Epidemiology and etiology

11 25

Rates of dysmenorrhea range from 20% to 90%. ' Dysmenorrhea can be associated with significant interference in attendance at work and school for 15% of women affected by the most severe form.25 Risk factors for dysmenorrhea include young age, heavy menses, and nulliparity.11 Causes of secondary dysmenorrhea may include cervical stenosis, endometriosis, pelvic infections, pelvic congestion syndrome, uterine or cervical polyps, and uterine fibroids.26

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