Physiology anatomy and biochemistry of the adrenal gland

Adrenal Glands Anatomy

The adrenal gland is located on the upper segment of the kidney (Fig. 45-1).1 It consists of an outer cortex and an inner medulla. The adrenal medulla secretes the catecholamines epinephrine (also called adrenaline) and norepinephrine (also called noradrenaline), which are involved in the regulation of the sympathetic nervous system. The adrenal cortex consists of three histologically distinct zones the zona glom-erulosa, zona fasciculata, and an innermost layer called the zona reticularis....

Bacterial conjunctivitis Etiology

Conjunctivitis Pathophysiology Diagram

The vast majority of conjunctivitis cases are viral in nature. For acute bacterial conjunctivitis, the cause is primarily gram-positive organisms.11 The primary pathogens in acute bacterial conjunctivitis are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, or Haemophilus influenzae.12 Staphylococcus, Moraxella, or other opportunistic bacteria typically cause chronic conjunctivitis.10 Moraxella infections may cluster in groups of women who share 12 makeup. Both acute and chronic bacterial...

Hormonal Regulation Prostate

Hormone Found The Prostate Gland

The prostate gland is a solid, rounded, heart-shaped organ positioned between the neck of the bladder and the urogenital diaphragm (Fig. 92-1). The normal prostate is composed of acinar secretory cells arranged in a radial shape and surrounded by a foundation of supporting tissue. The size, shape, or presence of acini is almost always altered in the gland that has been invaded by prostatic carcinoma. Adenocarcinoma, the major pathologic cell type, accounts for more than 95 of prostate cancer...

Treatment Of Acute Ischemic Stroke

Severe Ischemic Stroke

Acute ischemic stroke is a medical emergency. Identification of the time and manner of stroke onset is an important determinant in treatment. The time the patient was last without symptoms is used as the time of stroke onset. Because patients typically do not experience pain, determining the onset time can be difficult. It is also important to document risk factors and the previous functional status of the patient to assess current disability due to stroke. FIGURE 11-2. Acute stroke treatment...

Ascites In Pathophysiology In Book

Portal Vein Anatomy

The portal vein is the primary vessel leading into the liver it receives the deoxygen-ated venous blood flow from the splanchnic bed (intestines, stomach, pancreas, and spleen) (Fig. 22-1). Portal flow accounts for approximately 75 of all the blood delivered to the liver. The hepatic artery provides the remaining 25 of the blood supply in the form of oxygenated blood from the abdominal aorta. Normal portal vein pressure is between 5 and 10 mm Hg this level maintains blood flow to the liver at...

Pathophysiology Lipid and Lipoprotein Metabolism

Lipoprotein Structure

Cholesterol is an essential substance manufactured by most cells in the body. Cholesterol is used to maintain cell wall integrity and for the biosynthesis of bile acids and steroid hormones. Other major lipids in our body are triglycerides and phospholip-ids. Since cholesterol is a relatively water-insoluble molecule, it is unable to circulate through the blood alone. Cholesterol along with triglycerides and phospholipids are packaged in a large carrier-protein called a lipoprotein (Fig. 12-1)....

Pathophysiology Ulcerative Colitis

Transmural Crohn

The inflammatory response in UC is propagated by atypical type 2 helper T cells that produce proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF).8 As discussed previously, a genetic predisposition to UC may partially explain the development of excessive colonic and rectal inflammation. The finding of positive perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (pANCA) in association with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR2 allele in a large percentage...

Sequelae of Hypothyroidism

Hypothyroidism is a chronic disease that may result in significant long-term sequelae. Hypercholesterolemia is associated with hypothyroidism, increasing the long-term risk of cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular mortality.14 Between 4 and 14 of patients with hypercholesterolemia are found to be hypothyroid. The Colorado Thyroid Health Study showed a direct correlation between the degree of TSH elevation and the rise in serum cholesterol. Hypothyroidism also may result in increased...

Treatment Of Cirrhosis Portal Hypertension And Complications

Portal Hypertension Treatment

Recognizing and treating the cause of cirrhosis is paramount. Cirrhosis is irreversible treatments are directed at limiting disease progression and minimizing1 complications. The immediate treatment goals are to stabilize acute complications such as variceal bleeding and prevent SBP. Once life-threatening conditions have stabilized, the focus shifts to preventing complications and preventing further liver damage. Complication prevention involves both primary and secondary prophylaxis. To...

Have been reported with PD pathophysiology

Amygdala Pathophysiology

The thalamus and amygdala are important in the generation of a normal fear response and play a central role in most anxiety disorders. The thalamus provides the first real processing region to organize sensory data obtained from the environment. It passes information to higher cortical centers for finer processing and to the amygdala for rapid assessment of highly charged emotional information. The amygdala provides the emotional importance of the information. This helps the organism to act...

Patient Encounter Part

Fistula For Dialysis

The patient presents to clinic several years later and complains that she feels lousy. She states that she doesn't feel like eating and has lost 9 kg (20 lb) in the last 6 months. Current Meds Furosemide 80 mg orally twice daily metolazone 5 mg orally twice daily lisinopril 40 mg orally daily metoprolol 75 mg orally twice daily insulin glar-gine 30 units subcutaneously at bedtime insulin lispro subcutaneously per sliding scale with meals darbepoetin 100 mcg subcutaneously weekly iron...

Patient Encounter Part 1

A 28-year-old woman complains of a terrible headache that won't go away. She describes the pain as on one side and throbbing. The pain began yesterday morning and caused her to have to leave work. She reports a history of similar headaches since the age of 16, but none lasted this long. In the past, her headaches were relieved with the use of over-the-counter (OTC) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. She often has to take them multiple times per week. What type of headache is the patient most...

Constipation and Hemorrhoids

Nonpharmacologic treatment is the mainstay of constipation and hemorrhoids treatment in pregnant patients. Pregnant women should be counseled to eat a high-fiber diet, drink plenty of fluids, exercise regularly, and avoid prolonged time on the toilet. To relieve hemorrhoids, pregnant women may soak in warm sitz baths and apply ice to the area. Bulk-forming laxatives, such as psyllium and calcium polycarbophil are firstline agents (Table 47-8).18 If these methods fail, stimulant laxatives, such...