Clinical Presentation of CAP or Aspiration Pneumonia General

Patients may experience nonrespiratory symptoms in addition to respiratory symptoms. With increasing age, both respiratory and nonrespiratory symptoms decrease in frequency

O1 Symptoms

• Respiratory—cough (productive or nonproductive), shortness of breath, and difficulty breathing

• Nonrespiratory—fever, fatigue, sweats, headache, myalgias, mental status changes Signs

• Temperature may increase or decrease from baseline, but most often it is elevated. The temperature may be sustained or intermittent

• Respiratory rate is often increased. Cyanosis, increased respiratory rate, and use of accessory muscles of respiration are suggestive of severe respiratory compromise

• Breath sounds may be diminished. Rales or rhonci may be heard

• Confusion, lethargy, and disorientation are relatively common in elderly patients

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