The kidney performs many vital functions, including the filtration of water-soluble waste, the regulation of blood pressure, the homeostasis of water and electrolytes, and the hormone production that is necessary for red blood cell synthesis and bone health. In chronic kidney disease (CKD), the physiological impact, intensity of treatment, and potential for long-term disability have significant psychosocial consequences for children and their families. Children with CKD, 60% of whom are affected with congenital or inherited kidney disorders, contend with the lifelong emotional and physical consequences of abnormal renal function (Wong and Furth 2007). Despite the significant improvements in medical outcomes over the past three decades, much remains to be learned about the psychological and behavioral care of children with CKD.

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