Epidemiology and etiology

O Prostate cancer is the most frequent cancer among U.S. men and represents the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in all males.1 In the United States alone, it is estimated that 192,280 new cases of prostatic carcinoma will be diagnosed and more than 27,360 men will die from this disease in 2009.1 Although prostate cancer incidence increased during the late 1980s and early 1990s owing to widespread prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening, deaths from prostate cancer have been declining since 1995.1

Table 92-1 summarizes the possible factors associated with prostate cancer. ' The widely accepted risk factors for prostate cancer are age, race ethnicity, and family his-

tory of prostate cancer. The disease is rare under the age of 40, but the incidence sharply increases with each subsequent decade, most likely because the individual has had a lifetime exposure to testosterone, a known growth signal for the prostate.

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