Nanotechnology and Cancer Treatment

Nanotechnology allows the opportunity to deliver powerful cytotoxic agents to specific cancer cells without deleterious effects to other organ systems. However, lack of progress in avoiding degradation in vivo before achievement of therapeutic benefit has impeded major advances to date. Nonetheless, some examples exemplify the exception to this. Liposomal delivery systems have now overcome take-up by the reticuloendothelial system, which has historically compromised effectiveness.23

Nanotechnologies have utilized key differences in physiological parameters of the malignant environment. Liposomal delivery of chemotherapy has been utilized in the overexpression of fenestrations in cancer neovasculature to increase drug concentrations at the site of the tumor.24 This strategy has been used in the treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma for over a decade24 and more recently in breast cancer.25

Liposomal drug delivery can be enhanced in a number of ways including local hyperthermia with thermostable liposome,26 photosensitizers,27 and ultrasound activation.28 Derycke et al.29 investigated the use of aluminium phthalocyanine tetrasul-fonate, a known photosensitizer, encapsulated in transferrin-conjugated liposomes. Transferrin is overexpressed in bladder cancer cells because of the increased requirement for iron.29 They reported that photodynamic therapy for conjugated liposomes was more effective compared with the unconjugated controls.27 Liposomes have also been used for gene therapy targeting of renal cell carcinoma. Nakanishi et al.30 have targeted renal cell carcinoma cell lines and fresh ex vivo renal cell carcinoma tissue with cationic multilamellar liposomes containing the human interferon 6 gene (IAB-1). They report significant cytotoxic effects with the addition of the IAB-1 gene in this setting.

Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) represents a unique, specific targeting molecule for the directed treatment of prostate cancer in vivo with nanoparticles. Thomas et al.31 have shown that the in vitro targeting of synthesized antibody against PSMA with conjugated dendrimer nanoparticles is a suitable platform for targeted molecule delivery into appropriate antigen-expressing cells.

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

Learning About 10 Ways Fight Off Cancer Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life The Best Tips On How To Keep This Killer At Bay Discovering that you or a loved one has cancer can be utterly terrifying. All the same, once you comprehend the causes of cancer and learn how to reverse those causes, you or your loved one may have more than a fighting chance of beating out cancer.

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