An intestine transplant may involve the use of an entire intestine or just a shortened segment. The majority of intestine transplants completed in the United States have involved the transplant of the full organ and are often performed in conjunction with a liver transplant. Although most intestine transplants involve organs harvested from a deceased donor, recent advances in the field have made it possible for living donor intestinal segment transplants. There were 155 intestine transplants (152 deceased donors, 2 living donors) done in 2009. Reasons for intestine transplant include:

• Functional bowel problems (i.e., Hirschsprung's disease, neuronal intestinal dysplasia, pseudoobstruction, protein-losing enteropathy, microvillous inclusion disease)

• Short gut syndrome (i.e., intestinal artresia, necrotizing enterocolitis, intestinal volvulus, massive resection secondary to inflammatory bowel disease, tumors, mes-enteric thrombosis)

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