Molecular Prognostic Factors

Several molecular biomarkers have been evaluated as prognostic factors for penile cancer 1 59,160 including cell cycle-related proteins, such as p53, pl6INK4a, p21, Ki-67, and PCNA62,137,161-167 and proteins associated with tumor progression, such as E-cadherin, telomerase activity, matrix metalloproteinases, COX-2, and PGE synthase-1. i 37,168-170 Genetic imbalances, ploidy status, and specific proto-oncogenes mutations were addressed as well.171-176 However, none of the aforementioned biomarkers has a clear and defined utility in the management of patients with penile cancer.

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

Acne is a name that is famous in its own right, but for all of the wrong reasons. Most teenagers know, and dread, the very word, as it so prevalently wrecks havoc on their faces throughout their adolescent years.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment