Although the medical advances of antibiotics and vaccinations have drastically reduced the mortality and morbidity of infections in the pediatric population, concerns remain regarding the optimum functioning and quality of life for youngsters with an underlying infectious disease. This chapter focuses on four examples of the interaction of an infectious disease and psychiatric symptoms: 1) meningitis/encephalitis as an example in which brain changes due to the illness may lead to significant sequelae; 2) Lyme disease as an example of a commonly seen infection in which the relationship between psychiatric symptoms and the underlying biology is unclear; 3) pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS) as an example in which possible mechanisms have been elucidated as to the relationship of an autoimmune-induced response to infection leading to specific psychiatric symptoms; and 4) pediatric HIV as a model disease in which application of the biopsychosocial model is critical for success in comprehensive treatment and highlights an important role for the pediatric psychosomatic medicine specialist.

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