Neuropathy Holistic Treatments

The Peripheral Neuropathy Program

Within The Peripheral Neuropathy Solution, you will discover a breakthrough 6-step proven extensive treatment program that can help you finally heal your ruined nerves and end your own case of neuropathy. Irrespective of your age, background and gender and the cause of your peripheral neuropathy, this program can meet your needs. Neuropathy Solution Program consists of only natural elements, with absolutely no substance additives. Believed to help your complete circulation of blood. These types of herbal products function in mix to boost restricted circulation of blood, enhance syndication, reduce high blood pressure, and control all the cardio exercise system. With six easy steps that include changes in diet, exercise and lifestyle habits, a peripheral neuropathy sufferer can have permanent relief from the many painful, debilitating symptoms in as little as a month, often times even less. Continue reading...

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Which anticonvulsant is most commonly used for neuropathic pain

Gabapentin (Neurontin) is currently used most often, although its use for pain is off-label. It may be useful for neuropathic extremity pain due to iatrogenic nerve injury, arachnoiditis, prolonged neural compression, and peripheral neuropathy. It has been shown to be useful in some patients with leg pain due to spinal stenosis. Gabapentin is started at 100 to 300 mg at night and then increased to 300 mg every 8 hours over the days to weeks, and then gradually titrated upward until there is good pain relief or significant side effects. Pain relief may occur at 900 mg per day, but often 1800 mg to 3600 mg per day are necessary. Side effects include dizziness, somnolence, ataxia, and headaches, but these are usually seen at the higher dose levels.

Electrophysiology Of Peripheral Nerve Stimulators

Before the middle of the 19th century, nerve fiber conduction was thought to be instantaneous. In 1850, von Helmholz,8 in a classic series of experiments with an isolated nerve muscle preparation, demonstrated the temporal nature of nerve fiber conduction and paved the way for the elucidation of most of the relevant physiology of peripheral nerve stimulation. Of particular importance is the relationship between the strength and duration of the current and the polarity of the stimulus.

Peripheral Nerve Injury

Pain following peripheral nerve injury may be exacerbated by sympathetic activity. In these cases, the structures distal to the injury (almost invariably in a limb) are cold, discoloured, demonstrate marked allodynia and have worse pain in a cold environment. Symptoms are improved with a sympathetic block. In these cases, a-adrenoceptors are expressed on the damaged nerve and, in the presence of norepinephrine from local sympathetic nerves or circulating epinephrine, induce peripheral sensitization of nociceptors and even Ap terminals. Stimulation of the latter may, in the presence of central sensitization, cause pain. However, many patients with persistent pain following trauma, with or without a peripheral nerve injury, do not have these symptoms, do not have sympathetically mediated pain, and so do not respond to a sympathetic block.

Mechanisms Of Neuropathic Pain

Many of these cortical and subcortical pain pathway nodes are visualized during functional neuroimaging activation studies by PET.80,81 Indeed, event-related fMRI reveals regions of the anterior cingulate cortex that are related to stimulus perception, stimulus intensity, or to pain itself.82 Motor-related activations are immediately posterior to the pain-related and stimulus-related cingulate activations in the supplementary motor area. Within these systems, rehabilitationists can find solid and hypothetical rationales for physical, psychologic, pharmacologic, and surgical interventions for neuropathic pain. Pain can arise from primary afferents in peripheral nerves and dorsal and ventral roots with, for example, a diabetic neuropathy or root compression by a vertebral disk protrusion. The high thresholds of the peripheral terminals of C-fiber nociceptors are decreased by prior activation (autosensitization) or by an increase in membrane excitability by stimuli that do not activate...

Other Peripheral Nerve Tumors Not Included In The Who Classification System

We have described benign peripheral nerve tumors arising primarily from Schwann cells, in the case of schwannomas and neurofibromas, and perineural cells in the case of perineuri-omas. Other tumors arising from cells normally found in peripheral nerves that will be discussed include mucosal neuroma, neurothekeoma, granule cell tumor, lipoma, vascular tumors, and neuromuscular hamartoma. Peripheral nerve tumors can also originate from cells not normally found in nerves by local invasion, as in the case of desmoid tumors (i.e., from adjacent muscle tissue) or by metastatic spread in the case of primary tumors located at a distance. For example, a variety of primary tumors, such as breast and lung tumors, can metas-tasize to peripheral nerves and their plexi. More rarely, thyroid tumors osteochondromas bladder tumors extracranial meningiomas and malignant Ewing's tumors, which include Ewing's sarcoma, extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma, primitive neuroecto-dermal tumors (PNETs) or peripheral...

Malignant Peripheral Nerve Tumors

I Peripheral nerve tumors are rare lesions that can arise anywhere on the body and as a result have a wide differential diagnosis. They commonly occur as a nonspecific mass lesion that is diagnosed as a peripheral nerve tumor at surgery. Although these tumors may initially be seen by a wide variety of surgeons, early recognition of the nature of the lesion and appropriate surgical treatment by a surgeon with expertise in peripheral nerve surgery is essential to minimize postoperative neurologic deficits. Even more rare are the malignant neoplasms of the peripheral nerves, with an incidence of 1 in 10,000 in the general population. This chapter focuses on the latter and aims to provide a classification and a management scheme for malignant peripheral nerve tumors.

Neuropathic Pain In The P Sto P E Rat Iv E Peri O D

The possibility of the development of neuropathic pain should be borne in mind after surgery, as it is often missed in patients with acute pain and may require specific therapy (see Ch. 61 for the management of chronic pain). A useful definition of neuropathic pain is 'pain associated with injury, disease or surgical section of the peripheral or central nervous system'. One diagnostic clue after surgery is an unexpected increase in opioid consumption, as neuropathic pain often responds poorly to opioids. Features suggestive of neuropathic pain include

Other Peripheral Nerve Tumors

Benign tumors of the peripheral nerves are often localized to single sites and are related to pressure or trauma. For example, Morton's neuroma is commonly associated with increased pressure or tight-fitting shoes and represents fibrotic swelling of the nerve in response to repeated insult. Located on the plantar surface of the foot, it is treated with excision or observation. Symptoms include localized pain, tenderness, and weakness of the distally affected muscles innervated by the nerve. Ganglion cysts may result from repeated trauma, leading to undue inflammation and cystic degeneration. In other cases, transected stump nerves undergo unorganized sprouting, leading to a large clump of disorganized cells and their processes.

Efficacy Of Peripheral Nerve Block

By interrupting neural input into the CNS, peripheral nerve blocks may also minimize the surgical stress response after surgery. For instance, patients receiving regional anesthesia (interscalene block) for shoulder surgery have significantly lower serum epinephrine levels in the immediate postoperative period.122 Unlike those receiving general anesthesia, patients receiving regional anesthesia (retrobulbar block) for cataract surgery do not have a significant increase in catecholamines, glucose, and cortisol.112 112 Peripheral blocks of the sympathetic nervous system (paravertebral and celiac plexus block) may also blunt but not abolish the stress response.112 112 Systemic absorption of local anesthetic is not likely to be responsible for any suppression of the stress response in the immediate postoperative period.112 Intercostal, intraperitoneal, or intrapleural administration of local anesthetics is not effective in attenuating the stress response.122 1521 152 152 152 Although...

Peripheral Nerve Metastases

Cancer can affect peripheral nerves either by compression or direct invasion. Direct invasion occurs either from hematogenous spread of tumor to peripheral nerves or dorsal root ganglia or by direct extension to nerve from surrounding structures. Typically, head and neck malignancies, melanoma, lung and breast cancer, and abdominal and pelvic tumors cause either cranial or peripheral nerve dysfunction. Occurring either early or late in the disease process, the clinical signs and symptoms are reflective of the anatomical sites and nerves involved. Frequently pain, sensory symptoms, or weakness are manifested by involvement of either single or multiple cranial nerves, spinal roots, nerve plexi, or peripheral nerves. Complications of therapy including radiation fibrosis and chemotherapy-induced neuropathy can mimic peripheral nerve metastases. Acute ischemic or inflammatory neuropathies and complications of paraneoplastic neurological syndromes should also be considered. Diagnosis may be...

Table 501 Etiological Classification Of Neuropathic Pain Syndromes

Peripheral nerve injury Trauma Surgical Meralgia paresthetica (lateral femoral cutaneous nerve) Thoracic outlet syndrome Metabolic diseases Diabetic neuropathy Uremia Amyloidosis Multiple myeloma Hypothyroidism nociceptors. These signals are transmitted to the central nervous system where they undergo modulation by local and descending control systems and finally reach the level of perception at the sensory cortex. In contrast to this physiologic pain, neuropathic pain can be associated with spontaneous pain in the absence of an external stimulus, with pain evoked by a normally innocuous stimulus, or with both. The plastic changes in the nervous system that result in the neuropathic pain state have been an area of considerable interest for researchers. Neuronal plasticity refers to the process by which neurons involved in pain transmission are altered from a state of normal sensitivity to a hypersensitive states A number of peripheral and central mechanisms contribute to the...

Sympathetic Blockade For Neuropathic Pain

Sympathetic nerve blocks have been widely used in the treatment of multiple forms of neuropathic pain, and their role has been reviewed extensively by Boas.- Despite its historical role in the treatment of complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS), convincing evidence is lacking to support the use of sympathetic blockade in other neuropathic pain states. For example, although evidence exists that sympathetic blocks can effectively treat acute herpes zoster pain, there are no randomized controlled studies supporting belief by some that they can prevent PHN or effectively treat long-standing PHN pain- Advances in the understanding of neuropathic pain, CRPS, and sympathetically maintained pain, clinical pain states that have significant overlap in both mechanism and presentation, will require further basic science inquiry and well-designed clinical trials. Future Directions in Neuropathic Pain Management Rapid advances are being made in our understanding of chronic pain mechanisms and novel...

Peripheral Nerve Tumors In Children

Peripheral nerve tumors (PNTs) are not common lesions. Although it is widely recognized that these lesions do occur in the pediatric population, PNTs occur with less frequency there than in the adult population. The differential diagnosis of a suspected PNT in a child follows the same general framework as for adult patients (Table 107-1), but there are several key differences between PNTs in the pediatric population and their adult counterparts. For instance, as will be discussed in detail later, lesions with a neural histogenesis, such as neuroblastoma, occur in a much larger proportion of pediatric patients with PNTs than in adults, whereas nerve sheath tumors are relatively less common. This chapter highlights the specific nuances of PNTs that are unique to the pediatric population.

Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors

MPNSTs are nonrhabdomyosarcomatous soft-tissue tumors that arise from the peripheral nerve sheath. Cases in children and adolescents are not common and account for only 13 of all MPNSTs8 and 12 of all peripheral neurogenic tumors of childhood.6 The association of MPNST with NF1 is well established, with MPNSTs occurring in the setting of NF1 in 50 of cases.25 Pediatric MPNST case series reveal that 29 to 66 of pediatric MPNSTs arise in the setting of NF1,5,8,18 comparable to the overall NF1-related incidence.

Peripheral Nerve Blockade

Peripheral nerve blockade is an essential tool in the management of acute and chronic pain. It is useful in the treatment of procedure-related pain (e.g., laceration repair, fracture reduction, IV catheter insertion), traumatic pain (e.g., postoperative pain, femur fracture), and in the diagnosis and management of complex regional pain syndromes (e.g., sympathetic nerve blocks). Additionally, regional anesthetic techniques are very useful when general anesthesia or systemic analgesics cannot be easily used because of their potential to exacerbate a patient's underlying medical condition. For example, nerve blocks may offer the best analgesic alternative for patients with neuromuscular, metabolic, cardiac, or chronic lung disease because regional blockade provides intense (total) analgesia and produces minimal changes in cardiac and pulmonary physiology. Thus, these blocks can provide intense, unparalleled analgesia in patients with minimal reserve who cannot tolerate opioid-induced...

Overview Of Peripheral Nervous System Myelination And Electrophysiology

The peripheral nervous system (PNS) comprises less than 0.1 of all nerve tissue. The somatic PNS, when defined anatomically by the presence of Schwann cells, includes the primary roots, dorsal root ganglia, mixed spinal nerves, plexuses, nerve trunks, autonomic nervous system, and the third to twelfth cranial nerves. Peripheral nerve trunks are composed of a great number of axons, which are grouped into individual bundles or fascicles. These structures vary in number, depending on the nerve, its size, and the site at which it is studied. Schwann cells ensheath every PNS axon nearly throughout their extent. Peripheral nerve fibers are divided into two groups, either myelinated and unmyelinated, depending on whether they have one, or several, axons per Schwann cell. In the human sural nerve, the ratio of unmyelinated to myelinated axons is approximately 3.7 to 1. '6 A myelinated peripheral nerve fiber consists of an axon and a series of Schwann cells located sequentially on its external...

Lesions in the Retroparotid or Retropharyngeal Spaces and Distal Peripheral Nerve Lesions

CN XI and XII may be affected by a number of distal peripheral nerve lesions resulting from surgical trauma, '32' y local infections, stretch,y , y neck irradiation,'41' or local tumors.y y A dissecting carotid aneurysm may result in hypoglossal nerve palsy. y A self-limited idiopathic hypoglossal nerve palsy also has been reported. y , '49' The resultant findings (i.e., weakness and atrophy) in peripheral nerve lesions have been described earlier. Occasionally, a lesion may affect CN IX through XII, with a resultant Collet-Sicard syndrome, characterized by the same features as Vernet's syndrome described earlier, with the addition of weakness of the ipsilateral tongue.y , '12'

Electrical Characteristics Of Peripheral Nerve Stimulators Currently Available In Clinical Practice

Peripheral Nerve Stimulator Diagram

To determine which electrical characteristics of the PNS contributed to the localization of a peripheral nerve, the electrical properties of eight commercially available peripheral nerve stimulators and a Grass S-88 stimulator were measured. The PNS was then used in the laboratory to locate a peripheral nerve in an anesthetized cat. The controlled environment in the laboratory allowed each PNS to be used under nearly identical conditions. Experiment I Determination of Output Characteristics of Peripheral Nerve Stimulators To determine the shape and duration of the stimulating pulse, the linearity of the output, and the change in the output in response to a change in load resistance, the peripheral nerve stimulators were connected to a variable resistance and an oscilloscope (Tektronix Type 564B) as shown in Figure 17-6 . The shape, duration, and amplitude of the output were measured on the oscilloscope screen. The linearity of the output was determined by correlating the current...

Efficacy Of Clinically Used Peripheral Nerve Stimulators

Kaiser and colleagues123 produced a list of desirable properties in peripheral nerve stimulators, which included adjustable constant current at resistances of 500 Q to 10k Q a monophasic square wave initial impulse selectable impulse duration of 0.1 and 1.0 ms unequivocal scale graduation or current indicator, especially over the range of 0.5 to 1.0 mA and impulse frequency of 1 to 2 Hz. They also made recommendations on self-test and safety features for nerve stimulators, which included an alarm at high impedance and check on electrical circuit battery test unequivocal assignment of load end high-quality connections and cable instructions for use and design operating parameters. The general procedure of nerve localization involves producing a small evoked muscle twitch with the PNS, moving the needle in a direction that causes an increase in the twitch strength, and then reducing the stimulus strength to restore the twitch to its previous tension. This procedure is repeated until...

Demyelinating Disorders of the Peripheral Nervous System

Overview of Peripheral Nervous System Myelination and Electrophysiology Waldrop, in 1834, reported a single patient who probably had acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP), thereby providing the first clinical description of a demyelinating polyneuropathy. Landry, in 1859, described 10 patients who very likely had the same disorder he recounted most of the clinical features now considered typical for AIDP. Guillain, Barre, and Strohl, in 1916, reported two soldiers who were recovering from rapidly evolving, principally motor polyneuropathies. They emphasized the loss of the deep tendon reflexes (DTRs) and the presence, on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination, of an elevated protein level with a normal cell count (albuminocytological dissociation). Their paper probably has been the most influential of all the articles concerned with demyelinating neuropathies from it the commonly used eponymic title for AIDP derives, that is, the Guillain-Barre syndrome, or...

Amyloidoma of the Peripheral Nerve

Amyloidoma or amyloid tumor consists of a localized deposit of amyloid material, which is composed of extracellular fibril-lar proteins with a b-pleated sheet secondary structure. Amy-loidomas are rare and usually located in the lung and upper respiratory tract. Occasionally, these tumors have been detected in the PNS, most commonly in the trigeminal or gasserian ganglion or one of its three branches.96,129 The etiology and patho-genesis of amyloidomas in peripheral nerves are unknown. Some studies have suggested that amyloidoma formation is due to an abnormal inflammatory response, where elevated numbers of plasma and other inflammatory cells are present surrounding the amyloid deposits. Treatment includes surgical excision of these abnormal masses.

Peripheral Nerve Blocks

In a nonrandomized prospective study of regional anesthetic blocks reported by Arner and associates,112 38 consecutive patients with neuralgias were treated with various local anesthetic peripheral nerve blocks. Etiologies included entrapment syndromes as well as surgical and traumatic nerve damage, and all patients had demonstrable sensory dysfunction. The peripheral nerves blocked included ilioinguinal, iliohypogastric, saphenous, superficial peroneal, intercostal, suprascapular, and lateral femoral cutaneous nerves. Each patient underwent a series of blocks (median number of 5) with 0.5 bupivacaine. The outcomes assessed included the magnitude of pain relief and its time course. All patients reported complete pain remission immediately after the blocks were performed. After a single block, 18 patients (47 ) reported complete relief lasting from 12 hours to 6 days, which were durations longer than the period of conduction block. Twenty patients (53 ) reported initial complete relief...

Inflammatory Pseudotumor of the Peripheral Nerve

Localized or diffuse swelling of a peripheral nerve may also be due to a number of inflammatory or infectious diseases. Inflammatory pseudotumor, also described as nodular lymphoid hyperplasia, plasma cell granuloma, and fibrous xanthoma, are all reactive and non-neoplastic processes that can mimic a peripheral nerve mass lesion. Inflammatory pseudotumors are characterized by chronic infiltration of inflammatory cells, primarily the T-cell population, as well as extensive fibrosis and collagen deposition. The etiology is unclear, but the inflammation may be triggered by various stimuli such as physical, biologic, or chemical factors. Five cases of inflammatory pseudotumor involving peripheral nerves (median nerve, facial nerve, sciatic nerve, radial nerve, and greater auricular nerve) have been reported in which the inflammatory cells penetrate the nerve fascicles.95 The differential diagnosis often includes other non-neoplastic processes such as amyloidoma of the peripheral nerve and...

Hiv1associated Peripheral Neuropathy Syndromes

Acute demyelinating polyneuropathy, brachial plexopathy, and mononeuritides may occur at the time of acute infection or seroconversion. Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy (CIDP), although rare, are the most common form of peripheral neuropathy during the latent, asymptomatic, or mildly symptomatic stage of HIV- 1 disease when CD4+ cell counts are greater than or equal to 500 cells mm. 3 As immunodeficiency progresses and as CD4+ cell counts decline to the 200 to 500 cells mm3 range, the most frequent neuropathies encountered are mononeuritis multiplex and herpes zoster neuropathy. With HIV-1 disease progression (CD4+ cell counts are less than 200 cells mm 3 ), the occurrence of distal symmetrical polyneuropathy increases, as does the prevalence of other types of neuropathies such as autonomic neuropathy, mononeuritis multiplex, cranial mononeuropathies, mononeuropathies-radiculopathies associated with neoplasms, and...

Neuropathic Pain

For the burning, stabbing, or shooting pain caused by nerve damage, an anticonvulsant such as gabapentin (Neurontin), 100 to 400 mg orally one to four times a day, or pregabalin (Lyrica) 50-100 mg orally three times a day, may be a useful addition (Rosenberg et al., 1997). Amitriptyline or nortriptyline, in doses smaller than those used to treat depression (10-50 mg at bedtime), are often effective, but newer agents such as venlafaxine (Effexor) or duloxetine (Cymbalta) may be effective for neuropathic pain and have fewer side effects. If swallowing problems arise, and a tricyclic drug is needed, dox-epin (Sinequan) solution may be used. The addition of carba-mazepine (200 mg three times daily) or valproate (Depakene, 250 mg three times daily) should be considered if the tricyclic agent alone is not adequate. Both doxepin and carbamaze-pine can be administered rectally in gelatin capsules (Storey and Trumble, 1992). A short course of steroids also has been helpful in treating...

Diabetic Neuropathy

All components of the peripheral nervous system are susceptible, but nerves in the feet are often the first structures to signal the impact of DM. Typically, onset of symptoms occurs in the evening or at night, suggesting nerve dysfunction because capillary peripheral perfusion diminishes with reclining or sleeping. Paresthesias are perceived as numbness, burning, or pins and needles in the toes or the bottom of the foot. Massaging the foot, pushing against a bed board, or walking may help as the microcirculation improves. Remarkably, some patients demonstrate these classic symptoms of diabetic neuropathy even before hyperglycemia occurs in the blood.

Peripheral Nerve

The reported incidence of peripheral nerve injury is about 1 in every 1000 anaesthetics. Poor positioning is a common underlying factor. The brachial plexus and superficial nerves of the limbs (ulnar, radial and common peroneal) are the most frequently affected nerves. The usual mechanism of injury to superficial nerves is ischaemia from compression of the vasa vasorum by surgical retractors, leg stirrups or contact with other equipment. Nerve injury can be part of a compartment syndrome of a limb after ischaemia from poor positioning. Ischaemic injury is more likely to occur during periods of poor peripheral perfusion associated with hypotension or hypothermia. Nerves can also be injured by traction, e.g. the brachial plexus during excessive shoulder abduction. Needlestick or chemical injury can also occur during regional anaesthesia. Meticulous care is necessary when positioning the patient. Padding should be used beneath tourniquets and to protect pressure points. Extreme joint...

Gas Exchange In Body Cells

The nervous system gathers, analyses, stores, and transmits information. It controls vital body functions and interacts with the outside world. There are two parts the central nervous system, which comprises the brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system, which is made up of nerves that branch from the brain and spinal cord to all areas of the body. Signals, in the form of tiny electrical impulses, are transmitted through the nervous system from the brain to the rest of the body and vice versa. The brain controls almost all activities -both conscious activities, such as movement, and unconscious functions, such as maintaining body temperature. It also receives information from the nerves about the environment and the condition of other parts of the body. For example, the nerves leading from the eyes register visual information and nerves beneath the surface of the skin transmit sensations such as pain. In addition, the brain is capable of complex processes such as...

Vinca Alkaloids and Epipodophyllotoxins

Vincristine and vinblastine are vinca alkaloids that act on tubulin to inhibit microtubule assembly. They result in S-phase-specific mitotic arrest. Resistance is mediated by the p170 membrane glycoprotein. These agents are water soluble, must be given intravenously, and have poor BBB penetration.8 Toxicities are primarily neurologic, including peripheral neuropathy and (as a result) constipation. Vinblastine is seldom administered to patients with nervous system tumors. Vin-cristine is commonly used in combination with procarbazine and CCNU (PCV chemotherapy) and may have activity against malignant gliomas, PNETs, low-grade gliomas, ependymomas, and primary CNS lymphomas. Epipodophyllotoxins such as VP16 (etoposide) inhibit the enzyme topoisomerase II and result in DNA strand breaks. This leads to G2-S cell-cycle arrest. VP16 can be given either by mouth or intravenously. Major toxicities include nausea and vomiting, peripheral neuropathy, and myelosuppression. VP16 can be given as a...

Intrinsic Risk Factors

Intrinsic risk factors for pressure ulcer development include age, conditions that impair mobility, malnutrition, and sensory impairment. Skin changes associated with aging (e.g., epidermal thinning, diminished vascularity) increase the susceptibility of older persons to shearing forces, pressure, and friction. Immobility can cause infrequent position changes, thus exposing an older person to prolonged pressure. Malnutrition, specifically an inadequate intake of calories or protein, has been associated with the development of pressure sores (Thomas, 2001). AHCPR (1994) defines clinically significant malnutrition as a serum albumin level of less than 3.5 mg dL, a total lymphocyte count of less than 1800 cells mm3, or body weight less than 80 of ideal weight. Supplementation of micronutrients involved in skin healing, such as ascorbic acid and zinc, has not been shown to prevent pressure sores or improve rates of healing. Sensory impairment, such as in diabetic neuropathy, can prevent...

Development Of An Acute Pain Nurse Service

At Orebro Medical Center Hospital, our pain nurse-based, anesthesiologist-supervised model is based on the concept that postoperative pain relief can be greatly improved by provision of inservice training for surgical nursing staff, optimal use of systemic opioids, and the use of regional analgesia techniques and PCA in selected patients. Regular recording of each patient's pain intensity by VAS every 3 hours and recording of treatment efficacy on the vital signs chart form the cornerstone of this model. A VAS higher than 3 is promptly treated. Participation by the surgeon and ward nurse is crucial in this organization. A specially trained APN makes daily rounds of all surgery departments. The APN's duties are described in Table 4-2 . In this organization, the treatment of individual patients is based on standard orders and protocols developed jointly by the section anesthesiologist, the surgeon, and the ward nurse. This approach gives nurses the flexibility to administer analgesics...

Somatosensory Evoked Potentials

Most of the components that indicate the different stages of both sensory and cognitive processing of the somatesthetic inputs are shown in Fig. 10a. The positive components P10, P12, P13, and P14, not represented in the figure and indicating the very early latency of the first phases of the processing, are thought to reflect, respectively, discharge of the peripheral nerve, arrival in the dorsal root of the spinal cord, and then arrival in the mesencephalon (13-14 msec). On the other hand there are indications that the P15 (see Fig. 10b) could be generated in the medial lemniscus, or in the thalamus (Allison, 1984). The N20, the P20, and the P25 are thought to reflect activity of the primary somatosensory cortex. All of the other components up to P100 reflect potentials generated in the primary somatosensory cortex or surrounding areas. Desmedt and Robertson (1977) demonstrated that the N140 and the P190, also called vertex potentials, are strongly...

Natural Products Role in Target Identification

Acetylcholine is a key transmitter in the central and the peripheral nervous system. Acetylcholine operates through multiple receptors, and the original demonstration of receptor heterogeneity was achieved using the naturally occurring compounds, nicotine and muscarine. Whereas the ionotropic class of acetylcholine receptors binds nicotine with high affinity and selectivity, muscarine specifically and potently activates the metabotropic class of these receptors. Using molecular biological techniques, a number of subtypes of both nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors have been identified and characterized (Chapters 12 and 16).

Sensory Map Plasticity

Another experiment found that repetitive stimulation of the ulnar nerve for 2 hours increased the excitability of Ml and increased the representation for ulnar, but not median-innervated hand muscles during testing with TMS.238 In another paradigm, TMS that stimulated the abductor pollicus brevis, paired with low frequency stimulation of the median nerve to that muscle, induced greater excitability to the muscle within 30 minutes and the effect lasted up to 1 hour.239 The anatomic localization for this plasticity, such as Ml alone, Sl, or the spinal cord, is uncertain. This example of artificially driving sensorimotor integration likely involves a thalamocortical interaction. For clinical rehabilitation, these two TMS studies suggest the need to test a strategy of a synchronous combination of peripheral nerve stimulation of weaker muscles or stimulate with TMS during the retraining of a motor skill that incorporates those muscles. Direct cortical stimulation of Sl or Ml in monkeys...

Foot pressure transducers

Force platforms as described above can be used to measure both static and dynamic plantar forces provided that the platform is capable of producing independent measures of both vertical and shear forces. In many applications, both clinical and athletic, it is desirable to have a continuous recording of the pressure distribution under the foot. Forces acting under the foot in various foot pathologies such as diabetic neuropathy, leprosies, injury and deformation are naturally different from these measured in healthy athletes. Post-operative follow-up of corrective surgery such as free flap reconstruction of severe tibial factures can be performed by measuring plantar pressures under the foot 16 .

P Prithvi Raj Molly Johnston

Nerve stimulators are useful for locating peripheral nerves during placement of catheters, such as sciatic and brachial plexus catheters. Many stimulators are available. Features needed in the stimulators are constant current, the ability to stimulate as low as 0.1 mA, and frequencies of less than 5 Hz.

Structure And Function

The function of the human nervous system is the acquisition of information from the external environment and its computation to produce an integrated response. The central nervous system (CNS) comprises the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system is composed of 43 pairs of nerves which contain afferent sensory fibres conducting impulses to the CNS from the periphery, and efferent motor fibres conducting in the reverse direction. There are 10y 1012 neurones in the CNS, each surrounded by neuroglial cells. These cells are of two types

Lumbosacral Plexus And Its Branches

Minimal monitoring should include continuous regulation of blood pressure, ECG, and level of consciousness. If the patient receives any sedative or narcotic medications during the block, a pulse oximeter should be used. A peripheral nerve stimulator can greatly enhance the success rate of a sciatic nerve block by helping to avoid significant patient discomfort. The extent of the block can be assessed by examining motor function, which is primarily governed by a somatic nerve.

Complement Receptor Gene Expression

All PB cells except platelets), FDC, peripheral nerve fibers, endothelial cells. Mature B cells, FDC, activated T cells, epithelial cells, platelets. Monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, NK. cells, dendritic cells, T cells, mast cells. Monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, NK cells, dendritic cells, T cclls, mast cells, activated B cells. Mast cells, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, activated lymphocytes, dendritic cells, smooth muscle cells, nervous tissue.

Gene Expression For Repair

After experimental stroke,11 focal cerebral trauma,18 SCI,19 and peripheral nerve injury,20 fairly repeatable sequences of lesion-induced gene expression within each model have been demonstrated. The studies reflect degenerative and regenerative responses. Most studies find 60 or more genes expressed, usually including transcription factors, cytokines, neuropeptides, growth factors such as neurotrophins and in-terleukins and their receptors, cytoskeletal proteins and growth-associated proteins such as GAP-43 needed for regeneration, extracellular matrix and cell adhesion molecules and their receptors that can serve regeneration, and myelinating proteins. Each protein may rise

Central conduction time CCT

This is the time delay between an action potential generated in the brain stem and the first cortical potential recordable (normally less than 6.4 ms). Other times are also described, e.g. the dorsal column to cortex conduction time. CCT is independent of body size and peripheral nerve conduction velocity and is probably also independent of body temperature and barbiturate concentrations. Changes result from cortical dysfunction, abnormal synaptic delay in the thalamus or cortex (or both) and slowed axonal conduction. CCT at 10 and 35 days correlates well with outcome in head injury. Changes in brain electrical activity vary with cerebral blood flow, and CCT has been used as an index of reduction of cerebral blood flow in subarachnoid haemorrhage. It may also be used as a monitor of developing ischaemia in association with surgery for subarachnoid haemorrhage.

Nearinfrared Spectrophotometry

Some clinical aspects of neurophysiology may be investigated quantitatively, e.g. Glasgow Coma Scale. The increasing sophistication of peripheral nerve stimulators now makes it possible to monitor nerve conduction during neuromuscular blockade this technique is discussed in Chapter 19. Electrodiagnostic procedures such as nerve conduction velocity and electromyography are useful investigations for neuromuscular disorders, but are beyond the scope of this chapter.

Procedures For Pain Relief

Nerve blocks are capable of providing excellent analgesia, with minimal systemic effect, in a limited area of the body. Peripheral nerve blocks are simple to perform, provide excellent analgesia, and have a good record of safety. In general, appropriate blocks exist for almost all areas of the body. Often, however, there is no single technique that is effective, and a multimodal approach is necessary.

Experimental Case Studies

Somatotopic reorganization can occur at the earliest stages of somatosensory processing. Stimulation of peripheral afferents extends a cell's receptive field beyond the boundaries usually found in electrophysiologic studies. For example, after a peripheral nerve lesion, reorganization in the somatotopic map was shown in the ventroposterior lateral nucleus of the thalamus in adult monkeys that was as complete as what was found in the parietal cortex.361 Vertebrate experiments reveal the capacity of axons in adults to extend at least 1 to 2 mm, yet they rarely do so.45 Indeed, central axons can be coaxed to extend long distances through the permissive environment of a peripheral nerve graft.46 A variety of factors account for the difference between what is possible and what occurs. Central nervous system neurons may not continuously express the growth-promoting cytoskeletal and other proteins needed for regeneration. Another explanation relates to the barriers faced by an axon growth...

What are the types of chronic spine pain

Neuropathic pain is due to permanent nerve damage or physiologic change to the peripheral or central nervous system. The nerve is the source of the pain even though it is no longer being stimulated. Neuropathic nerves may have a lowered threshold for firing because they have become sensitized, either peripherally or centrally. As a result, there may be severe pain despite minimal or even no stimulus. Examples include a damaged nerve root due to prolonged neural compression from disc herniation or foraminal stenosis, arachnoiditis, or complex regional pain syndrome (formerly called reflex sympathetic dystrophy). Some patients may have both nociceptive and neuropathic pain, a mixed pain syndrome.

Evaluation Guidelines

Electrophysiological assessment of the corneal (blink) reflex latency can be reliably measured in an attempt to further localize a supranuclear, nuclear, or peripheral nerve processed This electrically elicited response is similar to that tested at the bedside, and it allows measurement of the response latency after stimulating either the afferent trigeminal or efferent facial nerve components. The facial nerve can be stimulated directly at its exit near the mastoids and the direct response latency (contraction of the ipsilateral orbicularis oculi muscles) measured. For normal adults, this value is typically between 3.0 and 5.0 msec. In contrast, the afferent and efferent limbs of the blink reflex can be tested by stimulating the supraorbital nerve or tapping the glabellar regions and measuring response time to bilateral orbicularis contraction (normal values, approximately 30 msec ipsilateral and contralateral latency differences less than 5 msec). Prolongation of the blink latency...

Gasserian Ganglion Syndromes

Numerous pathological processes occurring within the middle cranial fossa can result in trigeminal dysfunction by affecting the gasserian ganglion. In children, osteitis of the petrous apex following suppurative otitis media or mastoiditis, which leads to inflammation and infection affecting the trigeminal ganglion, may result in Gradenigo's syndrome. The syndrome is characterized by facial pain, headache, or sensory loss and a sixth cranial nerve palsy, facial palsy (due to seventh nerve involvement), and deafness (due to eighth nerve involvement). The pain is described as boring or throbbing, worse at night. Pain is aggravated by jaw or ear movement. It has been hypothesized that some of the dysesthetic sensation patients experience before or during episodes of Bell's palsy may reflect involvement of the trigeminal ganglion or nuclei in the brain stem. y A benign, self-limited trigeminal sensory neuropathy has been reported in children 7 to 21 days following a nonspecific febrile...

Clinical Presentation

In MEN 2B, 40 to 50 of patients develop pheochromocytomas, and all individuals develop neural gangliomas, particularly in the mucosa of the digestive tract, conjunctiva, lips, and tongue.411 MEN 2B patients also have megacolon, skeletal abnormalities, and markedly enlarged peripheral nerves. MEN 2B patients do not have hyperparathyroidism. MTC develops in all patients at a very young age (infancy) and appears to be the most aggressive form of hereditary MTC, although its aggressiveness may be related more to the extremely early age of onset than the biologic virulence of the tumor. MTC in MEN 2B is rarely cured.

Pharmacodynamics Of Central Nervous System Toxicity

When the potential for producing this electrophysiologic toxicity was evaluated, bupivacaine was approximately 16 times more toxic than lidocaine.03 This effect, therefore, is out of proportion to the anesthetic potency of the drug in blocking peripheral nerve conduction.

Stimulate Axonal Regeneration

One of the first examples of the reconstruction of a CNS circuit (Table 2-7) was the growth of retinal ganglion cell axons into the superior colliculus through the nonneuronal environment provided by a peripheral nerve bridging graft.91 In the model of Aguayo and colleagues, approximately 10 to 20 of the retinal ganglia cells survived an induced injury. Their axons regrew approximately 4 cm to make functional connections that permitted a response to light. The Schwann cells of the peripheral nerve protected and sustained the retinal growth cones. This study pointed to the inhibitory aspects of the CNS milieu compared to the PNS. Oligodendrocytes, for example, produce Nogo, the inhibitor of axon regeneration, but Schwann cells do not. Peripheral nerve bridges and Schwann cells embedded in artificial matrices are still, 20 years after the first experiments by Aguayo and colleagues, a potentially powerful means to direct long distance CNS axonal growth. This group also showed that...

When are antidepressants useful for patients with spine problems

Antidepressants have several potential uses in patients with chronic spinal problems, including the treatment of back pain, neuropathic pain, sleep disturbance, and depression. Only the antidepressants with primarily nonadrenergic activity are useful for pain. The data regarding efficacy of antidepressants for axial pain are equivocal. At best, isolated studies show about 30 reduction in pain in one third of patients. In addition, recent data suggest these drugs are not very effective for radicular pain caused by ongoing neural compression. However, they may be quite effective for neuropathic extremity pain. The sedating antidepressants can be effective for sleep but have not been compared with standard hypnotics. They may have more side effects and greater risk. Most antidepressants can be effective for depression in the patient with chronic spinal pain, but it may take two or three trials before finding the best drug.

The Terminator in the Tunnel Acupuncture on the Scene

In traditional Oriental Medical terms, the symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome reflect cold (a victim often feels more pain with cold), dampness (forearm and hand may feel heavy and achy), and wind (characterizes the tingling or shooting nerve pain) that block the otherwise smooth flow of blood and Qi in our arms.

Local anaesthetic agents

Local anaesthetic drugs act by producing a reversible block to the transmission of peripheral nerve impulses. A reversible block may also be produced by physical factors, including pressure and cold. Although nerve compression is of purely historical interest, cold (produced by the evaporation of ethyl chloride, the application of ice packs or use of a cryoprobe) still has a limited use. are injected at their site of action, only peripheral nerve is usually exposed to concentrations high enough to have a significant effect. However, when sufficient drug reaches other organs via the circulation, more widespread effects occur.

Health effects of chronic arsenic exposure

Ill-effects as a result of chronic ingestion are most likely to occur as a result of drinking contaminated water. Health effects of long-term exposure include skin changes, e.g. pigmentation and lesions, peripheral neuropathy, liver damage, and circulatory effects. Arsenic has also been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as carcinogenic to humans.

Pelvic Fracture Clinical Summary

Pelvic fractures are often the result of motor vehicle crashes or falls and are fraught with associated complications. The pelvis should be regarded as a ring identification of one fracture or dislocation should prompt surveillance for another. The purpose of the pelvis is to bear weight and to protect the visceral organs consequently, a fracture of the pelvis will often compromise these functions. Pain is the most common complaint however, patients with pelvic fractures may present unconscious so a careful physical examination is necessary. Trauma to the genitourinary tract is suggested by blood at the urethral meatus, a high-riding prostate, gross hematuria, or scrotal hematoma. Spinal nerves, the lumbosacral plexus, sacral plexus, and the major lower extremity peripheral nerves such as the sciatic, femoral, obturator, and pudendal nerves, are found in close proximity to the pelvis. A neurologic examination of the lower

The sciatic nerve Commentary

The sciatic nerve is the largest peripheral nerve in the body and it is accessible from a number of sites. Sciatic nerve block provides good analgesia for much lower limb surgery, and the variety of possible approaches provides an appropriate test of applied anatomy. As always with questions which include practical procedures, it will help greatly the credibility of your answer if you can convince the examiner that you have undertaken some of these blocks. You will not, however, be expected to be familiar with every single approach.

Clinical Factors Affecting Drug Profile

The site of injection also affects onset time and duration (in addition to potential toxicity). Onset is almost immediate after infiltration and is progressively delayed with subarachnoid, peripheral nerve and epidural blocks, respectively. The slowest onset follows brachial plexus block. The dose required and the likely duration of action tend to increase in much the same order as for onset time.

What are the basic components of an electrodiagnostic examination

NCS record and analyze electric waveforms of biologic origin elicited in response to an electric stimulus. NCS assess the ability of a specific nerve to transmit an impulse between two sites along the course of an axon. When NCS are abnormal, they give information that a specific nerve is not conducting impulses in the measured area. Both sensory and motor nerve conduction studies can be performed. Sensory, motor, and mixed nerves can be assessed. NCS are useful for diagnosis of peripheral entrapment neuropathy and peripheral neuropathy. They are generally expected to be normal in radiculopathy because the lesion is usually preganglionic. Specialized NCS H-reflex, F-wave, and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) may play a limited role in diagnosis of radiculopathy.

Lidocaine previously lignocaine

Having been used safely and effectively for every possible type of local anaesthetic procedure, lidocaine is currently the standard agent. It has no unusual features and is also a standard antiarrhythmic. Lidocaine is used commonly for infiltration in concentrations of 0.5-1.0 and for peripheral nerve blocks if an intermediate duration is required. It can be used for intravenous regional anaesthesia, although prilocaine is preferred. Lidocaine 5 has been used for subarachnoid anaesthesia, although the degree of spread is unpredictable, the duration of action is relatively short. However there are relatively new concerns about its neurotoxicity in such high concentrations. In a concentration of 1-2 , lidocaine produces epidural anaesthesia with a short onset time. Lidocaine 2 1 is used by many anaesthetists as a topical solution for anaesthesia of the upper airway before awake fibreoptic intubation.

Evaluation Guidelines Table132

Proximal peripheral nerves Cerebellopontine angle lesion Middle peripheral nerve lesion at base of skull or nasopharynx Far distal peripheral nerve lesions Fluid and Tissue Analysis. Occasionally, biopsy of tissue outside the CNS may be productive in establishing a diagnosis involving the ninth and tenth cranial nerves. Amyloid neuropathy involving the cranial nerves may be demonstrated on peripheral nerve biopsy. Sarcoidosis with basilar meningitis and cranial neuropathies may be evident on lung or lymph node biopsy.

Increase Axonal Regeneration

The major barriers to axonal regeneration include glial scar, molecules in the milieu that inhibit growth cones or are not available to attract growth cones, and a core of necrosis and dead space that cannot be traversed. Following a SCI in rodents, lesioned corticospinal tract axons from layer V pyramidal cells have regenerated into implants of neurotrophins, fetal tissue, peripheral nerve, and Schwann cell grafts, but tend not to extend beyond these stimuli into distal white matter. Olfactory en-sheathing cells have led to greater growth into white matter. Inosine enabled uninjured axons to sprout collaterals into normal white matter. Other axons, especially serotonergic and nora-drenergic fibers, have traversed longer distances after injury.

How are NCS obtained For what diagnoses are NCS most likely to be helpful

NCS are most likely to yield positive findings in conditions that may mimic the symptoms of radiculopathy, such as compression neuropathy or peripheral neuropathy. Sensory NCS are expected to be normal in radiculopathy because the pathologic lesion is almost always preganglionic. Motor NCS can be abnormal in severe radiculopathy (i.e. reduced CMAP amplitude).

How is the F wave elicited What is its value in the assessment of radiculopathy

The F wave is a compound action potential evoked from a muscle by a supramaximal electric stimulus to its related peripheral nerve. This procedure results in an antidromic activation of the motor neuron. The F wave has variable configuration, latency, and amplitudes. Amplitudes generally range between 1 and 5 of the M wave. F waves are abnormal immediately after nerve root injury, even when the needle EMG is normal. However, an F-wave study has low utility for diagnosing a radiculopathy because a muscle is innervated by multiple roots and any lesion along these multiple neural pathways can render it abnormal. Abnormal F waves are observed only in multiple and severe motor root compromise. Clinically, F waves have been shown to be useful in the diagnosis of multiple root lesions such as Guillain-Barre syndrome and extensive proximal neuropathies such as plexopathies.

Ventral Horn Neurons And Roots

Following an intramedullary axotomy or ventral root avulsion, up to 90 of motoneu-rons will die from apoptosis within a month of disconnection from their proximal axons. Surviving motoneurons may develop supernumerary axons originating from the soma.291 These new axons can establish normal synaptic contacts with spinal neurons and grow into a piece of implanted peripheral nerve. The motoneu-ron may also generate one or more axons into the white matter from distal dendrites.

History And Definitions

The terms lower motor neuron and upper motor neuron are often used to differentiate two basic types of weakness the first, due to a lesion of the motor neuron in the anterior spinal gray and its axon coursing to the muscle through the spinal roots and peripheral nerves and the second, due to a lesion that interrupts the descending motor pathways from supraspinal neurons that converge on the lower motor neuron pool. These very useful terms in clinical neurology derive from the concept that pools of upper motor neurons exist in a hierarchical order in the brain stem and motor cortex and converge via several different pathways on the lower motor neuron pool consisting of alpha and gamma motor neurons.

Postherpetic Neuralgia

Postherpetic neuralgia is associated with marked pathological abnormalities in the dorsal root ganglion, peripheral nerve and dorsal horn. At the cellular level, demyelination, axonal degeneration and inflammatory cell infiltration may be observed, and extend to several spinal segments. The latter may account for the occasional patient who has an impressive response to epidural steroids. An interesting observation in many patients suffering neuralgias is that the symptoms may be relieved by local anaesthetic infiltration of the skin innervated by the affected nerve, clearly distal to the lesion. This indicates that in some cases a sensory input is required for abnormal sensation to be experienced, rather than arising spontaneously only from the pathology itself.

Associated Neurological Findings see IabJe155

In touch and pain sensation in the ipsilateral face and contralateral body is characteristic of a unilateral lateral medullary lesion (Wallenberg's syndrome). Spinal cord lesions often affect sensation on both sides of the body the upper level of the sensory loss, especially in regard to pain and temperature, help to define the level of the lesion. When half the cord is damaged, a pattern of loss of proprioception and vibration ipsilateral to the lesion and contralateral loss of pain and temperature sensation is characteristic of the Brown-Sequard syndrome. Central cord lesions produce a suspended sensory loss affecting pain and temperature sensation with sparing of the sacral dermatomes, and vibration and proprioception (see Chapter.1,9 and Chapter.2.0 ). Lesions of the conus medullaris or cauda equina produce loss of sensation in the perineum. Careful mapping of a more localized area of sensory loss in a limb can differentiate a dermatomal pattern of loss consistent with a spinal...

Acute Cervical Disc Herniation 331 Mechanism of Injury

If there is evidence of cord compression with myelopathy, i.e., tetraplegia, emergent decompression is indicated this is accomplished most often through an anterior surgical approach and usually includes removal of the offending disc and fusion of the adjacent vertebral bodies. If the patient is nonmyelopathic, then rest, NSAIDs, immobilization, cervical traction, and potentially fluoroscopically guided epidural steroid injections are indicated. In the rare event that an injured athlete with an extremely laterally oriented cervical HNP presents with only arm pain and there is no cord compression, the athlete may benefit from a less invasive microforaminot-omy instead of discectomy and fusion. This is a procedure in which the affected foramen is surgically widened to relieve pressure on the peripheral nerve being compressed by the HNP.

Epidemiology And Etiology Prevalence of Pain

The prevalence of neuropathic pain is unknown because of the lack of epidemiologic studies. Current estimates suggest that approximately 1.5 of the population in the United States might be affected by neuropathic pain.7 However, this figure is probably an underestimate and will likely increase due to the increase in disorders associated with neuropathic pain in the ever-growing older population. Approximately 25 to 50 of all pain clinic visits are related to neuropathic pain.8 Central neuropathic pain is estimated to occur in 2 to 8 of all stroke patients.9

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

Transcranial magnetic stimulation has been used increasingly by investigators to make maps of cognitive15 and sensorimotor16 activity, to detect representational plasticity caused by pain17 and brain tumors,18 to investigate motor system plasticity after peripheral nerve injury, stroke and spinal cord injury,19 and to assess the effects of practice and neurophar-macologic agents on simple motor learning.20 By combining TMS and TES results at the same cortical site, along with TES of the brain stem and spinal cord, the site of motor reorganization after, for example, a lower limb amputation, can be deduced.21

Describe herbal therapy

Two herbs commonly used to treat LBP are arnica and St. John's wort. Arnica, which is derived from a flowering plant, is used for musculoskeletal injuries such as acute lumbar strain. St. John's wort (Hypericum performatum) is utilized for the treatment of depression, fibromyalgia, arthritic pain, LBP, and neuropathic pain. St. John's wort should not be used with psychotropic medications, including other antidepressants.

Clinical Presentation And Diagnosis Classification of Pain

Neuropathic Pain Neuropathic pain is considered to be a type of chronic nonmalignant pain involving disease of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Neuropathic pain might be broadly categorized as peripheral or central in nature. Examples of neuropathic pain include PHN, which is pain associated with acute herpetic neuralgia or an acute shingles outbreak. Peripheral or polyneuropathic pain is associated with the distal polyneuropathies of diabetes, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and chemothera-peutic agents. Types of central pain include central stroke pain, trigeminal neuralgia, and a complex of syndromes known as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). CRPS includes both reflex sympathetic dystrophy and causalgia, both of which are neuropathic pain associated with abnormal functioning of the autonomic nervous system. One of the newest categories of neuropathic pain is neuropathic low back pain.

Pain Assessment Guidelines Regulations for Specific Practice Settings

Multidimensional assessment tools obtain information about the pain and impact on quality of life, but are often more time-consuming to complete. Examples of these types of tools include the Initial Pain Assessment Tool, Brief Pain Inventory, McGill Pain Questionnaire, the Neuropathic Pain Scale, and the Oswestry Disability Index.29-33

Pharmacologic Therapy

Aspirin, nonacetylated salicylates, and other NSAIDs have analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory actions. These agents inhibit cyclo-oxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) enzymes, thereby preventing prostaglandin synthesis, which results in reduced nociceptor sensitization and an increased pain threshold. NSAIDs are the preferred agents for mild-to-moderate pain in situations that are mediated by prostagland-ins (rheumatoid arthritis, menstrual cramps, and postsurgical pain) and in the management of pain from bony metastasis, but they are of minimal use in neuropathic pain.

Catherine L Ojakangas and John P Donoghue

When peripheral nerves are lesioned, whether sensory or motor, or if a limb is amputated, the motor cortical area to or from which those nerves project is reorganized. Studies in the primary somatosensory cortex have shown striking cortical reorganization when sensory input to the cortex is modified either by amputating or deafferenting digits or limbs (Merzenich et al., 1983a, b 1984) by surgically connecting the skin of two fingers (syndactyly) or by grafting skin from one region of a limb to another in the monkey. With time somatotopic boundaries change during cortical mapping to reflect the reconfigured skin surfaces (Clark et al., 1988 Allard et al., 1991) and representations of intact inputs expand to fill areas previously representing the deafferentated digits (Merzenich et al., 1983a, b 1984). After human subjects underwent surgical correction of congenital syndactyly, S1 mapping revealed similar cortical reorganization to reflect anatomy (Mogilner et al., 1993). Imaging of...

Reviews And Selected Updates

Medical Research Council Aids to the Investigation of Peripheral Nerve Injuries, Memorandum No. 45. London, Crown Publishing, 19 76. 36. Dyck PJ, Dyck PJB, Grant IA, Fealey RD Ten steps in characterizing and diagnosing patients with peripheral neuropathy. Neurology 1996 47 10-17

Kurt Haas1 and Hollis T Cline2

One of the leading challenges facing neuroscience research today is how to promote functional regeneration after neuronal damage within the human central nervous system (CNS). Unlike neurons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), or CNS neurons in lower vertebrates, damaged mammalian CNS axons fail to reinitiate growth to re-establish functioning circuits (Richardson et al., 1982 Davies et al., 1996). Careful optimism to this problem has risen due to advances in our understanding of factors controlling axonal growth and circuit formation during both development and regeneration. Importantly, it is now clear that damaged mammalian CNS neurons posses the ability to survive and sprout new axons, but this regenerative capacity is dependent on cell responses and molecular signals in their local environment (Schnell and Schwab, 1990 Huang et al., 1999 Stichel et al., 1999 Bahr, 2000 Behar et al., 2000 Goldberg and Barres, 2000 Dergham et al., 2002 Ellezam et al., 2002 Koeberle and Ball,...

Roy Greengrass Susan Steele Gene Moretti Stewart Grant Steven Klein Karen Nielsen

In this chapter, somatic peripheral nerve blocks such as cervical plexus blocks, blocks of the brachial plexus and its branches, intercostal and interpleural blocks, pudendal nerve blocks, blocks of the lumbosacral plexus and its branch, and intravenous regional anesthesia of upper and lower extremity blocks are described.

Neuromuscular Monitoring

There is no clinical tool available to measure accurately neuromuscular transmission in a muscle group. Thus, neither the amount of acetylcholine released in response to a given stimulus nor the number of postsynaptic receptors blocked by a given nondepolarizing muscle relaxant may be assessed. However, it is possible to obtain a crude estimate of muscle contraction during anaesthesia using a variety of techniques. All require the application to a peripheral nerve of a current of up to 60 mA, for a fraction of a millisecond (often 0.2 ms), necessitating a voltage of up to 300 V. Usually, a nerve which is readily accessible to the anaesthetist, such as the ulnar, facial or lateral popliteal nerve, is used. The muscle response to the nerve stimulus may then be assessed by either visual or tactile means, or it may be recorded by more sophisticated methods.

Associated Neurological Findings

The body are common in patients with a brain stem lesion. Symmetrical sensory impairment over the feet, legs, and hands associated with reflex loss and various degrees of paresis suggests peripheral neuropathy. Peripheral neuropathies are frequently associated with degenerative cerebellar disorders.

Unilateral Limb Ataxia

Symmetrical involvement of both hemispheres and vermis produces bilateral limb ataxia and ataxia of stance and gait, as happens in most forms of cerebellar degeneration. Dysarthria and oculomotor disturbances are also frequently present. Extracerebellar signs are often associated, such as pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs, ophthalmoplegia, and peripheral neuropathy.

Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation

That ordinarily occurs via the smaller-diameter nerve fibers. TENS has been demonstrated via meta-analysis to be an effective treatment for adult chronic musculoskeletal pain (Johnson and Martinson 2007). A placebo-controlled trial provided support for TENS for children experiencing procedural pain (Lander and Fowler-Kerry 1993). Research also supports the effectiveness of TENS for pediat-ric dental pain (Baghdadi 1999 Modaresi et al. 1996). Published case reports (e.g., Kesler et al. 1988 Van Epps et al. 2007) have described its efficacy, including for neuropathic pain.

Rationale For The Choice Of Local Anesthetics For Brachial Plexus Block

Ten milliliters of local anesthetic is necessary to produce a consistently good surgical block on each mixed peripheral nerve. Because the brachial plexus block involves four major nerves, it requires 40 mL of local anesthetic. The site of needle entry does not change the volume requirement. (Higher needle entry in the brachial plexus sheath, such as that used for the interscalene, supraclavicular, or infraclavicular techniques, causes the motor block to appear earlier than the sensory block. A more distal needle entry, such as that used for the axillary technique, is associated with greater sensory block and poorer motor block.)

Pathologic Features

Malignant melanomas present a significant challenge to the surgical neuropathologist because they can show extreme variation in both morphologic and immunohistochemical features. Some tumors can easily be mistaken for glioblastoma, meta-static carcinoma, or even malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor.40 Histopathologic features other than location and multifocality cannot distinguish primary from metastatic melanomas. The only reliable method for the diagnosis of a primary melanoma is to exclude conclusively a primary site elsewhere in the body. In large series of melanomas, 60 to 80 of tumors occur as solitary lesions, whereas the remainder occur as multiple lesions at diagnosis.9

Evaluation Guidelines Table 182

Laboratory evaluation of patients with gait and balance abnormalities is largely determined by the findings derived from the history and physical examination that point to dysfunction in specific neural structures, and these tests are covered in other chapters. For example, a gait disturbance associated with proprioceptive sensory loss should trigger a workup for peripheral neuropathy or spinal cord (posterior column) disease depending on the accompanying signs. General guidelines pertaining specifically to gait and balance disturbances are indicated here. Fluid and Tissue Analysis. Pernicious anemia sometimes causes gait disorders that are out of proportion to the peripheral neuropathy or myelopathy that is present vitamin B12 is indicated for patients with no obvious cause of their gait and balance difficulties. A urine drug screening test may reveal drug use that explains ataxia or inattention and falls.

Clinical Syndromes Table115

In lesions of the peripheral nervous system the sensory loss tends to be intense, with fixed, clearly defined zones. With central nervous system sensory deficits the boundaries are vague and the deficit is more mild as compared with peripheral processes. There may be considerable variation in both the distribution of and intensity of this type of sensory deficit.

Functional Neuromuscular Stimulation

Electrical stimulation produces an all-or-nothing depolarization of axons and their terminal branches in muscle. Fast, fatigable motor units are recruited first. The motor point is the most common site for direct electrical stimulation. From here, a mix of fast and slow muscle fibers are recruited as current spreads from an electrode. Functional neuromuscular stimulation requires an intact motor unit. If anterior horn cells have been destroyed, roots torn or avulsed, or peripheral nerves severed, electrical stimulation fails. The nerves and motor points affected by complete brachial plexopathies, central cord injuries, and conus cauda equina trauma cannot be activated.

Spinal Cord Stimulators

Lemay and Grill point out that investigators have to think differently about cord stimulation compared to peripheral nerve and muscle FNS.36 Torques for multijoint movements that result from spinal FNS may have to be more closely matched to particular tasks. State-dependent changes may also evolve in the senso-rimotor pools of the cord with stimulation, whereas peripheral FNS produces an all-or-none excitation-relaxation. The output of mi-croelectrode arrays that perforate the cord will have to adapt to changing neuronal excitation-inhibition, gene expression, and synaptic efficacy during and beyond the time of electrical stimulation.

The Response to Receptor Activation

The ligand-gated ion-channel receptors mediate fast synaptic transmission at the neuromuscular junction and throughout the central and peripheral nervous system. These receptors are also located presynaptically on nerve terminals at many synapses where they affect transmitter release. In addition, where the receptor channels are permeable to Ca2+, they are involved in the control of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration and hence feed into many of the transduction mechanisms that involve Ca2+ as a second messenger. Ca2+ influx through glutamate receptors of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype (Ascher and Nowak, 1988) is of particular importance in the processes of synaptogenesis and control of the strength of synaptic connections in the brain, while excess Ca2+ influx through NMDA receptor channels is thought to be the main cause of neuronal cell death during hypoxia or ischemia in the brain.

What are important points to assess on physical examination in the patient being evaluated for possible revision spine

A general neurologic assessment and regional spinal assessment are performed. The presence of nonorganic signs (Waddell signs) should be assessed. Global spinal balance in the sagittal and coronal planes should be assessed. The physical examination is tailored to the particular spinal pathology under evaluation. For cervical spine disorders, shoulder pathology, brachial plexus disorders, and conditions involving the peripheral nerves should not be overlooked. For lumbar spine problems, the hip joints, sacroiliac joints, and prior bone graft sites should be assessed. Examination of peripheral pulses is routinely performed to rule out vascular insufficiency. Consider degenerative neurologic or muscle-based problems, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or multiple sclerosis.

Baseline Fetal Heart Rate

Normal baseline FHR ranges from 110 to 160 beats min. A baseline change is interpreted as one that persists for 10 minutes or more and occurs between or in the absence of contractions. An FHR of less than 110 beats min is considered bradycardia. FHR is a function of the autonomic nervous system. The vagus nerve provides an inhibitory affect, whereas the sympathetic nervous system provides an excitatory influence. As the gestation advances, the vagal system gains dominance, resulting in a gradual decrease in the baseline. Stressful events such as hypoxia, uterine contractions, and head compression evoke a baroreceptor reflex, with resulting peripheral vasoconstriction and hypertension causing bradycardia. Stimulation of peripheral nerve receptors can cause acceleration of FHR (Fig. 21-10). An FHR baseline greater than 160 beats min is defined as tachycardia. This is

Vestibular Schwannomas

Acoustic neuromas are correctly termed vestibular schwannomas. The Schwann cells of peripheral nerve segments give rise to schwannoma formation. There are three cell types to be addressed that ensheathe neurites in the peripheral nervous system the Schwann cell, the perineurial cell, and the fibroblast. The Schwann cell sheath starts at the point of pial penetration of the axons, whereas the proximal sheath close to the neuraxis is formed by neuroglia. The Schwann cell is supposed to be of neuroectodermal origin and is responsible for the myelin sheath formation in the peripheral nervous system.

What is spinal cord stimulation

Modern spinal cord stimulators use epidural electrodes placed percutaneously, or through a limited open exposure, to stimulate the epidural space. The epidural electrodes are connected by lead wires to an implanted, programmable pulse generator that can have an internal or external power source. In a successful case, the electrical signals from the spinal cord stimulator reduce the sensation of pain by more than 50 and replace pain with a tingling sensation (paresthesia). Spinal cord stimulation is effective for neuropathic pain, which is defined as pain resulting from damage to the nervous system or secondary to abnormal processes of this system. Nociceptive pain, defined as pain from surgery or tissue damage, is not reliably relieved by spinal cord stimulation.

What are the mechanisms by which spinal cord stimulation exerts its effect

The mechanism of spinal cord stimulation is conceptualized based on the gate control theory of pain. In simplistic terms, this theory states that peripheral nerve fibers carrying pain to the spinal cord may have their input modified at the spinal cord level prior to transmission to the brain. The synapses in the dorsal horns act as gates that can either close to keep impulses from reaching the brain or open to allow impulses to pass. Small-diameter nerve fibers (C-fibers and lightly myelinated A-delta fibers) transmit pain impulses. Excess small fiber activity at the dorsal horn of the spinal cord opens the gate and permits impulse transmission, leading to pain perception. Large nerve fibers (A-beta fibers) carry nonpainful impulses, such as touch and vibratory sensation, and have the capacity to close the gate and inhibit pain transmission. Spinal cord stimulation is thought to preferentially stimulate large nerve fibers because these fibers are myelinated and have a lower...

Indications and Contraindications for Surgical Reconstruction

Some patients may report a history of cortisone injections to treat the symptoms. This history needs to be taken into consideration when planning the reconstruction as it may have contributed to tendon degeneration. Other problematic conditions include systemic diseases (diabetes mellitus, seronegative inflammatory disease, spondyloarthropathies, or sarcoidosis) and previous infections in the area. The surgeon needs to assess all risk factors very carefully so as not to put the result of his intervention at risk. This is also the case for patients with tobacco use or chronic arterial or venous disease. Patients with severe vascular disease and with sensorimotor deficits, such as peripheral neuropathy or Parkinson's disease, should be excluded from surgical treatment.

Pure Cholinergic or Adrenergic Disorders

Fabry's disease is an X-linked recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A (see Chapter 30 ). Its manifestations include painful distal peripheral neuropathy, a truncal reddish-purple macular papular rash, and angiectases of the skin, conjunctiva, nail bed, and oral mucosa, progressive renal disease, corneal opacities, and cerebrovascular accidents. The autonomic manifestations include hypohidrosis or anhidrosis, reduced saliva and tear formation, impaired histamine flare, and gastrointestinal dysmotility. y

What pain problems are amenable to spinal cord stimulation

Spinal cord stimulation has demonstrated effectiveness for many neuropathic pain conditions, including persistent radicular pain following failed spinal surgery, complex regional pain syndrome, limb ischemia, angina pectoris, and postherpetic neuralgia. Many experts consider the best candidates for spinal cord stimulation following failed spinal surgery as those patients with radicular pain greater than axial pain. However, patients with pure neuropathic pain following unsuccessful spine surgery are uncommon. Patients following unsuccessful spine surgery frequently present with mixed nociceptive neuropathic pain. Advances in programming and electrode technology, including multilead systems, have improved outcomes in this patient population.

Which regimen should be considered standard of care for goodrisk metastatic germ cell tumor

Underlying pulmonary disease, smoking, and cumulative bleomycin dose, there may be reason to choose four cycles of EP and avoid bleomycin. It should be remembered, however, that the overall risk for BIP with 270 units of bleomycin is low, so avoidance of bleomycin in young individuals who have normal renal and pulmonary function is not warranted. In patients who have underlying peripheral neuropathy or hearing loss in whom minimizing cisplatin exposure might be advantageous, three cycles of BEP may be preferred to avoid the extra cycle of cisplatin.

Normovolemic Patients

The cardiovascular effects of regional anesthesia are well documented.113 113 113 Peripheral nerve blocks rarely cause significant hemodynamic changes, whereas the hemodynamic alterations caused by spinal and epidural anesthesia depend on the sensory level of anesthesia. For example, spinal anesthesia to the T5 dermatome level decreases mean arterial blood pressure by 21.3 , although the decline in total peripheral resistance is only 5 . The hypotension seen with spinal anesthesia is, therefore, caused by a decrease in cardiac output, which averages 17.7 . This fall in cardiac output is apparently the result of a 25.4 decrease in stroke volume owing to venodilatation.113 All of these cardiovascular effects associated with spinal anesthesia are direct results of preganglionic sympathetic blockade, and the degree of cardiovascular depression is directly proportional to the level of sympathetic blockade.

What medications are currently approved for infusion via an implantable drug delivery system

The current Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medications for infusion into the spinal canal are morphine (approved for intrathecal analgesia), ziconotide (Prialt, approved for intrathecal analgesia), and baclofen (approved for spasticity). Other medications have been used off-label, including Dilaudid, fentanyl, sufentanyl, bupivacaine, and clonidine. Although opioids are effective for nociceptive pain, they are less effective for neuropathic pain. Pain physicians may combine an opioid with clonidine or bupivacaine to enhance treatment of both nociceptive and neuropathic pain. In addition, combination drug therapy is believed to decrease the development of medication tolerance.

Peripheral Neuropathy Natural Treatment Options

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