Smart Parenting Guide

Law Of Attraction For Kids

Winsome Coutts, a mother of two and a grandmother, has a teacher's certification in education and she has taught several schools in Australia and Canada. She has also written hundreds of articles concerning self-development. Winsome has a passion for the Law of attraction, meditation, Self-help of Personal development, goal setting, and the secret movie. She decided to engage in the pursuit of knowledge in the mentioned areas throughout her life. Winsome has considerable experience raising children following her studies in Child psychology at University, and as a past teacher, a parent, and a grandparent. She knows that when children learn how to plan for their future and how to achieve their goals, they have a skill that will last them a lifetime. Winsome personally studied with two popular teachers, John Demartini and Bob Proctor and both are featured in The Secret' movie. For several decades since the early 90s, she has been goal setting for kids, visualizing, and applying the law of attraction. The law of attraction for kids is the first book ever to describe the law of attraction and the term goal setting. The language employed is simple for your children to understand and it will answer any question about the life-changing topics in a more detailed parent's guide. Continue reading...

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The effect on child development

Statistics show that the percentage of households with pets is significantly higher in families with children from the age of 6-15 years (Bonas et al 2000). Cats and dogs are often considered as family members and will instigate more social interaction within the home. The number of family households with pets may also be synonymous with the number of families in which both parents work and, in this case, an animal can provide company for children and a feeling of security when they are alone in the house.

Treatment for Custodial Fathers or Family Members

Treatment for fathers is also a central component to the success of intervention with mothers, especially if the couple is intact. Fathers who continue to support the denial of MBP significantly reduce the odds for successful treatment of mothers. In addition, treatment requires that fathers maintain an active presence in their families, a role that they have often abdicated. Through treatment, they are given the extended role of being an active parent with clear responsibility for protecting and nurturing the children. Some fathers have difficulty considering participation in therapy. They may avoid or deny that they had a role in their spouse's actions, even when they are able to acknowledge the abuse of their children. While in treatment, fathers also explore the meaning of anger and control issues growth in developing a more psychological mode of thinking is one sign of progress in treatment. A number of fathers need help with basic parenting skills. All of these strategies are...

If Your Child Is Younger Than Three Years Early Intervention and the IFSP

The IDEA provides federal grants to states that provide special education services to children with disabilities, beginning at the age of three. The act also provides federal grants to states that institute programs to provide early intervention services for children with disabilities, including ASDs. Any child younger than three years of age who has a developmental delay or a physical or mental condition likely to result in a developmental delay is eligible to receive early intervention services. If your child is determined to be eligible, these early intervention services must be provided to you at no cost. Early intervention services may be directed either toward your child or your entire family, and services for your child may include special instruction such as ABA, speech and language instruction, occupational therapy, physical therapy, and psychological evaluation. Early intervention services for families may include training to help the family reinforce or generalize a child's...

If Your Child Is Age Three to Twentyone Special Education and the IEP

The IDEA requires that states provide special education services to children with disabilities beginning at the age of three. Special education services are provided by local school districts. Therefore, if your child has been receiving early intervention services through the state early intervention office, you will stop working with this office, and you will begin to work with the special education department within your local school district. If your child is three years old or older and you have not received early intervention services through the state, your first contact will be with the district's special education department. If your child is between the ages of three and five, you will work with the district (in some cases regional) Committee for Preschool Special Education (CPSE). If your child is older than five, you will work with the district Committee for Special Education (CSE). These committees may be known by different names in your state. For example, in some states...

Issues in Child Psychology

As the field of child psychology acquires more tools and amasses expanding volumes of research, the issues it tackles grow in number and complexity. In this part, we cover some of the issues that have arisen in recent decades that reflect the increasing complexity of our world and the challenges faced by today's children. Among the topics we cover in Part 6 are children's mental and learning disorders, child maltreatment and abuse, and the digital revolution in children's learning and play.

Dual Phosphorylation Sites in MAP Kinase Family Members

Once it was cloned, it was apparent that MAP kinase is a member of a substantial family of proteins that may be classified into three main functional groups. The first of these mediate mitogenic and differentiation signals, and the other two are associated with cellular responses to stress and inflammatory cytokines. Members of GTPases homologous to Ras (rho family of GTPases), in particular Cdc42 and Rac, play a role in the initiation of these cascades. The MAP kinase family members operate in three pathways (Figure 8.6)

Cook with Your Kids Not for Them

Introduce your kids to healthy eating and the kitchen I've found that children are more interested and willing to eat unfamiliar foods when they participate in the preparation. Try some of the following suggestions Select a few nights each week and involve your kids with dinner planning and preparation. Designate different jobs for each child.

Tools for Improving Family Relationships after an Episode Educating Your Family

The first step in dealing effectively with family members after an episode is to educate them about your disorder. This is generally a good idea even if your family is functioning well, but it is especially important during your recovery period, when negative emotions are often at their peak. Flawed or incomplete information about bipolar disorder can cause your loved ones to be critical or overprotective of you. Make copies of the sidebar on pages 260-261, which summarizes the basic facts about bipolar disorder, so that you have it available for all family members (whether or not they have directly shared in your experience), including your adult or teenage children, parents, siblings, and other extended relatives. It is important to have a common language when communicating with close relatives about your symptoms or changes in functioning. Hidden within the different terms your family members use in discussing your behavior are often subtle differences in beliefs about what causes...

Parenthood Certification

Jack Westman and the advocacy organization Wisconsin Cares, Inc., have proposed a parenthood pledge as a step toward ensuring that all children have competent parents. This pledge would be made by mothers and fathers who, in order to be eligible, must not be under the legal and physical custody or guardianship of other persons or the state. Minors and developmentally disabled or incarcerated adults and their families would receive Parenthood Planning Counseling when their pregnancies are diagnosed in order to help them make decisions and choices regarding guardianship. If willing and able, the mother and or father's custodians or guardians would assume legal and physical custody of the newborn babies until the mother and or father become self-sufficient. Newborns without legal and physical custodians would come under the custody of the state, and an adoption plan would be made effective at childbirth. A modified birth certificate would become a parenthood certificate as well....

Your Childs Rights

The first major federal legislation entitling children with disabilities to an appropriate education was passed in 1975 under the title the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. It is this act that establishes the rights to which your child with an ASD is entitled. As a monetary appropriations law, this statute has to be reauthorized by Congress every few years. In 1990, it was renamed the IDEA. In 1997 and 2004, it was amended substantially during the reauthorization. You don't need to read the IDEA word for word, but as a parent who will be advocating for your child, you do need to understand the meaning of certain key phrases contained in it to understand exactly what your child is and is not guaranteed. The concepts embodied in the law that are really important for you to understand are eligibility, free and appropriate public education (FAPE), and least restrictive environment.

Communicating with Your Baby

I feel that it is very important to learn to listen to your children. Yon can learn to listen to your baby even at its very early age. Listening means focusing your attention, not in a worried way, but in an observing manner. You want to learn what your baby wants and needs. You can

Choosing1 a Doctor for Your Baby

It may turn out that you, the parent, will consult your child's doctor more than any other physician during your own life. Therefore, it's important to choose the kind of person who will suit you or if you find that you've made an unsatisfactory choice, that you'll be able to improve the existing relationship with a frank discussion or, if that doesn't work either, that you'll be able to change doctors with some success this time. Pediatrician or family doctor A pediatrician is trained to care for the special needs of children and teenagers. The medical education of a pediatrician focuses on child development, the prevention of illness and the physical and emotional problems that are unique to children. In a majority of communities, especially if you live in a small town, there are no pediatricians. But this doesn't mean that the baby can't have expert care. A family doctor who regularly takes care of children can do an entirely satisfactory job treating a great majority of children's...

Arranging Help for

There should be help for the mother for at least a couple of weeks, preferably a month, if it can be arranged. In many cases the most appropriate person is the mother's mother. They know each other's wishes and quirks. The grandmother is usually delighted to be that close to the baby from the beginning. On the other hand, there are many mothers who prefer not to call on their mothers they are generally women who have felt belittled by their mothers all throughout childhood. They're afraid that their mothers will try to take over, and will make them feel inadequate. They may express this as an assumption that the grandmother, being of a previous generation, won't be up-to-date in her knowledge of child care.

When a Mother Thinks About Going Back to Work

Whether the mother takes full care for one, three, six, nine, or twelve months, the shift to the substitute child care person should be gradual so that the baby will feel familiar and secure with the substitute before the mother begins absenting herself. Though it may seem like an extravagance, it is vitally important, from

Separation Anxiety Six Months to Six Years

I think something should be mentioned here about a child's separation anxiety with relation to sleep. If a child is fearful of separation, or has other stresses going on in her life, such as a newborn baby in the family, an illness or death of a family member, a move, or a divorce of the parents, then you can certainly expect these anxieties to disturb her sleep. She may wake more often, begin wetting the bed after being dry for some time, or begin having nightmares. If these are disturbing enough, then you may want to consult your child's doctor, a developmental-behavioral pediatrician, or a child psychologist in order to understand the situation and best help you as your child goes through this stressful period.

If I Have a Baby Boy Should He Be Circumcised

What I recommended about circumcision in early editions of Baby and Child Care and what I recommend now are quite different. When I wrote the first edition of Baby and Child Care, ten years after starting practice, I explained that there are three possible ways of dealing with the foreskin. I favored circumcision within a few days of birth because there would be no chance of a physician recommending the operation later in childhood and scaring the bejeebers out of a little boy. I also leaned toward circumcision right after birth because of the universal belief in medical circles at that time that women mar- The American Academy of Pediatrics came to the conclusion that there is no good medical reason to recommend routine circumcision. I made the same recommendation in the 1976 revision of Baby and Child Care. I came out more emphatically against retraction, as ineffective, potentially distorting to the penis, and distressing to parent and baby. I advised leaving the foreskin alone.

Parents Biggest Newborn Concerns

Since the first edition of Baby and Child Care, many parents have written to me about specific concerns during the newborn period. This is an unsettling time for all families, especially after the birth of a first newborn. With fewer parents of young children now living near their own parents or other relatives, many of the physical and emotional aspects of caring for a baby are no longer taught to new parents. It is for these reasons that 1 try to answer each question in clear and practical terms. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is a rare condition where a baby, usually under six months of life and healthy, is found dead in a crib. The cause is not known but we think that it is a result of poor coordination between the brain's control center for breathing and the baby's lungs. The good news is that we know a few things that will decrease your baby's risk for SIDS. Freeing the home of smoking, feeding the baby breast milk, and placing the infant on her back when in the crib have...

Sleep Problems

If this is the first cry of the night, and if this is a baby who usually sleeps through the night, then you would want to go in and see about the baby. Maybe he needs his diaper changed or is unhappy about something else. He may be teething and even be running a low-grade fever. A lot would depend on the age and circumstances. It's not likely that you are spoiling your child unless it develops into a habit where he is continuously demanding your attention all during the night, and no one is getting any sleep.

Toilet Training1

As I recount the various kinds of toilet training advice that I gave to my New York patients when I was in pediatric practice and that I wrote into different editions of Baby and Child Care, I stniggled to find the best, the most surefire method, over a period of about forty years. It will illustrate the common hurdles to training young children to use the toilet successfully and that most babies are nut ready to toilet train until after two years of age. ers about other problems who said incidentally that they had stumbled on a perfect solution for toilet training. With their older children they had struggled long and hard to overcome vigorous resistance to training. When a third child came along they dreaded a repetition, and procrastinated. Rut by about two or two and one-fourth years these children, after observing their older siblings using the toilet, decided all by themselves to do the same and became trained not only for BMs but for bladder control I enthusiastically passed...

About The Executive Advisory Board

CROPLEY spent several years as a school teacher before obtaining his Ph.D. in Educational Psychology at the University of Alberta (Canada) in 1965, and subsequently worked as a university teacher in Australia, Canada, Germany and Latvia. He retired in 1998. He is the author or editor of 25 books on creativity, lifelong learning, adaptation of migrants, and research methodology. These have appeared in English, German, Italian, Latvian, Spanish, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Hungarian, Korean, and Chinese. From 1989-1996 he was editor of the European Journal for High Ability (now known as High Ability Studies), published by the European Council for High Ability. He received the 1997 Creativity Award of the World Council for Gifted and Talented Children, and was elected Visiting Fellow of the British Psychological Society in 2004. In 2004 he received an honorary doctorate from the University of Latvia, and in 2008 he was made an Officer of the Order of the Three Stars by the...

Theoretical Perspectives Related to Adaptation

In his seminal book, Beyond Universals in Cognitive Development, Feldman described a Universal-Unique continuum that portrays both how individuals move through levels of development in a given domain and how their creative products affect the world. There are five levels in this continuum universal, cultural, domain specific, idiosyncratic, and unique. Universal development is the type of cognitive growth that emerges without instruction and across all cultures, such as learning to conserve number and substance. Cultural development is the result of growing up in a given context, such as celebrating Thanksgiving in the United States. Subcultural experiences, such as specific manners, dress, or habits of speech also fit here. Adults in the environment teach children this information by offering them encounters with cultural events, values, or practices, but without formal instruction. Domain-specific development requires instruction by skilled teachers whose pedagogical skills and...

Discovering Childhood

The pioneers Freud, Erikson, Piaget, and Skinner gave us a variety of perspectives on the most essential aspects of a child's development. After a hundred years, theirs are still the primary schools of thought that govern research and practice in child psychology. When can an association between any two variables be labeled cause and effect For this relatively new science, methodologies and standards for new studies and experiments have emerged to pave the way to the future.

Professional Organizations and Journals

For psychiatrists, the major professional organization is the Royal College of Psychiatrists. This organization has a liaison section, referred to in the United Kingdom as a special interest group, which provides peer support, disseminates professional information, and organizes an annual conference. For clinical psychologists, the major professional organization is the British Psychological Society. Comparable organizations are the Association for Child Psychotherapy for child psychotherapists and the General Social Work Council for social workers. Journals that publish in the field include the Archives of General Pediatrics, British Journal of Psychiatry, Child and Adolescent Mental Health, and Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry.

The procedure for euthanasia

When the animal has been pronounced dead, it should be made to look comfortable and at peace. Restraints or catheters should be removed a clean absorbent pad should be put beneath the pet and a blanket placed over the body leaving the head exposed. Any syringes and bottles should be disposed of as soon as possible. The owners who have stayed may wish to spend some time alone with their pet or they may want the veterinary surgeon or veterinary nurse to remain with them. Owners who have not been present should be offered the opportunity to view the pet's body, and other family members or friends should be given this option too. Some owners may be very shaken and it may help to offer them a cup of tea before travelling home others may

Do I Need an Anesthesia Specialist for My Child

If your managed-care health plan sends your child for surgery to a facility that is ill-equipped to care for infants and children, that is staffed by individuals who are not adequately trained in the care of pediatric patients, and employs surgeons and anesthesiologists who are only occasionally taking care of pediatric patients all for financial reasons please inform the health plan that the scientific literature suggests that this may not be the best medical care for your child and they may be placing your child at added risk.

Publisher S Acknowledgements

Hughes, C., Oksanen, H., Taylor, A., Jackson, J., Murray, L., Caspi, A., et al. (2002). 'I'm gonna beat you ' SNAP an observational paradigm for assessing young children's disruptive behaviour in competitive play. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43(4), 507-516. Karmiloff-Smith, A., Thomas, M., Annaz, D., Humphreys, K., Ewing, S., Brace, N., et al. (2004). Exploring the Williams syndrome face-processing debate the importance of building developmental trajectories. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(7), 1258-1274. Meins, E., Fernyhough, C., Wainwright, R., Das Gupta, M., Fradley, E., & Tuckey, M. (2002a). Maternal mind-mindedness and attachment security as predictors of Theory of Mind understanding. Child Development, 73, 1715-1726. Savage, R., & Carless, S. (2005). Phoneme manipulation not onset-rime manipulation ability is a unique predictor of early reading. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(4), 1297-1308. Woolfe, T., Want, S. C., & Siegal, M....

The First Child Psychologists

The first scientists studying childhood did not necessarily treat children. Still, they each wanted to identify when and how children develop the ability to think, speak, learn, and love. For the most part, these theorists were also reformers. They wanted to make children's lives better by applying their insights to contemporary child-raising practices and education. Three general perspectives on child development emerged in the first half of the twentieth century. They are listed here separately, although ideas and results of studies from one often impacted the others, sometimes significantly.

Collection of Psychosocial Data

Information from patient dialogue can be supplemented by standard measures such as health questionnaires (e.g., SF 36), screening inventories (e.g., Beck Depression Inventory), and stress, coping, and social support tools. Other areas include interviews with family members, including structured assessments (e.g., family APGAR) review of existing records (e.g., school records) consultation with mul-tidisciplinary colleagues (e.g., psychologist, occupational therapist) observation of the patient's environment through home visits and consultation with cultural informants and translators when needed.

Important Times for Psychosocial Interventions

A significant medical diagnosis may precipitate emotional distress or psychosocial upheaval and requires physician attention to the context of the patient's life. Effective physician intervention may involve anticipating the nature of the potential family crisis, including family members in discussions with the patient, and addressing family needs for support. Timely provision of accurate information can enhance a patient's sense of control. Direct support by the physician during the initial adjustment phase can minimize more serious emotional disruption.

Beliefs on Which It Is Based

Native American healing is characterized also by its communal nature. Many healing ceremonies are conducted in groups, and individual patients often are surrounded by chanting or praying family members when receiving treatment at home or in a hospital. This is in marked contrast to healing in many other systems, which presume a one-on-one relationship between care-giver and patient. It differs also from Western systems that encourage a high degree of confidentiality between doctor and patient.

Am I at Increased Risk If a Relative Died While Under Anesthesia

The three most common causes of death under anesthesia for any patient, in order of frequency, are the patient's coexisting medical or surgical diseases that brought him or her to surgery surgical misadventure and anesthetic mishap. None of these causes of death will affect surviving family members' risk of anesthesia. These causes of death associated with anesthesia and surgery are by far the most common, and they numerically dwarf all others. But how does the anesthesiologist distinguish between these much more common causes of death associated with anesthesia and sur

When Anesthesiologists Become Detectives

If old charts and reliable information about the relative's death under anesthesia are lacking, the anesthesiologist should try to estimate the contribution of coexisting diseases to the death. It is incumbent on your anesthesiologist to try to obtain this information from old records or from you during the preoperative interview. If the anesthesiologist cannot reasonably attribute your relative's death under anesthesia to underlying disease, surgery misadventure, or anesthesia mishap, then there is small chance that the blood relative's death maybe related to a genetically transmitted condition that may potentially affect all surviving family members.

Why Study Artistic Creativity

Research on artistic creativity can be done for non-utilitarian purposes, as an intellectual exercise, and also for practical reasons selecting creative people, usually through tests improving the educational curriculum training leadership in businesses and organizations determining the kinds of audiences attracted to the arts contributing to an understanding of the relationship between creativity and psychopathol-ogy and using drama, paintings, and literature in art therapy. Furthermore, whatever is learned about artists of renown and works of art that revolutionized the field (Picasso and Cubism, the Impressionists and the use of light) - so-called big-C creativity - is applicable to ordinary people in everyday circumstances, like raising children, or small-c creativity. Big-C creativity reflects the highest and most obvious instances, though, which makes it clearer and easier to specify than little-c creativity in developing theories and doing research.

The Nature Of Development

Child psychology today is surprisingly free of interest in building models of general development. The discipline is filled with hyperactive attempts to accumulate data, but attempts to make sense of the data, in terms of models of basic developmental processes, are relatively rare. (Valisner, 1998 189)

Should Similarity Even Be a Field of Study Within Cognitive Science

Furthermore, it may turn out that the calculation of similarity is fundamentally different for different domains (see Medin, Lynch, & Solomon, 2000, for a thoughtful discussion of this issue). To know how to calculate the similarity of two faces, one would need to study faces specifically and the eventual account need not inform researchers interested in the similarity of words, works of music, or trees. A possible conclusion is that similarity is not a coherent notion at all. The term similarity, similar to the bug or family values, may not pick out a consolidated or principled set of things.

Anxiety and Depression

In family members, complicated grief, also called unresolved grief, is grief persisting more than 6 months and occurring at least 6 months after death. Normally, grief symptoms fade over time, but those of complicated grief linger or worsen, resulting in a chronic state of mourning. Although complicated grief can lead to depression, it may be distinct and associated with long-term functional impairment (Prigerson et al., 1995). Parents who have not successfully worked through their grief are at increased risk of mental and physical problems 4 to 9 years later (Lannen et al., 2008).

Therapeutic Interventions

Family members verbalize what each person can do to assist the client in recovery. (24, 25) 24. In a family session, teach the family members the connection between ADD and addiction, going over what each family member can do to assist the client in recovery (e.g., go to Alanon meetings, reinforce positive coping skills, keep expectations realistic, go to ADHD support group). 25. Provide the family members with information about ADHD (e.g., You Mean I'm Not Lazy, Stupid, or Crazy by Kelly and Ramundo).

Introduction About Alzheimers Disease

One day may be much better or worse than another. Your loved one can improve or regress mysteriously, appearing to skip a stage or to recover long-lost faculties for a moment. He or she may settle into routines making life more or less comfortable, then all of a sudden engage in irrational behavior. There may be rare but wonderful windows when your family member miraculously emerges from his or her confusion for a brief period and then just as strangely returns, as if nothing ever happened. The signs of this disease are all too inconsistent, making acceptance and understanding difficult. Activities may be performed over and over. Simple activities may be the only ones your family member can accomplish. The analogy of returning to childhood is often used. If, as a child, your loved one helped her parents clean and put away the dishes, this may again become a pleasurable and satisfying responsibility. Finally, one must come to grips with the possibility that the home may not be the best...

Is the Disorder Familial

However, psychiatric disorders affect emotions, thinking, and interpersonal relationships. Thus, nonparticipation may not be random with respect to illness status family members who are ill may be more likely to refuse participation than those who are well. Paranoid schizophrenia provides a good example of this problem. Paranoia leads to distrusts of strangers, friends, and family. This makes it difficult for a paranoid person to agree to answer the many questions required by psychiatric interviews. Family Study versus Family History. In planning a family study of psychiatric illness we must choose between two approaches for the evaluation of family members the family history and family study methods (Faraone et al., 1999). The family history method collects diagnostic information about all family members by interviewing only one or several informants per family. This method uses a specialized instrument such as the interview for Family History Research...

Long Term Adaptation to

Perrin (1985) defined psychosocial adjustment as encompassing psychological adjustment, social adjustment, and school performance. Studies have shown that children and their families are remarkably resilient in adapting to the challenges presented by a physical illness. The majority of chronically ill children and their parents do not have identifiable mental health, behavioral, or educational difficulties (Wallander and Thompson 1995). However, research has shown that children with chronic physical illnesses have an increased risk of subthreshold or subclinical mental health problems (Wallander and Thompson 1995). The rate of emotional disorders in children under age 18 with physical illnesses has been found to be approximately 25 , compared with 18 -20 in medically healthy children (Wallander and Thompson 1995).

Staging of malignant disease

The staging process will inevitably follow on from the initial diagnostic procedure. This can be a tremendously anxious time for the patient and family members close friends. The patient has been given a diagnosis of cancer, and will inevitably become concerned about the delay in the start of treatment while waiting for further

My son doesnt speak properly and has trouble communicating in general

Children with ASDs may also have issues with receptive language, which relates to their abilities to understand. It can be confusing for parents to figure out exactly what their children with ASDs actually understand, especially if their children can't offer verbal responses, don't look up when their own names are called, or seem to ignore simple commands. But not responding isn't the same as not understanding. And while we can't crawl into our children's heads to figure out the difference, research has shown that most children with ASDs have some level of understanding. Children may understand the names of familiar people or objects, or comprehend simple instructions, but not appear to understand. It has been shown that their responses can be taught to them so that they demonstrate behaviors indicative of understanding. For example, Jake was taught through behavioral intervention how to respond to Go get your cup. Initially, he had to be manually prompted. His behavioral therapist...

Estimating Risk to Relatives

Lack of Statistical Independence Among Family Members. When comparing a group of relatives of bipolar patients with relatives of normal controls on the presence or absence of bipolar disorder, one of the many statistics available for assessing association in a 2 X 2 contingency table would seem to be suitable. The rows of the table would be formed by the probands diagnosis (bipolar or not) and the columns by the relatives diagnosis (bipolar or not). This would be fine if we had sampled only one relative from each family.

Medical Play Observation

Medical play observation provides an invaluable window into the world of preverbal, young, or otherwise reluctant patients and their families. These observations can reveal a child's underlying feelings or concerns and be helpful in assessing interactions with family members, especially when professionals have questions about parenting, feeding, and or attachment. The consultant should make observations To assess the parent-child relationship, the consultant should ask to observe parents interacting as they usually would at home for approximately 1520 minutes of unstructured parent-child or family play. The consultant might introduce this request by saying, It can be a real challenge to parent a child who's not feeling well. I would like to see how it goes for you, and then we can brainstorm together about any suggestions I might have. Specific issues to observe during the session include the parents' ability to engage their child and read their child's cues, both verbally and...

Standardized Assessment Measures

Although no empirically based general psychosocial assessment interviews or measures are applicable in the field of pediatric psychosomatic medicine, some specialty-specific assessment instruments have been developed. For example, the Psychosocial Assessment Tool (Pai et al. 2008) is used to assess psychosocial stress in family members of children newly diagnosed with cancer. Similarly, a number of measures of parental stress have been adapted for parents of medically ill infants or for parents of infants hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (Carter and Miles 1989 Miles and Brunssen 2003 Miles et al. 1993). Also, numerous instruments are available for use in the assessment of specific clinical symptom pictures, such as the assessment of delirium (Trzepacz et al. 2001) and of psychosocial risk factors in pediatric organ transplant recipients (Fung and Shaw 2008). Measures used in the assessment of pain and eating disorders are reviewed in Chapters 9 and 10, respectively.

Foundations of Personality

The many ways that a consistent bond of warmth and affection positively impact a child's growth will fill in the nurture side of the child development equation in this part. The research on attachment chemistry will amaze along with the negative effects on a child's developing brain when a secure attachment is missing from his early life.

Communication Among Family and Friends

When a loved one is stricken with cancer and is seriously ill, a network of support is often created and a vigil is maintained. Too often supporters, who may have other obligations to balance including their own health, become exhausted. Some of this fatigue is often needless. Friends and family members may be afraid to ask for help from others, unaware that these others feel helpless, too, and given the chance would enjoy the opportunity to rally around. Overwhelmed by their own fear and needs, family members may unconsciously compete for attention, adopting the role of the martyr or vying to be seen as the good son, daughter, or spouse. Even in the best of circumstances when love is the main motivator family members can literally make themselves sick with stress at a time when openness and a level head are most needed. How stress is handled around the patient can affect the doctors and nurses, who are stressed themselves. Families must strike a balance between advocating for their...

Relationship to Creativity

Evidence for the development of their creativity focuses on several variables, cited in VanTassel-Baska's 1998 chapter on creativity, all of which the Bronte sisters exhibited deeply. Informally, the Brontes developed the facilitating processes necessary to create original products in a given domain, such as fluency, a flair for novelty, insight and intuition, use of imagery, and an ability to use metacognitive strategies effectively. Their early childhood preoccupations clearly enhanced these process skills and honed them to high levels for use in adulthood. Their internal factors of creativity include intelligence such personality variables as openness, intensity, and nonconformity psychoticism and mental energy. The Brontes all possessed these qualities and exhibited them in life as well as in their work. Their external factors of creativity include the powerful role of educational variables, strong family values that support the work, and the social-cultural context. While not all...

Family Responsibilities

Neither of her brothers moved to Paris, but remained in Pennsylvania where they had successful careers and raised their families. In 1868 her older brother Alexander married Lois Buchanan, a niece of President Buchanan and had four children, while her younger brother Gardner married Eugenia Carter in 1883 and took his bride to Paris to meet the family. They had three children. Cassatt enjoyed painting her nieces, nephews, and other family members, but the portraits of her sister Lydia from 1877 to 1882 are among her best works of art. They include Lydia Reading the Morning Paper, 1878, Five O'clock Tea, 1880, Lydia Crocheting in the Garden at Marly, 1880 (Figure 2), and Lydia Working at a Tapestry Frame, 1881.

Preventable Causes of Awareness

When an anesthesiologist is informed postoperatively that a patient under her care is reporting that he was awake during surgery, there is a natural tendency toward denial or avoidance. The typical first response is for the anesthesiologist to try to convince the patient, the family, and even the caregivers involved that the patient was only dreaming (perhaps saying, Dreaming under general anesthesia is normal, which, by the way, is not true). If a patient is in such a light plane of anesthesia that he is able to dream and recall the experience, he was inadequately anesthetized for surgery. If the anesthesiologist is unable to convince the patient he was dreaming or hallucinating, she may try to convince the surgeon, the nursing staff, and even the family members that the whole experience described by the patient is imagined.

Impact of Skin Disease on the Patient

Patients with rashes have always evoked feelings of revulsion. Rashes have been associated with impurity and evil. Even today, friends and family may reject the individual with a skin disease. Patients with skin that is red, oozing, discolored, or peeling are rejected not only by family members but perhaps even by their physicians. At other times, skin lesions cause others to stare at the patient, which causes further discomfort. Some skin disorders may be associated with such extreme physical or emotional pain that marked depression may result and, on occasion, lead to suicide.

How Plastic Is a Childs Brain

The neuroscience of child development does not say that the case is closed for a child's emotional and cognitive brain growth by age 3, 6, or late adolescence. In fact, research increasingly provides more and more evidence that the brain never stops growing and changing, throughout adolescence and well into adulthood and

Ethical issues in developmental psychology research

Over the past few years, there has been an increasing emphasis on ethical issues in psychological research. Needless to say, research with children calls for scrupulous consideration of these issues. The most detailed guidelines for the ethical treatment of children in psychological investigations are provided by the Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD). Full details of the guidelines can be read on the SRCD website at

Developmental Structuralist Model and the Developmental Individual Difference Relationship Based Approach

The developmental structuralist model has given birth to the developmental, individual-difference, relationship-based (DIR) approach to assessment and treatment. The DIR model, which is a developmental biopsychosocial approach, attempts to facilitate understanding of children and their families by identifying and systematizing the child's essential functional developmental capacities. These include the child's 1) functional-emotional developmental level 2) individual differences in sensory reactivity, processing, and motor planning and 3) relationships and interactions with caregivers, family members, and others.

Alternative Family Structures

One alternative family form consists of two adults of the same sex, sometimes raising children. About 2.4 of men and 1.3 of women in the U.S. identify themselves as homosexual or bisexual and have same-gender partners (Laumann et al. 1994). Although information on the number and characteristics of gay and lesbian couples has not generally been available, in the U.S., one estimate suggests that in 1990 fewer than 1 of adult men lived with a male partner and about the same percentage of adult women lived with a lesbian partner (Black et al. 2000). These estimates are based on responses to the unmarried partner'' question in the U.S. census and are thus thought to be conservative estimates of the numbers of same-sex cohabitors. This is the case because some of those living in gay and lesbian couples do not identify as such in survey and other data. Legal and social recognition of these unions as marriages is generally not available in the United States.

Interviewing Specific Groups

Because family medicine is a specialty of breadth as well as depth, the clinical interview can be challenging. Communicating effectively with patients and family members who have various communication abilities and various agendas is a challenging task that is never fully mastered. However, experience achieved through years of clinical practice does result in learned techniques that can help the clinical interview flow smoothly and create a pleasant experience for the patient and physician. The development of a healthy patient-physician relationship is itself therapeutic and is enhanced by the conduct of a productive clinical encounter. Successful approaches of practicing clinicians for communicating with typical patient types are listed in the Pearls.

Early Life and Family

One of the most important developments in her artistry occurred in 1876 when the family moved to Nogent-Sur-Seine. The family hired a tutor for the children, and Camille, 12 years old, continued with her nascent art, getting family members to model for her. It happened that the sculptor, Alfred Boucher, had a home near the Claudel family at this time, and he was struck by the young girl's talent. Although it is not clear how much instruction her gave her, he undoubtedly introduced Camille to some techniques, art exhibits, and eventually to other sculptors, most notably Auguste Rodin. During this time, Camille sculpted works that showed such promise that an art critic, Morhardt, later commented upon them in an article. In 1881, Louis-Prosper established his family in a home in Paris while he continued to live in the country. There is some dispute as to why Camille's family split at this time. One theory is that Louis-Prosper wanted his growing children to receive the kind of education...

General Interview Perspective Be Careful

Avoid being inserted into the middle of a family conflict by well-meaning family members. It is generally not helpful to agree to keep a secret ( Don't tell them I told you this, but ). It is better to agree to discuss the subject and to insist on honesty with the patient ( Your daughter has shared with me that she is concerned about your drinking or ability to live alone or angry outbursts ). Playing along with the secret is usually unfair to patients and not in their best interest. Instead, it is often a perpetuation of the family's enabling behavior that has led to the perpetuation of the patient's problem, and at the least, it makes further communication with the patient and the formulation of plans difficult and uncomfortable.

Application of Construct Validity to Psychiatric Diagnosis

The third criterion involves the use of family history to contribute to validation. The assumption behind the use of family history is that many psychiatric disorders run in families. Thus, an increased prevalence of the same disorder in family members can be used as an indicator that the diagnosis is a valid entity. Family history can be thought of as a concurrent validator (in reference to ill relatives who are currently alive) or as a postdictive validator (in reference to relatives who were ill but who are now deceased).

Age Considerations for the Interview

Drugs Use any illegal substances Legal Tobacco Alcohol How often Any use by family members in the home 8. If the topic is appropriate and time permits, consider discussing the patient's feelings regarding end-of-life issues. Offer help in developing a living will, and encourage patients to discuss their feelings with the closest family members. 5. Ask family members or friends accompanying the patient for their perspectives.

Short Term Changes in Mental Function

Postoperative delirium is another common short-term mental status change seen postoperatively in the elderly. Delirium, by definition, is a transient disorder with a sudden onset of mental-status changes characterized by confusion, disorientation, hallucinations, delusions, and overactivity of psychomotor autonomic nervous system function. Patients with delirium have disorganized and incoherent thinking. Short-term memory is impaired. Patients are often disoriented to time, but not infrequently they are also disoriented to place and person. Attention disturbance is always present, with the patient easily distracted. The patient often has no idea where they are, why they are there, and at times do not even recognize family members. This is usually seen on the first or second postoperative day, and symptoms are worse at night. The literature reports between 10 percent and 60 percent of elderly patients may experience postoperative delirium depending on the magnitude of surgery and the...

How Early To Begin Treatment

There are two key words that you need to know when it comes to getting your child treatment early intervention. Early intervention means that you must step in and begin treatment for your child as soon as possible after he or she is diagnosed with an ASD The earlier the better. Why so early Studies show that a child's neural plasticity or the brain's ability to be shaped is at its maximum when the child is very young. Have you ever wondered how it's possible for some typical children to learn a foreign language at such a young age It's because their brains are especially receptive to taking in new information and can form new connections. In essence, a brain can be rewired. How early should you begin an intervention program with your child Treatment can begin as early as twelve or fourteen months of age, but in most cases, treatment begins later. Dr. Sally Ozonoff, associate professor of psychiatry at the University of California Davis M.I.N.D. Institute states, It's been shown pretty...

Relationships and Interactions

Relationship and affective interaction patterns include developmentally appropriate, or inappropriate, interactive relationships with caregiver, parent, and family patterns. Interaction patterns between the child and caregivers and family members bring the child's biology into the larger developmental progression and can contribute to the negotiation of the child's functional developmental capacities. Developmentally appropriate interactions mobilize the child's intentions and affects and enable the child to broaden his or her range of experience at each level of development and move from one functional developmental level to the next. In contrast, interactions that do not deal with the child's functional developmental level or individual differences can undermine progress. For example, a caregiver who is aloof may not be able to engage an infant who is underreactive and self-absorbed.

Vulnerabilities To Human Trafficking And Prostitution

Violence against women, which increases women's vulnerability to trafficking, is at pandemic levels. Conservative international statistics indicate that at least one of three women has been beaten, coerced into sex, or otherwise abused in her lifetime.13 A World Health Organization study found that as many as 47 of women report that their first sexual experience was rape. In some communities laws prioritize family values over the rights of women to be free of sexual assault.14 Every year, as many as five thousand women around the world are victims of honor killings murders that are rationalized because a woman engaged in sex without community approval. Many societies have laws with loopholes that allow perpetrators to act with impunity. For example, in a number of countries, a rapist can go free under the penal code if he proposes to marry the victim, with women often blamed for having been raped by men.15

What Intensive Intervention Means

What does this 25-hour-per-week recommendation mean The amount of hours per week refers to comprehensive programs that provide a foundation for your child's intervention program, including treatments such as ABA or TEACCH (to be described in the next few pages), which are supplemented with services such as speech therapy and or occupational therapy. Twenty-five hours of treatment services may be conducted at home, in a school setting, or both, depending on your child's age and needs. But just because a specific treatment is well established doesn't mean that it requires 25 hours per week. For example, speech therapy and occupational therapy are usually incorporated into a comprehensive program or given in addition to a comprehensive Keep in mind, however, that 25 hours of treatment per week does not mean trying 1 hour of a certain kind of therapy, 1 hour of a different kind of therapy, and continuing on up to 25 different treatments. A hodgepodge of too many different treatments has...

What You Need To Know Before Beginning Your Search For Treatments

Speaking with other parents of children with ASDs who've experienced what you're going through can be extremely helpful they can be both empa-thetic when sharing their own personal experiences and rational when getting you in the right mindset to find treatments. One mother suggested that instead of thinking of myself as Jake's Mom during my research, I should think of myself as a researcher for another child. This helped me become less emotional and more objective in making an intelligent decision for our son. Choose whatever method helps you focus and motivates you. Just don't delay in getting your child treatment. The best way to begin the process of deciding what treatment is right for your child is to consider the treatment recommendations made by the doctor or professional who diagnosed and evaluated your child. Recommendations usually include more than one treatment based on your child's needs, but because intensive treatment is recommended, usually one treatment is used as the...

The Computer as Productivity Tools

Spender appraises that as we move from book culture to digital culture, we are on the brink of being able to rethink the entire process of teaching and learning. Adler strongly believes that the challenge is in helping children learn to use a home computer to bring out their imagination and curiosity - and learn when to turn it off in favor of more traditional playthings. 6. And, as an entertainment tool, computers and various game software keep children involved for hours and just like Monopoly, many entertainment programs help children develop important skills.

Risk of Anesthesia and Surgery and the Importance of Location

The pediatric patient is at special risk during anesthesia and surgery. I would bring my child only to a facility that regularly cares for children and has a staff trained in pediatric care. The problems of children are entirely different than adults, and the way these problems are managed in children are different. This applies equally to inpatient and outpatient pediatric surgery and anesthesia. If your insurance plan sends you to a facility that only occasionally cares for pediatric patients, I would inform the company that the literature suggests this may not be the best care for your child.

Consent of Minors as a Legal Issue

As noted above, legally, in the school setting, informed consent for psychological services rests with the parent of a minor child. Legislators and the courts generally have presumed that minors are not developmentally competent to consent to (or refuse) psychological assessment or treatment on their own. The courts have viewed parents as typically acting in their children's best interests and have reasoned that allowing minors a right to consent to (or refuse) services or treatment independent of parental wishes might be disruptive to the parent-child relationship and interfere with effective treatment programs (Parham v. J.R1979).

Your Surgeon and Risk

The experience of the surgeon doing your operation or your child's operation does make a big difference in your outcome. There are studies that show that complication rates for the occasional pediatric surgeon are higher than the pediatric surgeon specialist, even for operations as simple as a hernia repair.10 This becomes more significant as the child becomes younger and the surgery more invasive.11 Based on my observations as a pediatric and cardiac anesthesiologist for more than twenty years and based on the scientific literature, I would only allow a pediatric surgeon specialist to operate on my child.

Gender Change Out of Demographic Change

In all of these cases of resistance, we can see another way of viewing the relationship between gender and demographic behavior the way that the direction of influence can vary. In Kenya, increased access to contraceptives has given women new space to negotiate their relationships to men. In Japan, lower fertility and delayed marriage may lead to changes in women's and men's lives that will result in increased opportunities for women outside the home and or more shared responsibility by men for home and child care tasks. In China, lower fertility has come with high sex ratios at birth and new dangers to girls and women living under two competing pressures from the state and the family. While there are many ways that demographic change could influence gender relations and hierarchies in a society, this is not an area that has received a lot of attention. The work above speaks to the importance of this aspect of demographic change. Perhaps the bulk of research in this area has been done...

Child Is Part Part of a Family

No child grows up alone. So in Chapter 5 we define parental competency in light of child development research. There's surprising new information to share about the impact of siblings and being the only child. Then, because more than half of children younger than 18 in the United States live with a single parent for at least five years, we look at the short- and long-term psychological impact of single parenthood and divorce on children. Within every family there is a unique culture and rules that shape a child's sense of self, as well as her morality, and the degrees of self-discipline and emotional resilience she carries into young adulthood. Different avenues of research in child psychology provide important new perspectives on these topics in Chapter 6.

Psychotherapeutic Interventions

Family therapies attempt to alter interactions among family members for the purpose of improving the functioning of the family unit while also recognizing each family member as a distinct individual member of this unit. Medical family therapy is the biopsychosocial treatment of individuals affected by physical illness it emphasizes the collaboration among the medical team, the family, and the family therapist, with the goals of recognizing the impact of the illness on the family and providing a framework for working with the illness while promoting active involvement of the family in the management of the illness (Sholevar and Sahar 2003). Most families with a physically ill child adjust to the demands of living with the illness while maintaining an intact family structure however, this adjustment can be altered when an individual family member suffers from depression (Jacobs 2000). Family therapy may be an effective adjunct treatment for the physically ill child with depression.

What Is the Intensity of the Treatment

The intensity of the treatment can depend on the philosophy of the treatment itself and or your child's needs. In the case of ABA, studies show that the treatment's effectiveness depends in large part on its intensity in most cases, between 25 and 40 hours per week of one-to-one ABA treatment is recommended. Most ABA sessions are 1.5 to 2 hours long a child may have several ABA sessions in a day that amount to a total of 6 to 8 hours. But this is not the case with other treatments such as speech and occupational therapy. Typical speech and occupational therapy sessions are 30, 45, or 60 minutes long. The frequency and intensity of speech and occupational therapy sessions depend upon the specific needs of the child. For example, some children require five 45-minute sessions of speech therapy per week, while others require only two 45-minute sessions per week. Some children need one-on-one treatment, which means that a teacher or therapist works with your child individually. Other...

Primary Anxiety Disorders

Children frequently report symptoms of anxiety related to the impact of the illness and its treatment on their own lives and on family members. They may be concerned about missing school or falling behind academically. Adolescents may be particularly troubled by their separation from peers as well as by feeling different from others. Children may feel guilty about their need for increased parental attention and assistance. Some children report worries about the financial impact of their illness on the family because their parents have to take time off from work or because of the costs of treatment. F. The disturbance causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning or impairs the individual's ability to pursue some necessary task, such as obtaining necessary assistance or mobilizing personal resources by telling family members about the traumatic experience.

Is There Real Science to Support This Treatment

This is not to say you should never try a treatment that does not have concrete scientific basis. We ventured outside of the scientific box with Jake and tried some alternative and nonstandard treatments for ASDs, but the foundation of Jake's treatment was ABA, which has its foundation in sound science. Just because a treatment hasn't been proven scientifically doesn't mean that it isn't good, but science can provide that extra dose of confidence when choosing a treatment for your child.

Medical Traumatic Stress

Pediatric illnesses, injuries, and treatments may be experienced as traumatic events by patients and family members (Stuber and Shemesh 2006). Although often not reaching criteria for a diagnosis of acute stress disorder or PTSD, key symptoms of these disorders particularly reexperiencing, physiological arousal, and avoidance are common across illness groups and across the course of the illness (Kazak et al. 2006). The National Child Traumatic Stress Network (2009) defines pediatric medical traumatic stress as a set of psychological and physiological responses of children and their families to pain, injury, serious illness, medical procedures, and invasive or frightening treatment experiences. Research on traumatic stress in pediatric illness has increased markedly over the past decade across multiple illness and injury samples. Based on meta-analyses, the prevalence of medical traumatic stress is estimated to be 19 for injured children and 12 for ill children (Kahana et al. 2006).

Modifying Factors Of Tbx5 Mutations

Those factors that influence which of the many potential malformations will arise in HOS are poorly understood. Although allelic variation might account for some of these differences, this explanation is difficult to reconcile with the presumed common pathogenetic mechanism for disease, TBX5 haploinsufficiency. Furthermore, the considerable variation observed between individuals with different TBX5 mutations is also seen in affected family members with the same disease-causing mutation, suggesting that factors other than the inciting gene defect contribute to phenotype. Several distinct factors can be envisioned that might influence the response to a TBX5 mutation in the heart, hemodynamic parameters, and in the heart and limbs, environmental factors and modifier genes. Although the interplay between pump functions of the embryonic heart and cardiac development remains largely unexplored, it is conceivable that some structural deficits could affect broader developmental programs,...

The Good Enough Parent

British pediatric psychiatrist Donald Winnicott (1896-1971) recognized that, because all parents are imperfect, they should strive to be good-enough parents. In simple terms, good-enough parents are adults committed to parenthood. Their behavior shows they care about what happens to their children. They can restrain themselves from harming them. They do not neglect or abuse their children in a legal sense. This definition of good-enough parents flows from our cultural expectations of parents. Good-enough parents are parents who

Gastrointestinal Disorders

Structural, infectious, inflammatory, or biochemical etiology) have been found to have elevated levels of anxiety that, although similar to anxiety levels reported by children with organic gastrointestinal diagnoses, are significantly higher than those of healthy children (Banez and Cunningham 2003 Scharff 1997 Walker et al. 1993). Patients with a history of functional abdominal pain are at increased risk of having irritable bowel syndrome and higher levels of psychosocial distress, disability, and health service use over time (Walker et al. 1998). Considerable clinical and scientific progress has been made in understanding the etiologies of, diagnosing, and treating functional gastrointestinal disorders in children (Li 2009).

The more often you binge and purge the more your routine will change to accommodate the compulsion

This discomfort can lead to a chain of events in which your family or friends avoid you, you avoid them, you isolate and feel like an outcast, and escalate the bulimia as the way to cope. (There is a certain irony in this because often bulimia is a way to fill emotional voids, described as emptiness. ) Things at home (or school if you live away from home) can go from bad to worse. Your purging starts to impinge on the family or group turf the bathrooms reek, the toilets are never completely clean, bed linens become soiled if you lose control of your bowels or vomit into a receptacle while you're in or on your bed, and the food you're hoarding under the bed or in closets spoils and attracts insects. You may even start stealing money from friends or relatives to support your food habit. At this stage, you can lose the sympathy of your family or roommates, and your bulimic behaviors spark tremendous anger in them. Even though everyone feels the anger, it's unlikely that you'd...

Will This Treatment Complement the Rest of My Childs Treatments

When choosing different treatments for your child, make sure all of the treatment providers are on the same page. When Franklin and I decided to choose ABA as the foundation for Jake's treatment, we also spoke with potential speech and occupational therapists and told them of our decision. The first occupational therapist we spoke with was completely on board with the principles of ABA in fact, she abided by many of the behavioral tenets, including rewarding Jake's behaviors with lots of positive reinforcement in her sessions. It's important to find out upfront whether or not the providers working with your child follow the same basic philosophies of treating ASDs. If they are conflicting, your child will become confused, and the treatments will be ineffective or counterproductive. In fact, they may even cancel each other out. For example, while one of your treatment providers may be trying to reduce or eliminate your child's hand flapping and other stimming behaviors, another...

How Am I Involved in Supporting My Childs Treatment

Make sure the treatment can offer ways for you to help your child. Be cautious of any treatments in which there aren't ways to support your child outside of the session. Find out what you, your child's siblings, other family members, and babysitters can do at home to help reinforce the new skills and behaviors that your child is learning. Often, these suggestions can be great ways to bond with your child and aid in the overall treatment progress. For example, to help Jake develop his upper body strength, his occupational therapist taught us to pick up his legs while his hands were on the floor and run around the house with him as if in a wheelbarrow race. We also had that special plastic brush that we used on his arms and legs to help him overcome his hypersensitivity to touch. Jake liked to be brushed and eventually began to brush us, too. The speech therapist cut out pictures of dinosaur feet and placed them all over the floor, so we could play a game when Jake was having trouble...

The History of Aurora Kinases

Typically, cancer cells are characterized by an uncontrolled cell proliferation and interfering with mitosis is one of the cornerstones of cancer therapy. Current anti-mitotic drugs target tubulins and are highly efficacious in some cancer types, but they also target non-proliferating cells leading to side effects such as neuropathy, which is observed in patients treated with e.g. taxanes. Hence, there is a need for more specific targets interfering with mitosis (Jackson, Patrick, Dar and Huang 2007). Attractive druggable targets are kinases with essential roles in mitosis such as polo-like kinases, NEK family members or the Aurora kinases. The first Aurora kinase was originally described by Glover and co-workers in 1995 in a Drosophila mutant in which the loss of function of a serine-threonine protein kinase led to a failure of the centrosomes to separate and to form a bipolar spindle (Glover, Leibowitz, McLean and Parry 1995). It was another three years before the human homologue...

Epidemiology and Risk Factors

The other major risk factor for development of COPD is the inherited disorder aj-antitrypsin deficiency. The recognition of this disease and its cellular mechanisms of injury to the lung have led to a specific understanding of protease and anti-protease imbalance as one mechanism of disease progression of emphysematous COPD. Any patient who develops COPD without a significant smoking history, any patient with a strong family history of COPD, and any patient developing clinically significant COPD before age 45 should be screened for aj-antitrypsin deficiency. A detailed discussion of genetic counseling of patients with aj-antitrypsin deficiency or carrier state can be found in the American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society (2003) consensus standards.

Population Aging and Kinship Structure

The demographic forces responsible for population aging (declining fertility and declining mortality at older ages) have significant implications for the structure of kinship networks. Particularly relevant for the well-being of both older and younger people are changes in the structure of intergenerational relationships associated with an aging society. The basic relationship among fertility, mortality, and supply of intergenera-tional kin can be seen by thinking about extreme situations. In a society where everyone has a large number of children and few people survive to very old ages, grandparents would be in short supply for children, but individuals who survive to old age would tend to have many grandchildren. Similarly, most middle-aged adults would not have surviving parents, but individuals who survive to old age would typically have multiple children. This type of kinship structure is quite similar to the one existing in China before 1900. At the opposite extreme is the ideal...

How Will My Childs Progress Be Measured

How often will your child be assessed and by whom You do not have to wait for an official assessment to find out how your child is doing. Often parents call weekly, bimonthly, or monthly team meetings, where all of the treatment providers join together to give feedback, brainstorm, and discuss the child's progress. You should also be able to set up private meetings or phone conferences with your child's treatment providers. Sometimes, over the course of treatment, your child's progress will be obvious to you Your child can now form words, no longer throws tantrums, or has stopped engaging in self-injurious head banging. At other times, progress will be more subtle Your child is just beginning to make sounds or has fewer and shorter outbursts. In all cases, your child's progress should be continually monitored, measured, and updated so that the treatment continues to meet your child's specific needs. For example, ABA therapy maintains comprehensive...

Children in Nontraditional Families

A review of the psychological literature published in the Journal of Marriage and Family in February 2010 compared the impact on children of being reared in single-parent versus two-parent families. Using 33 studies of two-parent families and 48 of single-parent families, they found that, other things being equal, two compatible parents provide advantages for children over single parents. This appears to be true irrespective of parental gender, marital status, or sexual identity. When comparing heterosexual two-parent families to lesbian two-parent families, scholars have achieved a rare degree of consensus that unmarried lesbian parents are raising children who develop at least as well as their counterparts with married heterosexual parents. In lesbian two-parent families the style of parenting was best described as a double dose of mothering. (There were not a sufficient number of male-male households represented in the studies to draw any equivalent or divergent conclusions.) They...

Conclusions And Future Directions

We provide evidence here that physiologic parameters, such as O2 concentration, affect the expression of genes essential for vascular, hematopoietic, placental, and cardiac cell differentiation. Furthermore, production of an intact cardiovascular system is dependent on HIF, a master regulator of O2 homeostasis during both fetal and postnatal life. Postnatally, HIF is required for a variety of responses to chronic hypoxia such as that encountered during tissue ischemia, stroke, and neoplasia. Therefore, HIF plays a pivotal role in embryogenesis, cellular and systemic physiology, and pathophysiology. Future experiments will address the critical question of functional redundancy between HIF subunit family members in these complex events. We hope to define unique and overlapping roles for all HIF proteins involved in O2 homeostasis HIF-1a, HIF-2a, HIF-3a, ARNT, and ARNT2. Furthermore, it will be important to define the scope of the response in different hypoxic tissues and to delineate...

But whether you are fust a dieter or have symptoms of a fullblown eating disorder you are still living in a prison of

So, be prepared for the possibility that those initial steps meant to liberate you from the prison of your eating disorder will be tentative, shaky, and scary. You'll have to examine and challenge this drive for thinness, be willing to eat properly, exercise appropriately, honor your body's need for sleep, and come to terms with your body's natural shape. You might have to change friends if yours are obsessed with weight loss, or teach them what you're learning as you resolve the issues that landed you in this prison. You'll have to be willing to talk with your family and, eventually, your therapy team, about the changes going on inside your head.

Family Development Tasks

Ageing family members newly married couple, through the age-related tasks of caring for children, through middle age, ending with tasks that face aging family members and their families. Based on the prior discussion in this chapter, this model will need revision to accommodate new and changing definitions of the family however, every model will include a beginning stage of basic family organization and move towards middle age and aging-related tasks. Whether or not all future families will include children will not preclude the concepts of a life cycle or tasks. When a major loss such as death, divorce, or chronic illness occurs unexpectedly during a critical period of a family developmental task, it is often doubtful that effective coping, attention to the family developmental task and individuals' developmental tasks, and healthy resolution of each member's issues of bereavement can be accomplished satisfactorily without support, education, and specific therapeutic interventions.

What To Ask If Youre Considering A Special School Or Centerbased Program

If you are thinking of enrolling your child in a special school or center-based program for ASDs, make sure to evaluate the environment, staff credentials, scheduling, and philosophy or mission of the programs. How long has the school been in existence What is the school's philosophy Has it changed over the years Is it consistent with your values Has the school or program been consistent in its use and application of certain treatment interventions Watch out for schools that change their treatments based on the latest trends. Walk through the school setting and imagine seeing it through your child's eyes. Is it free of distractions that may trigger an outburst from your child The environment should be positive, highly supportive, and conducive to meeting your child's specific needs. Will your child receive one-on-one treatment, group treatment, or a combination of both How is progress measured and how often Be sure there are standard assessments in place to measure your child's...

Prevalence and incidence of secondary organic personality change following TBI

Kant, Duffy, and Pivovarnik (1998) using standardized evaluation tools (Clinical Neuropsychiatric Examination, the self- and family-member-rated version of the Apathy Evaluation Scale AES ) (Marin, 1991 Marin, Biedrzycki, & Firinciogullari, 1991) and the Beck Depression Inventory, noted that of 83 consecutive TBI patients seen at a neuropsychiatric clinic, 10.84 had apathy without depression, an equivalent percentage had depression without apathy, and another 60 of the patients exhibited both. Younger patients were more prone to apathy and depression than the older patients, and the patients with the more severe injuries were more likely to reflect apathy alone. Interestingly family members observed the apathy syndrome more than the patients themselves, possibly indicating a decrease in the level of self-awareness following the injury.

Basis of Parental Power

Westman goes on to explain that the foundation of successful parenthood is mutual respect between parent and child. It is not based on a reward-punishment paradigm. Knowledge of child development is helpful in engendering parental respect for the needs of children. A child's respect for a parent depends upon a parent's ability to convey to the child that she means what is said (of course, the parent has the responsibility to mean what is said as well).

Hypoxia Angiogenesis And Hif Transcription Factors

Hypoxia stabilizes HIF-a proteins whereas, in most instances, the molecules are rapidly degraded in normoxic, unstimulated cells. In contrast, the p subunit (also designated aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator, ARNT) is constitutively expressed regardless of oxygen tension. Both HIF-a and HIF-P molecules are basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) PE-Riod-ARNT-SIMple minded (PAS) domain proteins (Fig. 2). The bHLH domain both binds to DNA at a canonical A GCGTG hypoxia response element (HRE) and contributes to heterodimer stabilization. The PAS domain is both a heterodimerization domain and the target for regulatory protein (HSP90) binding (Isaacs et al. 2002). In addition to the bHLH and PAS domain, HIF-a molecules contain amino and carboxyl trans-activation domains (NAD53i-575 and CAD786-826, respectively Jiang et al. 1997 amino acid positions apply to HIF-1a), and an oxygen-dependent degradation domain (ODD), within which both the NAD and the adjacent...

Treatments And Schools That Sound Too Good To Be True

Now that you're armed with all of the questions you need to ask about your child's treatments and schools, there are a few other things to consider. Parents who feel vulnerable after their child is diagnosed with an ASD often become targets for treatments that sound too good to be true. Rule of thumb If a treatment or school sounds too good to be true, it probably is. When considering a treatment, ask yourself the following questions and pick up on the early warning signs. All of us have fantasies about that magic pill that will make our children better, but be careful that your decisions about your child's treatments are based on facts rather than emotions. Establish a foundation for your child's treatment, then add on a few other treatments that will enhance the foundation. But don't make the mistake of trying too many conflicting treatments that may cause undue stress on your child. And remember to be careful about constantly changing treatments because you don't see immediate...

How Children Affect Parents Behaviors

Other researchers point out that two children in the same family can elicit different authority styles. And they say this is often an appropriate adaptation on the part of the parents. In response to the question of which direction of effects is most influential in setting a parent's authority style, the transactional model of understanding parent-child relationships settles it with a draw. Using this perspective, parenting is seen as a two-way street. Many variables affect a child's temperament and individual behaviors. Just as many variables shape the authority style used by a parent with that child. By examining these variables, it may be easier to see why one parent's authority style may differ when applied to her two different children

Evolution of secondary organic personality following TBI

Paradoxically, while individuals are sometimes reported as showing more intense versions of their premorbid selves, Varney and Menefee (1993) have noted in their extensive review of 98 TBI affected individuals that it was not uncommon for family members to use the expression 'invasion of the body snatchers' in reference to their head-injured relative. That is, they looked the same, but had become totally different persons (p. 41). Clearly, the changes to the personality associated with TBI are, at the very least, complicated.

Romania Ana Stoica Constantin

Creativity has been openly declared an education goal, and steps have been taken toward this aim despite problems in terms of incoherent legislation, poor endowment of schools and low motivation amongst some teachers. Generally, Romanian people tend to be individualistic - they hardly work in groups one reason for this could be the competitive nature of education. Presently, courses in creativity are held in at least four universities, creative groups of students are trained, and a large movement for promoting talented children is sustained by the association RO-talent.

What Is The Patients Perspective On Epilepsy

Interest in the psychosocial aspects of epilepsy and how they may affect the patient's quality of life is growing. Listening to persons with epilepsy and their family members is necessary to appreciate the inherent limitations, changes, and losses that may occur. Listen to what it feels like to have a seizure in public, to feel different, to be dependent, or to take medicines daily. Listen to how it feels to arrive at the physician's office with a list of questions, only to leave with half of them unanswered or explanations not understood

Single Parenting

Single Parenting

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