child, you may request that it be provided by outside agencies at the expense of the school...

Long Term Family Adjustment

Not surprisingly, parents of newly diagnosed childhood cancer patients are distressed. A meta-analysis of 29 studies found that compared with parents of healthy children, both mothers and fathers of children or adolescents recently diagnosed with cancer reported significantly more distress and problems with marital and family functioning, with mothers reporting more distress than fathers for up to 1 year after diagnosis. The mothers of the children with cancer also reported higher levels of family conflict than mothers of healthy children (Pai et al. 2007).

Mental Health Evaluation

During infancy and toddlerhood, children hold little, if any, understanding of death rather, death is equated with separation from caregivers. By preschool age, children develop an awareness of death however, they are unlikely to recognize that death is universal, an inevitable outcome for all living things including themselves and loved ones (Poltorak and Glazer 2006). Lacking the concept of irreversibility, young children are also unlikely to understand the From approximately 6 to 12 years of age, children develop logical reasoning skills and are able to understand more objective causes of death. They also grasp that all functions of the living physical body cease to exist at the time of death. Children's fears of death remain primarily centered on the concrete fear of being separated from parents and other loved ones. By adolescence, abstract reasoning enables them to anticipate the future in a way that younger children cannot. The experience of death for the adolescent becomes...

Individual Psychotherapy

Individual psychotherapy can play a critical role by helping children formulate a hierarchy of their chosen goals (e.g., graduation from high school, travel, admission to college). For this reason, children have the right to know their diagnosis and prognosis. The information can provide a time context within which to organize and reorganize priorities, thereby instilling an increased sense of control