Assessment of Inguinal Lymph Nodes

The key issue in lymph node staging is the unreliability of the currently available modalities which detect occult nodal involvement. However, given that early resection of the inguinal lymph nodes is associated with a therapeutic benefit,24-26 it is imperative that those patients with metastatic disease in the inguinal lymph nodes undergo an inguinal lymphadenectomy at the earliest possible time. Unfortunately the high morbidity rate associated with performing an elective inguinal lymphadenectomy makes the operation unsuitable for every penile cancer patient who does not have inguinal nodal involvement. Hence there is uncertainty about the timing of lymphadenectomy as well as identifying those patients who would benefit. However, three clinical groups can be identified: those with clinically node-negative (cN0) groins, those with palpable inguinal lymph nodes (cN+), and those with immobile (fixed) inguinal lymph nodes.

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

Acne is a name that is famous in its own right, but for all of the wrong reasons. Most teenagers know, and dread, the very word, as it so prevalently wrecks havoc on their faces throughout their adolescent years.

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