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Incretin Effect

A great deal of research is occurring today to develop compounds that enhance the incretin effect, either by mimicking its action or by enabling incretin hormones to remain physiologically active for longer periods of time.15,17-19 As early as the late 1960s, Perley and others observed that insulin's response to oral glucose exceeded that of IV glucose administration.19 It was concluded that factors in the gut, or incretins, affected the release of insulin after a meal is consumed. When nutrients enter the stomach and intestines, incretin hormones are released which stimulates insulin secretion. This was validated by measuring C-peptide and insulin response to the IV and oral glucose loads. GLP-1 and GIP are the two major incretin hormones, with GLP-1 being studied the most. GLP-1 is secreted by the L cells of the ileum and colon primarily, and GIP is secreted by the K cells.

GLP-1 was identified in the early 1980s. It is a 30/31 amino acid peptide that is a product of the glucagons gene. GLP-1 secretion is caused by endocrine and neural signals started when nutrients enter the GI tract. Within minutes of food ingestion, GLP-1 levels rise rapidly. A glucose-dependent release of insulin occurs and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) cleaves GLP-1 rapidly to an inactive metabolite. Much of the research on glucose lowering products involves pro longing the action of GLP-1. Other glucose lowering effects of GLP-1 include suppression of glucagons, slowing gastric emptying, and increasing satiety.15,17-19

Supplements For Diabetics

Supplements For Diabetics

All you need is a proper diet of fresh fruits and vegetables and get plenty of exercise and you'll be fine. Ever heard those words from your doctor? If that's all heshe recommends then you're missing out an important ingredient for health that he's not telling you. Fact is that you can adhere to the strictest diet, watch everything you eat and get the exercise of amarathon runner and still come down with diabetic complications. Diet, exercise and standard drug treatments simply aren't enough to help keep your diabetes under control.

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