Antipsychotic Agents

Antipsychotic agents have long been purported to potentiate the analgesic effect of opioids (Lussier et al. 2004). Most studies employing these drugs are uncontrolled, however, and the enthusiasm for their continued use is in contrast to available literature. The phenothiazines are the most commonly employed antipsychotics for analgesia. Dundee and colleagues (Dundee et al. 1963; Moore and Dundee 1961a, 1961b) published data regarding the analgesic potency of 14 different phenothiazines in an uncontrolled trial of experimental pain. The results of these studies suggested that the action of a few potentially analgesic phenothiazines was initially anti-analgesic and after 2-3 hours only mildly analgesic (Atkinson et al. 1985). Antipsychotic agents have been used in the treatment of many chronic pain syndromes, including cancer, arthritis, migraine, neuropathy, and phantom limb pain. The mechanism of action is unknown, but these medications may have a local anesthetic action in spinal nerves. Chlorprom-

azine and haloperidol have been used to treat nausea associated with the use of opiates or pain.

Arthritis Joint Pain

Arthritis Joint Pain

Arthritis is a general term which is commonly associated with a number of painful conditions affecting the joints and bones. The term arthritis literally translates to joint inflammation.

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