Introduction

Maintaining adequate nutritional status, especially during periods of illness and metabolic stress, is an important part of patient care. Malnutrition in hospitalized patients is associated with significant complications, including increased infection risk, poor wound healing, prolonged hospital stay, and increased mortality, especially in surgical and critically ill patients.1 Nutrition support therapy refers to the administration of nutrients via the oral, enteral, or parenteral route for therapeutic purposes.1 Parenteral nutrition (PN), also called total parenteral nutrition (TPN), is the IV admin istration of fluids, macronutrients, electrolytes, vitamins, and trace elements for the purpose of weight maintenance or gain, to preserve or replete lean body mass and visceral proteins, and to support anabolism and nitrogen balance when the oral/enteral route is not feasible or adequate. PN is a potentially lifesaving therapy in patients with intestinal failure, but also may be associated with significant complications.

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