Antigens

Antigen-presenting cells recognize complex, three-dimensional protein molecules of at least 1,000 Daltons (Da) in size. Most drugs are much smaller than this, and cannot be recognized on their own. Only proteins such as insulin or exogenous sera are identified and their peptides presented directly to T cells.

Drugs that are chemically reactive may bond covalently to body proteins, altering them and forming large enough molecules for antigen-presenting cells to recognize. This process is called haptenation, and the smaller reactive molecule, a hapten. Some other drugs are inert until they are partially metabolized (prohaptens), and their breakdown products bind native proteins to serve as antigens. Metabolic variations in some patients may produce more active haptens, or prevent these fragments from being detoxified, causing them to accumulate and make binding proteins more likely.

Supplements For Diabetics

Supplements For Diabetics

All you need is a proper diet of fresh fruits and vegetables and get plenty of exercise and you'll be fine. Ever heard those words from your doctor? If that's all heshe recommends then you're missing out an important ingredient for health that he's not telling you. Fact is that you can adhere to the strictest diet, watch everything you eat and get the exercise of amarathon runner and still come down with diabetic complications. Diet, exercise and standard drug treatments simply aren't enough to help keep your diabetes under control.

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