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Patients with a history of neurological disease, including epilepsy, stroke, head trauma, and brain tumor, are at greater risk for a variety of psychiatric disorders, both acute and chronic. There are typically clinical and genetic factors related to the disease and its etiology and psychosocial factors such as quality of life, family history, and life stressors that contribute to the presentation. In some cases, as in epilepsy and demyelinating diseases, the appearance of psychiatric symptoms may precede the medical diagnosis. Once the psychiatric diagnosis is made, in most cases the phenomenology, clinical course, and response to treatment do not differ between those children with and without neurological disease. This chapter reviews neurological disorders known to have psychiatric sequelae and examine the effects of epilepsy, stroke, tuberous sclerosis, white matter disease (with an emphasis on multiple sclerosis), hydro-cephalus, myelomeningocele, Wilson's disease, and brain tumors. Several of these clinical presentations—for example, brain tumor, stroke, encephalitis, Lyme disease, and HIV—are also discussed in greater detail elsewhere in this volume (see Chapters 15 ["Pediatric Oncology"], 17 ["Sickle Cell Disease"], and 25 ["Infectious Diseases"], respectively).

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