Academic Functioning

Given the litany of neurocognitive deficits described here, it is not surprising that pediatric TBI is often associated with declines in academic performance (Ewing-Cobbs et al. 2004; Taylor et al. 1999, 2002). These children often receive special education assistance (Ewing-Cobbs et al. 1998a; Taylor et al. 2002, 2003; Yeates et al. 2002), although these services may be limited by issues regarding special education classification, delayed school reintegration, and classroom placement (Taylor et al. 2003). Taylor et al. (2002) found that severe TBI has a negative long-term influence on academic achievement and that recovery is influenced by the family environment. Miller and Donders (2003) found that performance on measures of neuropsychological functioning explained a large majority of the variance in educational outcome following TBI. Ewing-Cobbs et al. (2004) examined long-term academic outcomes following TBI and found that academic deficits persist, especially in children injured at a young age. Catroppa and Anderson (2007) found that premorbid academic functioning and verbal memory were the best predictors of postinjury academic functioning.

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