Elevated Anion

Normal Anion Gap0

.M—.Methanol metformin U—Uremia

D—Diabetic (or alcoholic}

ketoacidosis ?—Paraldehyde, phenformin I—]soniajidr iron L—Lactic acidosis F—Fthylene glycol ethanol S—Salicylates

U—Ureteral diversion S—Saline infusion £—Foogenous acid D—Diarrhea C—Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors A—Adrenal insufficiency R—RenaE tubular acidosis dAnion gap = serurm sodiunn concentration - {serum chloride concentration + serum bicarbonate concentration). Under normal circumstances, the anion gap should be 10 m£q/L (mmol/L) or less.

In summary, the approach to assessment of acid-base status involves four key steps as outlined in Figure 28-1: Step 1—initial inspection of the pH, PaCO2, and

Blood Pressure Health

Blood Pressure Health

Your heart pumps blood throughout your body using a network of tubing called arteries and capillaries which return the blood back to your heart via your veins. Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the walls of your arteries as your heart beats.Learn more...

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