Molecular Events Following Initial Disruption of P14ARF MDM2P53 andor P16INK4ACyclin DRB Pathways

Following the initial disruption of p14ARF/MDM2/p53 and/or p16INK4a/cyclin D/Rb pathways by either viral or nonviral mechanisms, several additional molecular alterations have been reported in penile cancers. These molecular events include alterations in the activity and/or expression of genes involved in disease progression, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. They will be discussed in further detail below. Some factors have been found to be of prognostic value and/or predictive value for lymph node metastases and will be indicated as such.

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