Lichen Sclerosus

Histologically, lichen sclerosus is characterized by a dense subepithelial collageni-zation with an underlying band-like chronic inflammatory infiltrate.38 The epithelium above these changes can be atrophic, hyperplastic, or even show atypical changes (Fig. 3.6d). When atypical changes are observed in the upper lying epithelium the in situ lesion usually shows a differentiated PeIN morphology.37 The association of lichen sclerosus with warty and/or basaloid PeIN is exceedingly rare. Although there is controversy about the true preneoplastic nature of lichen sclero-sus, a wealth of data suggests a precancerous role.38-45 In addition, given its association with specific subtypes of penile SCC in which the HPV detection rate is very low or even nil46,47 and the rarity of its presence in HPV-related tumors, such as warty and/or basaloid carcinomas^6-48 it is likely that lichen sclerosus, as well as differentiated PeIN, participates in a non-HPV pathogenic pathway.

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

Acne is a name that is famous in its own right, but for all of the wrong reasons. Most teenagers know, and dread, the very word, as it so prevalently wrecks havoc on their faces throughout their adolescent years.

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