CXR Hyperlucency and hyperinflation of the lungs suggestive of emphysematous change

Given this additional information, what is your assessment of the patient's condition? This patient's COPD can be classified as what stage? What are the treatment goals for this patient?

What nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic alternatives are feasible for this patient? Develop a treatment plan for this patient.

Prophylactic, continuous use of antibiotics has no effect on the frequency of exacerbations; antibiotics should only be used for treating infectious exacerbations. Antitussives are contraindicated because cough has an important protective role. Opioids may be effective for dyspnea in advanced disease but may have serious adverse effects; they may be used to manage symptoms in terminal patients.

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