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Incretin Effect

A great deal of research is occurring today to develop compounds that enhance the incretin effect, either by mimicking its action or by enabling incretin hormones to remain physiologically active for longer periods of time.15,17-19 As early as the late 1960s, Perley and others observed that insulin's response to oral glucose exceeded that of IV glucose administration.19 It was concluded that factors in the gut, or incretins, affected the release of insulin after a meal is consumed. When nutrients enter the stomach and intestines, incretin hormones are released which stimulates insulin secretion. This was validated by measuring C-peptide and insulin response to the IV and oral glucose loads. GLP-1 and GIP are the two major incretin hormones, with GLP-1 being studied the most. GLP-1 is secreted by the L cells of the ileum and colon primarily, and GIP is secreted by the K cells.

GLP-1 was identified in the early 1980s. It is a 30/31 amino acid peptide that is a product of the glucagons gene. GLP-1 secretion is caused by endocrine and neural signals started when nutrients enter the GI tract. Within minutes of food ingestion, GLP-1 levels rise rapidly. A glucose-dependent release of insulin occurs and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) cleaves GLP-1 rapidly to an inactive metabolite. Much of the research on glucose lowering products involves pro longing the action of GLP-1. Other glucose lowering effects of GLP-1 include suppression of glucagons, slowing gastric emptying, and increasing satiety.15,17-19

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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