Musculoskeletal disorders are commonly self-treated, so true estimates of the incidence of both acute and chronic injury are difficult to obtain. Musculoskeletal disorders are among the top 10 causes of ambulatory care visits in the United States for all age groups.4 These disorders account for a large portion of medical care expenditures5 and are a leading cause of work absenteeism and disability, resulting in a substantial economic burden from lost productivity and lost wages.6

In addition to chronic conditions such as arthritis and low back pain, some muscu-loskeletal disorders are induced by trauma at the workplace either via repetition and cumulative trauma or a one-time overexertion.7 For each reported incident, it is likely that there are at least 10 unreported work-related musculoskeletal events related to repetitive stress to the bones and joints.8 In the elderly, these injuries may not be related to work but to daily life. Instability combined with activities of daily living such as stair climbing and lifting objects may lead to strains and sprains. In pediatrics, fractures are more common than muscle and tendon injuries since the bones are weaker than the muscle-tendon unit in children and adolescents.9

Muscle injuries comprise the majority of sports-related injuries, and roughly half are related to overuse.2,10 The ankle and the knee are common sites of sports injuries.9,11 Soccer, football, basketball, track and field, and other sports that require rapid acceleration or higher speeds pose a greater risk of muscle strain.9,12 Overuse musculoskeletal injury is the phrase used to describe disorders arising from repetitive motion. This injury is common in activities such as running, particularly during periods of increased intensity or duration of training. It also can occur in the workplace with repeated, unvaried motion.13

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