Concluding Comments

SCD, a group of genetic disorders, is most common in individuals of African descent and occurs with lower frequency in other ethnic groups. SCD causes chronic anemia and can impact multiple organ systems, including the brain. The consequences of SCD often begin early during childhood and often lead to frequent health care contacts, hospitaliza-tions, and related reductions in school attendance and activity level. Due to the numerous effects of SCD, children with the disease are at increased risk for psychosocial difficulties, particularly internalizing problems and social difficulties, which can sig nificantly increase stress and decrease quality of life for both children with SCD and their families. Additionally, the central nervous system effects of SCD can cause cognitive deficits that often affect children's academic functioning and educational attainment. Therefore, available literature supports the importance of including assessment of neuro-cognitive functioning, psychosocial well-being, and quality of life within routine health care for children with SCD.

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