Epidemiology and etiology

Brain metastasis is the most common neurologic complication seen in patients with cancer. Approximately 170,000 patients develop brain metastases in the United States each year. 0 Many malignancies are frequently associated with brain metastases (Table 99-10). While melanoma is the tumor type most likely to metastasize to the brain, brain metastases due to lung and breast cancer are seen more often, as they are among the most common cancers. In addition, brain metastases may be diagnosed at the same time as the primary malignancy in around 20% of cases.41 Around 80% of brain metastases occur in the cerebral hemispheres, 15% in the cerebellum, and 5% in the brain stem.

Table 99-10 Cancers Most Frequently Associated With Brain Metastases

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