Assessing Lymph Nodes and Distant Metastases

There are several approaches to determining whether there is nodal involvement due to penile cancer. At the simplest level the nodes may be palpated. Next, we may use imaging to assess not only size, but morphology of the nodal chain. Functional techniques such as PET or MR lymphography may add further information, and finally we may use histology: either by fine needle aspiration, biopsy, sentinel lymph node biopsy, or lymphadenectomy. We will discuss the performance of each of these investigations, and at the end of this section address the appropriate nodal staging investigations for different grades of disease.

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

Acne is a name that is famous in its own right, but for all of the wrong reasons. Most teenagers know, and dread, the very word, as it so prevalently wrecks havoc on their faces throughout their adolescent years.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment