Antigens

Antigen-presenting cells recognize complex, three-dimensional protein molecules of at least 1,000 Daltons (Da) in size. Most drugs are much smaller than this, and cannot be recognized on their own. Only proteins such as insulin or exogenous sera are identified and their peptides presented directly to T cells.

Drugs that are chemically reactive may bond covalently to body proteins, altering them and forming large enough molecules for antigen-presenting cells to recognize. This process is called haptenation, and the smaller reactive molecule, a hapten. Some other drugs are inert until they are partially metabolized (prohaptens), and their breakdown products bind native proteins to serve as antigens. Metabolic variations in some patients may produce more active haptens, or prevent these fragments from being detoxified, causing them to accumulate and make binding proteins more likely.

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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