© PN therapy is associated with significant complications, both with short-and long-term therapy. Many complications are related to overfeeding (Table 100-6) Metabolic complications include hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hy-percapnia, electrolyte disturbances, refeeding syndrome, and acid-base disturbances. Long-term metabolic complications include liver toxicity, vitamin abnormalities, trace-element abnormalities, and metabolic bone disease. Other complications include infectious and mechanical complications that relate to venous catheters.
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