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FIGURE 5-3. Diagram of the RAAS, a key system involved in the modulation of BP. The diagram depicts the pathways involved in the action of various antihypertensives including ACE inhibitors, ARBs, diuretics, and aldosterone antagonists. By inhibiting the action of angiotensin-converting enzymes, ACE inhibitors reduce both the formation of the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II, and the degradation of vasodilating substances including bradykinin. ARBs primarily act through inhibition of the action of angiotensin II on the angiotensin-1 receptors that modulate vasoconstriction. Aldoster-one antagonists directly inhibit the actions of aldosterone, while diuretics affect sodium and water retention at a renal level. (ACE, angiotensin-converting enzyme; ARB, angiotensin receptor blockers; ATI, angiotensin-1; BP, blood pressure; RAAS, renin-anglotensin aldosterone system.)

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