Cognitive Effects

The presence of hydrocephalus in this population increases the risk for reduced neuropsychological functioning that persists into adulthood. Patients typically score in the low average range on tests of intelligence and have deficits in executive functioning, abstract reasoning, and attention (Fletcher et al. 2005). A larger number of shunt revisions is associated with reduced performance IQ and difficulties in functional mathematical skills (Hetherington et al. 2006). In addition, studies have noted that shunt revisions after age 2 are associated with lower levels of independence and achievement when these patients become adults (Hunt 1990).

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