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Self-assessment questions and answers are available at ht-tp://www. mhpharmacotherapy. com/pp.html.


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3. Balthazar EJ. Staging of acute pancreatitis. Radiol Clin North Am 2002;40:1199-1209.

4. Perez A, Whang EE, Brooks DC, et al. Is severity of necrotizing pancreatitis increased in extended necrosis and infected necrosis? Pancreas 2002;25:229-233.

5. Lankisch PG, Pflichthofer D, Lehnick D. Acute pancreatitis: Which patient is most at risk? Pancreas 1999;19:321-324.

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11. Marshall JB. Acute pancreatitis. A review with an emphasis on new developments. Arch Intern Med 1993;153:1185-1198.

12. Gurleyik G, Emir S, Kilicoglu G, et al. Computed tomography severity index, APACHE II score, serum CRP concentration for predicting the severity of acute pancreatitis. JOP 2005;6:562-567.

13. Badalov N, Baradarian R, Iswara K, et al. Drug-induced acute pancreatitis: An evidence-based review. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2007;5:648-661.

14. Pezzilli R, Billi P, Melandri R, et al. Anticonvulsant-induced chronic pancreatitis. A case report. Ital J Gastroenterol 1992;24:245-246.

15. Mayerle J, Simon P, Lerch MM. Medical treatment of acute pancreatitis. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2004;33:855-869.

16. Banks PA, Freeman ML. Practice guidelines in acute pancreatitis. Am J Gastroenterol 2006;101:2379-2400.

17. Petrov MS, Correia MI, Windsor JA. Nasogastric tube feeding in predicted severe acute pancreatitis. A systematic review of the literature to determine safety and tolerance. JOP 2008;9:440-448.

18. Ioannidis O, Lavrentieva A, Botsios D. Nutrition support in acute pancreatitis. JOP 2008;9:375-390.

Bradley EL, III, Allen K. A prospective longitudinal study of observation versus surgical intervention in the management of necrotizing pancreatitis. Am J Surg 1991;161:19-24; discussion 24-25.

Thompson DR. Narcotic analgesic effects on the sphincter of Oddi: A review of the data and therapeutic implications in treating pancreatitis. Am J Gastroenterol 2001;96:1266-1272.

Yu B, Gao J, Zou D, et al. Prophylactic antibiotics cannot reduce infected pancreatic necrosis and mortality in acute necrotizing pancreatitis: Evidence from a metaanalysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Gastroenterol 2008;103:104-110.

Sainio V, Kemppainen E, Puolakkainen P, et al. Early antibiotic treatment in acute necrotising pancreatitis. Lancet 1995;346:663-667.

Bassi C, Larvin M, Villatoro E. Antibiotic therapy for prophylaxis against infection of pancreatic necrosis in acute pancreatitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003(4):CD002941.

Pezzilli R. Gabexate mesilate in acute pancreatitis: Neither a miracle nor a mirage, merely the search of optimal dosage. Digest Liver Dis 2001;33:502.

Pederzoli P, Bassi C, Falconi M, et al. Gabexate mesilate in the treatment of acute pancreatitis. Annali Italiani di Chirurgia 1995;66:191-195.

Norman JG. New approaches to acute pancreatitis: Role of inflammatory mediators. Digestion 1999;60(Suppl 1):57-60.

Besselink MG, van Santvoort HC, Buskens E, et al. Dutch Acute Pancreatitis Study Group. Probiotic prophylaxis in predicted severe acute pancreatitis: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2008;37:651-659.

Levant JA, Secrist DM, Resin H, et al. Nasogastric suction in the treatment of alcoholic pancreatitis. A controlled study. JAMA 1974;229:51-52.

Nathens AB, Curtis JR, Beale RJ, et al. Management of the critically ill patient with severe acute pancreatitis. Crit Care Med 2004;32:2524-2536.

Sarles H, Bernard JP, Johnson C. Pathogenesis and epidemiology of chronic pancreatitis. Annu Rev Med 1989;40:453-468.

Sarles H, Adler G, Dani R, et al. The pancreatitis classification of Marseilles-Rome 1988. Scand J Gastroenterol 1989;24:641-642.

Steer ML, Waxman I, Freedman S. Chronic pancreatitis. N Engl J Med 1995;332:1482-1490.

33. Pelli H, Lappalainen-Lehto R, Piironen A, et al. Risk factors for recurrent acute alcohol-associated pancreatitis: A prospective analysis. Scand J Gastroenterol 2008;43:614-621.

34. Lowenfels AB, Maisonneuve P, Cavallini G, et al. Prognosis of chronic pancreatitis: An international multicenter study. International Pancreatitis Study Group. Am J Gastroenterol 1994;89:1467-1471.

35. Bornman PC, Marks IN, Girdwood AW, et al. Pathogenesis of pain in chronic pancreatitis: Ongoing enigma. World J Surg 2003;27:1175-1182.

36. Beglinger C. Relevant aspects of physiology in chronic pancreatitis. Digest Dis 1992;10:326-329.

37. Ammann RW, Akovbiantz A, Largiader F, Schueler G. Course and outcome of chronic pancreatitis. Longitudinal study of a mixed medical-surgical series of 245 patients. Gastroenterology 1984;86(5 Pt l):820-828.

38. Malka D, Hammel P, Sauvanet A, et al. Risk factors for diabetes mellitus in chronic pancreatitis. Gastroenterology 2000;119:1324-1332.

39. Etemad B, Whitcomb DC. Chronic pancreatitis: Diagnosis, classification, and new genetic developments. Gastroenterology 2001;120:682-707.

40. Warshaw AL, Banks PA, Fernandez-Del Castillo C. AGA technical review: Treatment of pain in chronic pancreatitis. Gastroenterology 1998;115:765-776.

41. Ammann RW, Muellhaupt B. The natural history of pain in alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Gastroenterology 1999;116:1132-1140.

42. Brown A, Hughes M, Tenner S, Banks PA. Does pancreatic enzyme supplementation reduce pain in patients with chronic pancreatitis: A meta-analysis. Am J Gastroenterol 1997;92:2032-2035.

43. Layer P, Keller J. Pancreatic enzymes: Secretion and luminal nutrient digestion in health and disease. J Clin Gastroenterol 1999;28:3-10.

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