Multicomponent Interventions

Due to the myriad risk factors that contribute to nonadherence and the different kinds of adherence that one might wish to address (e.g., adherence to medications, diet recommendations), employing different strategies may be more beneficial than focusing on one approach alone. Thus, adherence interventions might be tailored to individual patients, or they might be eclectic and involve different modalities and even different providers. Although standardizing and studying such efforts are difficult, the few studies that have examined these approaches are promising. A meta-analysis by Kahana et al. (2008) indicated that multicomponent approaches might offer a medium to large effect size, and Le-manek et al. (2001) judged them to be "probably efficacious." Research and clinical teams should clearly define which specific items are included in multicomponent treatments in order to be able to "dismantle" the results in subsequent efforts and try to determine which components might be more or less promising than others. Dismantling studies are important to increase the efficiency of proposed multicomponent interventions.

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