Although body-based approaches are typically easy for patients and families to understand as potentially beneficial, these techniques are often difficult to implement due to pain or pain-related fears (e.g., fear of causing more pain). Some body-based approaches promote self-efficacy by increasing the child's ability to self-manage symptoms and serve to prevent further pain and disability. Body-based approaches include physical therapy, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), acupuncture, yoga, and massage therapy. Expertise with the techniques requires training and practice with the specific type of pain being addressed. Following are brief descriptions of these somewhat overlapping interventions.
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